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gliklazid

An oral sulfonylurea hypoglycemic agent which stimulates insulin secretion.
MSH

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desmozómy

A type of junction that attaches one cell to its neighbor. One of a number of differentiated regions which occur, for example, where the cytoplasmic membranes of adjacent epithelial cells are closely apposed. It consists of a circular region of each membrane together with associated intracellular microfilaments and an intercellular material which may include, for example, mucopolysaccharides. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
MSH

A cell-cell junction in which: on the cytoplasmic surface of each interacting plasma membrane is a dense plaque composed of a mixture of intracellular anchor proteins; a bundle of keratin intermediate filaments is attached to the surface of each plaque; transmembrane adhesion proteins of the cadherin family bind to the plaques and interact through their extracellular domains to hold the adjacent membranes together by a Ca2+-dependent mechanism. [GOC:mah, GOC:mtg_muscle, ISBN:0815332181]
GO

Desmosomes are intercellular anchoring junctions that anchor intermediate filaments at membrane-associated plaques in adjoining cells. Desmosomes assemble in response to cell-cell contact and raised levels of extracellular calcium. Sensitivity to calcium levels is lost as desmosomes mature.
NCI

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virus ptačí encefalomyelitidy

A tentative species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS infecting primarily young chicks, but also found in turkeys, pheasants, and guinea fowl. It causes a fatal neuronal degeneration and is transmitted by mechanical contact.
MSH

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vyučování

The educational process of instructing.
MSH

educational process of instructing.
CSP

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medazepam

A benzodiazepine derivative used in the treatment of anxiety. It has sedative, muscle relaxant, and anticonvulsant properties. One of its metabolites is DIAZEPAM and one of its excretion products is OXAZEPAM.
MSH

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poly(ADP-ribosa)-polymerasy

The human protein poly(ADP ribose) polymerase protein (1013aa, ~113 kDa) is encoded by the PARP1 gene (PARP1). Poly(ADP ribose) polymerase (PARP) is a cytosolic protein, and when activated is cleaved into two fragments of 89kd and 24kd. The enzyme modifies various nuclear proteins by poly ADP-ribosylation. The protein is involved in the regulation of various important cellular processes such as differentiation, proliferation, tumor transformation, and recovery from DNA damage. Its inhibition has been studied in cancerous cells and degenerative diseases to demonstrate how apoptosis can be inhibited when the PARP is inactive or absent.
NCI

An enzyme involved in many functions of the cell, including the repair of DNA damage. DNA damage may be caused by normal cell actions, UV light, some anticancer drugs, and radiation used to treat cancer. Inhibitors of PARP-1 are being studied in the treatment of cancer.
NCI

Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of multiple ADP-RIBOSE groups from nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) onto protein targets, thus building up a linear or branched homopolymer of repeating ADP-ribose units i.e., POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE.
MSH

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glukokortikoidy

A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.
MSH

group of corticosteroids that affect carbohydrate metabolism, inhibit corticotropin secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity; they also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.
CSP

A compound that belongs to the family of compounds called corticosteroids (steroids). Glucocorticoids affect metabolism and have anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. They may be naturally produced (hormones) or synthetic (drugs).
NCI

A group of corticosteroids that affect carbohydrate metabolism (gluconeogenesis, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of blood sugar), inhibit corticotropin secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system. (MSH2002_06_01)
NCI

Synthetically derived forms of the naturally occurring Glucocorticoids.
NCI

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diabetes mellitus lipoatrofický

A type of diabetes mellitus that is characterized by severe INSULIN RESISTANCE and LIPODYSTROPHY. The latter may be generalized, partial, acquired, or congenital (LIPODYSTROPHY, CONGENITAL GENERALIZED).
MSH

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kyselina azetidinkarboxylová

A proline analog that acts as a stoichiometric replacement of proline. It causes the production of abnormal proteins with impaired biological activity.
MSH

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temperament

Predisposition to react to one`s environment in a certain way; usually refers to mood changes.
MSH

An individual`s habitual frame of mind or natural emotional disposition.
NCI

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sekretářky ve zdravotnictví

Individuals responsible for various duties pertaining to the medical office routine.
MSH

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polyglaktin 910

A polyester used for absorbable sutures & surgical mesh, especially in ophthalmic surgery. 2-Hydroxy-propanoic acid polymer with polymerized hydroxyacetic acid, which forms 3,6-dimethyl-1,4-dioxane-dione polymer with 1,4-dioxane-2,5-dione copolymer of molecular weight about 80,000 daltons.
MSH

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glutaminasa

Encoded by human GA Gene, the 602-amino acid 66 kD (precursor) Glutaminase (GA Family) has a putative N-terminal mitochondrial import presequence. Expressed in liver, brain, and pancreas, but not in kidney, heart, skeletal muscle, lung, or placenta, GA protein shares 94% and 72% sequence identity with rat liver and kidney glutaminases, respectively. Containing two ankyrin repeats, human glutaminase is most similar to rat liver-type glutaminase, but is not liver specific. Involved in regulation of glutamine catabolism, mitochondrial glutaminase converts L-glutamine to L-glutamate and NH3. Glutaminase expression and activity depend on the cell proliferation state with highest levels at the beginning of the exponential growth phase. (NCI)
NCI

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diagnostic use

Used with chemical compounds, drugs, and physical agents when these substances are used for studies of clinical function of an organ, or for the diagnosis of human or animal diseases.
MSH

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bacitracin

A complex of cyclic peptide antibiotics produced by the Tracy-I strain of Bacillus subtilis. The commercial preparation is a mixture of at least nine bacitracins with bacitracin A as the major constituent. It is used topically to treat open infections such as infected eczema and infected dermal ulcers. (From Goodman and Gilman, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1140)
MSH

A complex of cyclic polypeptide antibiotics, mainly bacitracin A, produced by spore-forming organisms belonging to the licheniformin group of the Bacillus subtilis with antibacterial activity. Bacitracin binds to C55-isoprenyl pyrophosphate, a biphosphate lipid transport molecule that carries the building blocks of the peptidoglycan bacterial cell wall. The binding interferes with the enzymatic dephosphorylation of the C55-isoprenyl pyrophosphate and prevents peptidoglycan synthesis, thereby inhibiting bacterial cell growth.
NCI

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Terbutaline Sulfate

The sulfate salt form of terbutaline, an ethanolamine derivative with bronchodilating and tocolytic properties. Terbutaline sulfate selectively binds to and activates beta-2 adrenergic receptors, leading to intracellular adenyl cyclase activation via a trimeric G protein and subsequent increase in cyclic cAMP production. Increased cAMP levels result in relaxation of bronchial and vascular smooth muscle mediated through the activation of protein kinase A (PKA), which phosphorylates proteins in control of muscle tone. cAMP also inhibits calcium ion release from intracellular stores, reduces calcium entry into cells and induces the sequestration of intracellular calcium all of which aids the relaxation of airway muscles. Terbutaline sulfate also increases mucociliary clearance and reduces release of inflammatory cell mediators.
NCI

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meglumin

1-Deoxy-1-(methylamino)-D-glucitol. A derivative of sorbitol in which the hydroxyl group in position 1 is replaced by a methylamino group. Often used in conjunction with iodinated organic compounds as contrast medium.
MSH

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polyradikulopatie

Disease or injury involving multiple SPINAL NERVE ROOTS. Polyradiculitis refers to inflammation of multiple spinal nerve roots.
MSH

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glykogenóza

A group of inherited metabolic disorders involving the enzymes responsible for the synthesis and degradation of glycogen. In some patients, prominent liver involvement is presented. In others, more generalized storage of glycogen occurs, sometimes with prominent cardiac involvement.
MSH

any of a group of metabolic disorders characterized by excessive storage of glycogen.
CSP

An inherited metabolic disorder characterized either by defects in glycogen synthesis or defects in the breaking down of glycogen. It results either in the creation of abnormal forms of glycogen or accumulation of glycogen in the tissues.
NCI

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dibukain

A local anesthetic of the amide type now generally used for surface anesthesia. It is one of the most potent and toxic of the long-acting local anesthetics and its parenteral use is restricted to spinal anesthesia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1006)
MSH

A quinoline derivative and amino amide with anesthetic activity. Dibucaine reversibly binds to and inactivates sodium channels in the neuronal cell membrane. Inhibition of sodium channels prevents the depolarization of nerve cell membranes and inhibits subsequent propagation of impulses along the course of the nerve, thereby limiting the excitation of nerve endings. This results in loss of sensation.
NCI

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Bagasóza

A diffuse parenchymal lung disease caused by inhaled dust from processing SUGARCANE (bagasse), usually in the manufacturing of wallboard.
MSH

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tetracykliny

Closely congeneric derivatives of the polycyclic naphthacenecarboxamide. (Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman`s The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1117)
MSH

a kind of antibiotics
CHV

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membránové proteiny

Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
MSH

proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes; consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins; includes most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors; note that individual membrane proteins have not been exhaustively treed under this term.
CSP

Proteins that are physically associated with the membrane. This class of proteins resides in cellular or intracellular membranes. The physical association of each protein is divided into two classes: integral and peripheral.
NCI

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populace – růst

Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.
MSH

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glycylglycin

The simplest of all peptides. It functions as a gamma-glutamyl acceptor.
MSH

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dienestrol

A synthetic, non-steroidal estrogen structurally related to stilbestrol. It is used, usually as the cream, in the treatment of menopausal and postmenopausal symptoms.
MSH

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Bartonellaceae – infekce

Infections with bacteria of the family BARTONELLACEAE.
MSH

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thalium

A heavy, bluish white metal, atomic number 81, atomic weight [204.382; 204.385], symbol Tl.
MSH

highly toxic metallic substance
CHV

An element with atomic symbol Tl, atomic number 81, and atomic weight 204.383.
NCI

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menopauza

The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.
MSH

cessation of menstruation in the human female, usually occurring around the age of 50.
CSP

The time of life when a woman`s ovaries stop producing hormones and menstrual periods stop. Natural menopause usually occurs around age 50. A woman is said to be in menopause when she hasn`t had a period for 12 months in a row. Symptoms of menopause include hot flashes, mood swings, night sweats, vaginal dryness, trouble concentrating, and infertility.
NCI

Cessation of menstruation, occurring in (e.g.) the human female usually around the age of 50. [GOC:curators, PMID:18495681]
GO

Menopause is the time in a woman`s life when her period stops. It usually occurs naturally, most often after age 45. Menopause happens because the woman`s ovary stops producing the hormones estrogen and progesterone.

A woman has reached menopause when she has not had a period for one year. Changes and symptoms can start several years earlier. They include

  • A change in periods – shorter or longer, lighter or heavier, with more or less time in between
  • Hot flashes and/or night sweats
  • Trouble sleeping
  • Vaginal dryness
  • Mood swings
  • Trouble focusing
  • Less hair on head, more on face

Some symptoms require treatment. Talk to your doctor about how to best manage menopause. Make sure the doctor knows your medical history and your family medical history. This includes whether you are at risk for heart disease, osteoporosis, or breast cancer.

National Women`s Health Information Center


MEDLINEPLUS

A disorder characterized by the permanent cessation of menses, usually defined by 12 consecutive months of amenorrhea in a woman over 45 years of age.
NCI

The permanent cessation of menses, usually defined by 6 to 12 months of amenorrhea in a woman over 45 years of age.
NCI

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shock; {post}operatief

A state of shock following a surgical operation.
NCI

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