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cefalothin

A cephalosporin antibiotic.
MSH

A semisynthetic, beta-lactam, first-generation cephalosporin antibiotic with bactericidal activity. Cephalothin binds to and inactivates penicillin-binding proteins (PBP) located on the inner membrane of the bacterial cell wall. PBPs participate in the terminal stages of assembling the bacterial cell wall, and in reshaping the cell wall during cell division. Inactivation of PBPs interferes with the cross-linkage of peptidoglycan chains necessary for bacterial cell wall strength and rigidity. This results in the weakening of the bacterial cell wall and causes cell lysis.
NCI

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virus infekční anémie koní

A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus equine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, EQUINE), causing acute and chronic infection in horses. It is transmitted mechanically by biting flies, mosquitoes, and midges, and iatrogenically through unsterilized equipment. Chronic infection often consists of acute episodes with remissions.
MSH

species of Lentivirus, subgenus equine lentiviruses, causing acute and chronic infection in horses; transmitted mechanically by biting flies, mosquitoes, and midges, and iatrogenically through unsterilized equipment.
CSP

A species of lentivirus, subgenus equine lentiviruses, causing acute and chronic infection in horses. It is transmitted mechanically by biting flies, mosquitoes, and midges, and iatrogenically through unsterilized equipment. Chronic infection often consists of acute episodes with remissions.
NCI

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horečka Skalistých hor

An acute febrile illness caused by RICKETTSIA RICKETTSII. It is transmitted to humans by bites of infected ticks and occurs only in North and South America. Characteristics include a sudden onset with headache and chills and fever lasting about two to three weeks. A cutaneous rash commonly appears on the extremities and trunk about the fourth day of illness.
MSH

acute, infectious, sometimes fatal disease caused by Rickettsia rickettsii usually transmitted by ixodid ticks; occurs only in North and South America; manifestations include chills, fever, rash, headache, myalgia, and prostration.
CSP

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nokturie

Frequent URINATION at night that interrupts sleep. It is often associated with outflow obstruction, DIABETES MELLITUS, or bladder inflammation (CYSTITIS).
MSH

Frequent episodes of urination during the night.
NCI

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intracelulární membrány

Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
MSH

membranes of subcellular structures.
CSP

A thin pliable sheet separating organelles from the protoplasm.
NCI

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mozková obrna

A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)
MSH

heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life; the four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common; the motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity in all limbs; spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms.
CSP

Cerebral palsy is a group of disorders that affect a person`s ability to move and to maintain balance and posture. The disorders appear in the first few years of life. Usually they do not get worse over time. People with cerebral palsy may have difficulty walking. They may also have trouble with tasks such as writing or using scissors. Some have other medical conditions, including seizure disorders or mental impairment.

Cerebral palsy happens when the areas of the brain that control movement and posture do not develop correctly or get damaged. Early signs of cerebral palsy usually appear before 3 years of age. Babies with cerebral palsy are often slow to roll over, sit, crawl, smile or walk. Some babies are born with cerebral palsy; others get it after they are born.

There is no cure for cerebral palsy, but treatment can improve the lives of those who have it. Treatment includes medicines, braces, and physical, occupational and speech therapy.

NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke


MEDLINEPLUS

birth injury of the brain nerve that controls body movement
CHV

A group of disorders affecting the development of movement and posture, often accompanied by disturbances of sensation, perception, cognition, and behavior. It results from damage to the fetal or infant brain.
NCI

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erythema chronicum migrans

A deep type of gyrate erythema that follows a bite by an ixodid tick; it is a stage-1 manifestation of LYME DISEASE. The site of the bite is characterized by a red papule that expands peripherally as a nonscaling, palpable band that clears centrally. This condition is often associated with systemic symptoms such as chills, fever, headache, malaise, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, backache, and stiff neck.
MSH

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roxithromycin

Semisynthetic derivative of erythromycin. It is concentrated by human phagocytes and is bioactive intracellularly. While the drug is active against a wide spectrum of pathogens, it is particularly effective in the treatment of respiratory and genital tract infections.
MSH

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pracovní lékařství

Medical specialty concerned with the promotion and maintenance of the physical and mental health of employees in occupational settings.
MSH

medical specialty concerned with the promotion and maintenance of the physical and mental health of employees in occupational settings; do not confuse with OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH/SAFETY, the health and safety of the worker.
CSP

This branch of medicine is concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of injuries and illnesses that occur at the workplace or as a result of toxic exposures, stress, or accidents at the workplace. Occupational medicine encompasses issues such as industrial hygiene, safety, pollution control, ergonomics, industrial and agricultural toxicology, disability evaluation, physical rehabilitation, industrial psychology and emergency medicine. (BioTech Life Science Dictionary)
NCI

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jod

A nonmetallic element of the halogen group that is represented by the atomic symbol I, atomic number 53, and atomic weight of 126.90. It is a nutritionally essential element, especially important in thyroid hormone synthesis. In solution, it has anti-infective properties and is used topically.
MSH

nonmetallic element of the halogen group that is represented by the atomic symbol I, atomic number 53, and atomic weight of 126.90; it is a nutritionally essential element and is especially important in thyroid hormone synthesis; in solution, it has anti-infective properties and is used topically.
CSP

An element that is necessary for the body to make thyroid hormone. It is found in shellfish and iodized salt.
NCI

An element with atomic symbol I, atomic number 53, and atomic weight of 126.90.
NCI

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uterus – cervicitida

Inflammation of the UTERINE CERVIX.
MSH

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Escherichia

genus of gram negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod shaped bacteria found in the large intestine of warm blooded animals; nonpathogenic or opportunistic.
CSP

A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms occur in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. The species are either nonpathogenic or opportunistic pathogens.
MSH

A genus of Gram-negative, non-spore forming, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria in the phylum Proteobacteria.
NCI

Any bacteria that is not assigned to the species level but can be assigned to the Escherichia genus level.
NCI

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oči – pohyb sakadický

An abrupt voluntary shift in ocular fixation from one point to another, as occurs in reading.
MSH

the series of involuntary, abrupt, rapid, small movements or jerks of both eyes simultaneously in changing the point of fixation.
CSP

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Oesophagostomum

A genus of nematodes of the superfamily STRONGYLOIDEA, parasitic in the intestines of animals. The adults are usually free in the intestinal lumen; the larvae encyst in the wall.
MSH

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ipodát

Ionic monomeric contrast media. Usually the sodium or calcium salts are used for examination of the gall bladder and biliary tract. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p704)
MSH

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tvář

The fleshy part of the face bounded by the eyes, nose, ear, and jaw line.
NCI

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estetika

The branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of the beautiful. It includes beauty, esthetic experience, esthetic judgment, esthetic aspects of medicine, etc.
MSH

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slinné žlázy – kaménky

Calculi occurring in a salivary gland. Most salivary gland calculi occur in the submandibular gland, but can also occur in the parotid gland and in the sublingual and minor salivary glands.
MSH

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oligopeptidy

Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
MSH

structure formed by the linkage of a small number of amino acids.
CSP

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nádor z ostrůvkových buněk

A benign tumor of the pancreatic ISLET CELLS. Usually it involves the INSULIN-producing PANCREATIC BETA CELLS, as in INSULINOMA, resulting in HYPERINSULINISM.
MSH

A benign endocrine neoplasm arising from the pancreas. It is separated from the normal pancreatic tissues by a thin collagenous capsule. It may secrete a hormone (e.g. insulin, gastrin) or it may be non-functional.
NCI

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cherubismus

A fibro-osseous hereditary disease of the jaws. The swollen jaws and raised eyes give a cherubic appearance; multiple radiolucencies are evident upon radiographic examination.
MSH

A rare disorder usually caused by mutations in the SH3BP2 gene. It is characterized by prominence of the lower part of the face due to bilateral replacement of the mandible or maxilla bones by excessive fibrous tissue.
NCI

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ethanolaminfosfotransferasa

An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the transfer of phosphoethanolamine from CDP-ethanolamine to diacylglycerol to yield phosphatidylethanolamine (cephalin) and CMP. The enzyme is found in the endoplasmic reticulum. EC 2.7.8.1.
MSH

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Sandhoffova nemoc

An autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by an accumulation of G(M2) GANGLIOSIDE in neurons and other tissues. It is caused by mutation in the common beta subunit of HEXOSAMINIDASE A and HEXOSAMINIDASE B. Thus this disease is also known as the O variant since both hexosaminidase A and B are missing. Clinically, it is indistinguishable from TAY-SACHS DISEASE.
MSH

autosomal inherited disease caused by deficiency of the enzymes hexosaminidase A and B which leads to an accumulation of GM2 ganglioside and the sphingolipid globoside in neurons and other organs; clinical manifestations resemble Tay-Sachs disease.
CSP

An autosomal recessive inherited lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the HEXB gene. It is characterized by deficiency of the enzyme hexosaminidase, resulting in the accumulation of gangiosides in the central nervous system and other body tissues. Signs and symptoms include progressive motor and mental deterioration, early blindness, macrocephaly, seizures, and hepatosplenomegaly.
NCI

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oogeneze

The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).
MSH

process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through oogonia to the mature haploid ova.
CSP

The complete process of formation and maturation of an ovum or female gamete from a primordial female germ cell. Examples of this process are found in Mus musculus and Drosophila melanogaster. [GOC:kmv, GOC:mtg_sensu]
GO

The development of ovum, which are the female germ cells. Oogenesis occurs by meiosis and is essential for the production of mature eggs.
NCI

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isosorbiddinitrát

A vasodilator used in the treatment of ANGINA PECTORIS. Its actions are similar to NITROGLYCERIN but with a slower onset of action.
MSH

The dinitrate salt form of isosorbide, an organic nitrate with vasodilator activity. Isosorbide dinitrate relaxes vascular smooth muscle by formation of the free radical nitric oxide (NO), which is identical to the endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF). NO activates guanylyl cyclase, thereby increasing the synthesis of cGMP within smooth muscle, resulting in dephosphorylation of light chain myosin and relaxation of peripheral arteries and veins. In addition, isosorbide dinitrate relaxes coronary arteries, thereby increasing the blood circulation through the ischemic area. (NCI05)
NCI

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dětská řeč

The language and sounds expressed by a child at a particular maturational stage in development.
MSH

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etologie

The discipline pertaining to the study of animal behavior.
MSH

discipline pertaining to the study of animal behavior.
CSP

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kyretáž zubní

Removal of dental plaque and dental calculus from the surface of a tooth, from the surface of a tooth apical to the gingival margin accumulated in periodontal pockets, or from the surface coronal to the gingival margin.
MSH

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chiasma opticum

The X-shaped structure formed by the meeting of the two optic nerves. At the optic chiasm the fibers from the medial part of each retina cross to project to the other side of the brain while the lateral retinal fibers continue on the same side. As a result each half of the brain receives information about the contralateral visual field from both eyes.
MSH

hypothalamic structure formed by the crossing of optic nerve fibers from the medial half of each retina.
CSP

An anatomy term for an X-shaped crossing (for example, of nerves or tendons).
NCI

Nerve trunk which is continuous with right and left optic nerves and right and left optic tracts.
FMA

An anatomic structure formed by the crossing of the two optic nerves under the hypothalamus.
NCI

The place in the brain where some of the optic nerve fibers coming from one eye cross optic nerve fibers from the other eye.
NCI

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virus JC

A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient`s initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
MSH

isolated from brain of patient with progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy; antibodies found in man, suggesting it is a common infection; experimentally virus is highly oncogenic in new-born hamsters.
CSP

One of two polyomaviruses found in humans. JC virus can infect the respiratory system, kidneys, or brain, sometimes causing the fatal progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in the latter case. It is very widespread with approximately 80 percent of the adult population in the United States having antibodies to and JC. (from WordIQ.com)
NCI

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