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pyruvátkarboxylasa – nedostatek

An autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by absent or decreased PYRUVATE CARBOXYLASE activity, the enzyme that regulates gluconeogenesis, lipogenesis, and neurotransmitter synthesis. Clinical manifestations include lactic acidosis, seizures, respiratory distress, marked psychomotor delay, periodic HYPOGLYCEMIA, and hypotonia. The clinical course may be similar to LEIGH DISEASE. (From Am J Hum Genet 1998 Jun;62(6):1312-9)
MSH

A rare autosomal recessive inherited metabolic disorder caused by mutations in the PC gene. It results in the accumulation of lactic acid and other toxic substances in the blood. Signs and symptoms appear early in life and include failure to thrive, mental and growth retardation, motor disturbances, seizures, and lactic acidosis.
NCI

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juxtaglomerulární aparát

A complex of cells consisting of juxtaglomerular cells, extraglomerular mesangium lacis cells, the macula densa of the distal convoluted tubule, and granular epithelial peripolar cells. Juxtaglomerular cells are modified SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS found in the walls of afferent glomerular arterioles and sometimes the efferent arterioles. Extraglomerular mesangium lacis cells are located in the angle between the afferent and efferent glomerular arterioles. Granular epithelial peripolar cells are located at the angle of reflection of the parietal to visceral angle of the renal corpuscle.
MSH

specialized cells containing secretory granules, located in the tunica media of the afferent glomerular arterioles; major structural component responsible for the release of renin; play a major role in renal autoregulation.
CSP

Cellular population adjacent to the renal corpuscle, composed of the macula densa, the juxtaglomerular cells, and the extraglomerular mesangial cells. It regulates the blood pressure by activating the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.
NCI

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diftérie

A localized infection of mucous membranes or skin caused by toxigenic strains of CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE. It is characterized by the presence of a pseudomembrane at the site of infection. DIPHTHERIA TOXIN, produced by C. diphtheriae, can cause myocarditis, polyneuritis, and other systemic toxic effects.
MSH

localized infection of mucous membranes or skin caused by toxigenic strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae; it is characterized by the presence of a pseudomembrane at the site of infection; diphtheria toxin, produced by C. diphtheriae, can cause myocarditis, polyneuritis, and other systemic toxic effects.
CSP

Diphtheria is a serious bacterial infection. You can catch it from a person who has the infection and coughs or sneezes. It usually affects the nose and throat and causes a bad sore throat, swollen glands, fever and chills. But if it is not properly diagnosed and treated it produces a poison in the body that can cause serious complications such as heart failure or paralysis.

The diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus (DPT) vaccine can prevent diphtheria, but its protection does not last forever. Adults should get another dose, or booster, every 10 years. Diphtheria is very rare in the United States because of the vaccine.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention


MEDLINEPLUS

A Gram-positive bacterial infection caused by Corynebacterium diphtheria. It usually involves the oral cavity, pharynx, and nasal cavity. Patients develop pseudomembranes in the affected areas and manifest signs and symptoms of an upper respiratory infection. The diphtheria toxin may cause myocarditis, polyneuritis, and other systemic effects.
NCI

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excipienty

Usually inert substances added to a prescription in order to provide suitable consistency to the dosage form. These include binders, matrix, base or diluent in pills, tablets, creams, salves, etc.
MSH

Any intentionally added component of a finished pharmaceutical product other than the claimed therapeutic or diagnostic ingredient(s). The excipients are added to facilitate administration or manufacture, improve product delivery, promote the consistent release and bioavailability of the drug, enhance stability, assist in product identification, or enhance other product characteristics. Pharmaceutical excipients do not affect therapeutic effects of the preparation or suitable tests or assays. The term does not apply to macromolecular compounds like albumin, or compounds like amino acids and sugars that are used in biological products, nor does it apply to process or product-related impurities (e.g. degradation products, residual solvents), or extraneous contaminants.
NCI

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berylióza

A form of pneumoconiosis caused by inhaled rare metal BERYLLIUM or its soluble salts which are used in a wide variety of industry including alloys, ceramics, radiographic equipment, and vacuum tubes. Berylliosis is characterized by an acute inflammatory reaction in the upper airway leading to BRONCHIOLITIS; PULMONARY EDEMA; and pneumonia.
MSH

lung disease caused by exposure to metallic beryllium or its soluble salts.
CSP

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tlak vzduchu

The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.
MSH

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chinakrinová hořčice

Nitrogen mustard analog of quinacrine used primarily as a stain in the studies of chromosomes and chromatin. Fluoresces by reaction with nucleic acids in chromosomes.
MSH

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keratokonjunktivitida

simultaneous inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva.
CSP

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diskriminační učení

learning that is manifested in the ability to respond differentially to various stimuli.
CSP

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extinkce (psychologie)

tendency of a conditioned response to decrease when positive reinforcement is discontinued or negative reinforcement is introduced; compare to BEHAVIORAL HABITUATION/SENSITIZATION.
CSP

The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.
MSH

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dispozice (epidemiologie)

Any deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such deviation. Bias can result from several sources: one-sided or systematic variations in measurement from the true value (systematic error); flaws in study design; deviation of inferences, interpretations, or analyses based on flawed data or data collection; etc. There is no sense of prejudice or subjectivity implied in the assessment of bias under these conditions.
MSH

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methanol

A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.
MSH

colorless, flammable liquid, CH3OH; an alcohol used in chemical synthesis, in antifreeze, and as a solvent; ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.
CSP

Used as a solvent and as an intermediate in chemical synthesis. Component of deicing mixtures and preservatives. Toxic.
NCI

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radiační účinky

The effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation upon living organisms, organs and tissues, and their constituents, and upon physiologic processes. It includes the effect of irradiation on food, drugs, and chemicals.
MSH

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ledviny

body organ that filters blood for the secretion of urine and that regulates ion concentrations.
CSP

One of the two bean-shaped organs located on each side of the spine in the retroperitoneum. The right kidney is located below the liver and the left kidney below the diaphragm. The kidneys filter and secret the metabolic products and minerals from the blood, thus maintaining the homeostasis. On the superior pole of each kidney there is an adrenal gland. Each kidney and adrenal gland is surrounded by fat. (NCI)
NCI

One of a pair of organs in the abdomen. Kidneys remove waste from the blood (as urine), produce erythropoietin (a substance that stimulates red blood cell production), and play a role in blood pressure regulation.
NCI

One of the two bean-shaped organs located on each side of the spine in the retroperitoneum. The right kidney is located below the liver and the left kidney below the diaphragm. The kidneys filter and secret the metabolic products and minerals from the blood, thus maintaining the homeostasis. On the superior pole of each kidney there is an adrenal gland. Each kidney and adrenal gland is surrounded by fat.
NCI

Of or pertaining to the kidney.
NCI

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dithionit

Dithionite. The dithionous acid ion and its salts.
MSH

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oční infekce parazitární

mild to severe infections of the eye and its adjacent structures (adnexa) by adult or larval protozoan or metazoan parasites.
CSP

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bilirubin

A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.
MSH

bile pigment that is a degradation product of heme.
CSP

Substance formed when red blood cells are broken down. Bilirubin is part of the bile, which is made in the liver and is stored in the gallbladder. The abnormal buildup of bilirubin causes jaundice.
NCI

A dark orange, yellow pigment that is the product of the breakdown of iron in the blood; it is conjugated in the liver and excreted in the bile.
NCI

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algináty

Salts of alginic acid that are extracted from marine kelp and used to make dental impressions and as absorbent material for surgical dressings.
MSH

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rentgendiagnostika zubní

radiographic techniques used in dentistry.
CSP

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kinestezie

Sense of movement of a part of the body, such as movement of fingers, elbows, knees, limbs, or weights.
MSH

The series of events by which an organism senses the speed and direction of movement of the body and its parts. [GOC:mah]
GO

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deoxyribodipyrimidinfotolyasa

An enzyme that catalyzes the reactivation by light of UV-irradiated DNA. It breaks two carbon-carbon bonds in PYRIMIDINE DIMERS in DNA.
MSH

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faktor IX

Storage-stable blood coagulation factor acting in the intrinsic pathway. Its activated form, IXa, forms a complex with factor VIII and calcium on platelet factor 3 to activate factor X to Xa. Deficiency of factor IX results in HEMOPHILIA B (Christmas Disease).
MSH

Factor IX is a vitamin k-dependent plasma protein that participates in the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation by converting factor X to its active form in the presence of ca(2+) ions, phospholipids, and factor VIIIa.
NCI

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biologická odpověď – modifikátory

a diversity of reagents employed for nonspecific active immunization; used to enhance the immune response; 4 major groups: bacterial products, synthetic molecules, cytokines, and hormones.
CSP

Substances that enhance, restore or alter the host`s immune system. Immunomodulating agents can be preventive or therapeutic and can suppress or activate the immune system, either directly or indirectly. For cancer treatment purposes, immunomodulating agents can be used to prevent or inhibit tumorigenesis. Examples of immunomodulators include, but are not limited to, cytokines, monoclonal antibodies and vaccines.
NCI

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aloxan

pyrimidine ring with carbonyl oxygens at all 4 carbon atoms; an oxidation product of uric acid which, by destroying beta cells in the pancreas, can cause diabetes mellitus; an experimental antineoplastic.
CSP

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rafoxanid

Veterinary anthelmintic for grazing animals; used to treat fluke, hookworm and other infestations.
MSH

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Krukenbergův nádor

Mucocellular carcinoma of the ovary, usually metastatic from the gastrointestinal tract, characterized by areas of mucoid degeneration and the presence of signet-ring-like cells. It accounts for 30%-40% of metastatic cancers to the ovaries and possibly 1%-2% of all malignant ovarian tumors. The lesions may not be discovered until the primary disease is advanced, and most patients die of their disease within a year. In some cases, a primary tumor is not found. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1685)
MSH

A tumor in the ovary caused by the spread of stomach cancer.
NCI

Metastatic signet-ring cell carcinoma to the ovary from a gastrointestinal tract or breast primary tumor.
NCI

The spread of the cancer to the ovary. This may be from a primary ovarian cancer involving the opposite ovary, or from a cancer at a distant site.
NCI

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dolichol

Eicosamethyl octacontanonadecasen-1-o1. Polyprenol found in animal tissues that contains about 20 isoprene residues, the one carrying the alcohol group being saturated.
MSH

20-unit isoprenoid found in eukaryotes; serves as membrane anchor for oligosaccharide assembly in rough endoplasmic reticulum during protein glycosylation.
CSP

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vejcovody

Organ with organ cavity which connects the uterine cavity to the peritoneal cavity. Examples: There are only two uterine tubes, the right and the left uterine tubes.
UWDA

A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.
MSH

pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the uterus to its corresponding ovary; provide the means for ovum collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and fertilization; the fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae; its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.
CSP

Organ with organ cavity which connects the uterine cavity to the peritoneal cavity. Examples: There are only two uterine tubes, the right and the left uterine tubes.
FMA

One of a pair of tubes that extend from the uterus to each of the ovaries. Following ovulation the egg travels down the fallopian tube to the uterus where fertilization may or may not occur. (NCI)
NCI

The tubular tract in female animals through which eggs are discharged either to the exterior or, in mammals, to the uterus. (On-line Medical Dictionary)
NCI

A slender tube through which eggs pass from an ovary to the uterus. In the female reproductive tract, there is one ovary and one fallopian tube on each side of the uterus.
NCI

One of a pair of tubes that extend from the uterus to each of the ovaries. Following ovulation the egg travels down the fallopian tube to the uterus where fertilization may or may not occur.
NCI

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deprese bipolární

severe disorder characterized by one or more manic episodes; although diagnosis does not require a major depressive episode, virtually all cases eventually develop one.
CSP

The depressive stage of bipolar disorder.
NCI

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alfa-MSH

A 13-amino acid peptide derived from proteolytic cleavage of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE, the N-terminal segment of ACTH. ACTH (1-13) is amidated at the C-terminal to form ACTH (1-13)NH2 which in turn is acetylated to form alpha-MSH in the secretory granules. Alpha-MSH stimulates the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates.
MSH

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