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akomodace oční

The dioptric adjustment of the EYE (to attain maximal sharpness of retinal imagery for an object of regard) referring to the ability, to the mechanism, or to the process. Ocular accommodation is the effecting of refractive changes by changes in the shape of the CRYSTALLINE LENS. Loosely, it refers to ocular adjustments for VISION, OCULAR at various distances. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
MSH

adjustment of the lens of the eye for various distances.
CSP

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prostaglandiny F

(9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-Trihydroxyprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGF(1 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11,alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGF(2 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGF(3 alpha)). A family of prostaglandins that includes three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. All naturally occurring PGF have an alpha configuration at the 9-carbon position. They stimulate uterine and bronchial smooth muscle and are often used as oxytocics.
MSH

stable prostaglandin formed from PGH2 or PGE2; stimulates the contraction of uterine and bronchial smooth muscle and produces vasoconstriction in some vessels.
CSP

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léky – modelování struktury

The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
MSH

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membránové proteiny

Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
MSH

proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes; consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins; includes most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors; note that individual membrane proteins have not been exhaustively treed under this term.
CSP

Proteins that are physically associated with the membrane. This class of proteins resides in cellular or intracellular membranes. The physical association of each protein is divided into two classes: integral and peripheral.
NCI

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krevní oběh

The movement of the BLOOD as it is pumped through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
MSH

general term for blood supply and flow through tissues and organs.
CSP

The flow of blood through the body of an animal, enabling the transport of nutrients to the tissues and the removal of waste products. [GOC:mtg_heart, ISBN:0192800825]
GO

In the body, the flow of blood through the heart and blood vessels, and the flow of lymph through the lymph vessels.
NCI

The movement of blood to and from the heart and to the rest of the body`s organs, tissues, and cells through the network of arteries, veins, and capillaries. (NCI)
NCI

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glycylglycin

The simplest of all peptides. It functions as a gamma-glutamyl acceptor.
MSH

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acetoxyacetylaminofluoren

An alkylating agent that forms DNA ADDUCTS at the C-8 position in GUANINE, resulting in single strand breaks. It has demonstrated carcinogenic action.
MSH

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proteinkinasa C

An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
MSH

nonEC.
CSP

An enzyme found throughout the body`s tissues and organs. Several forms of PKC are involved in many cellular functions. PKC is being studied in the treatment of cancer.
NCI

A family of serine/threonine protein kinases that have a structurally conserved catalytic subunit and a regulatory subunit that are connected by a hinge domain.
NCI

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Duaneův retrakční syndrom

A syndrome characterized by marked limitation of abduction of the eye, variable limitation of adduction and retraction of the globe, and narrowing of the palpebral fissure on attempted adduction. The condition is caused by aberrant innervation of the lateral rectus by fibers of the OCULOMOTOR NERVE.
MSH

A rare disorder affecting the muscles of the eye. It is characterized by an abnormal contraction of some eye muscles and failure of contraction of other eye muscles. It leads to limited abduction and adduction of the affected eye.
NCI

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menopauza

The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.
MSH

cessation of menstruation in the human female, usually occurring around the age of 50.
CSP

The time of life when a woman`s ovaries stop producing hormones and menstrual periods stop. Natural menopause usually occurs around age 50. A woman is said to be in menopause when she hasn`t had a period for 12 months in a row. Symptoms of menopause include hot flashes, mood swings, night sweats, vaginal dryness, trouble concentrating, and infertility.
NCI

Cessation of menstruation, occurring in (e.g.) the human female usually around the age of 50. [GOC:curators, PMID:18495681]
GO

Menopause is the time in a woman`s life when her period stops. It usually occurs naturally, most often after age 45. Menopause happens because the woman`s ovary stops producing the hormones estrogen and progesterone.

A woman has reached menopause when she has not had a period for one year. Changes and symptoms can start several years earlier. They include

  • A change in periods – shorter or longer, lighter or heavier, with more or less time in between
  • Hot flashes and/or night sweats
  • Trouble sleeping
  • Vaginal dryness
  • Mood swings
  • Trouble focusing
  • Less hair on head, more on face

Some symptoms require treatment. Talk to your doctor about how to best manage menopause. Make sure the doctor knows your medical history and your family medical history. This includes whether you are at risk for heart disease, osteoporosis, or breast cancer.

National Women`s Health Information Center


MEDLINEPLUS

A disorder characterized by the permanent cessation of menses, usually defined by 12 consecutive months of amenorrhea in a woman over 45 years of age.
NCI

The permanent cessation of menses, usually defined by 6 to 12 months of amenorrhea in a woman over 45 years of age.
NCI

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krevní transfúze

The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)
MSH

introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream.
CSP

The injection of whole blood or a blood component directly into the bloodstream.
NCI

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gonády

The gamete-producing glands, OVARY or TESTIS.
MSH

gamete-producing glands.
CSP

General anatomical term which refers to ovary or testis.
FMA

The part of the reproductive system that produces and releases eggs (ovaries) or sperm (testicles/testes).
NCI

A reproductive system organ that produces and releases either sperm (testis) or eggs (ovary).
NCI

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Achondrogeneze

A rare group of disorders characterized by defective development of bones and cartilage.
NCI

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Prototheca

A genus of achlorophyllic algae in the family Chlorellaceae, and closely related to CHLORELLA. It is found in decayed matter; WATER; SEWAGE; and SOIL; and produces cutaneous and disseminated infections in various VERTEBRATES including humans.
MSH

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dysartrie

Disorders of speech articulation caused by imperfect coordination of pharynx, larynx, tongue, or face muscles. This may result from CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; CEREBELLAR DISEASES; BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; BRAIN STEM diseases; or diseases of the corticobulbar tracts (see PYRAMIDAL TRACTS). The cortical language centers are intact in this condition. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p489)
MSH

imperfect speech articulation due to disturbances of muscular control.
CSP

Slow and slurred speech resulting from inability to coordinate the muscles that are used in speech. Causes include brain damage, Parkinson disease, and developmental causes.
NCI

A disorder characterized by slow and slurred speech resulting from an inability to coordinate the muscles used in speech.
NCI

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rtuť – isotopy

Stable mercury atoms that have the same atomic number as the element mercury, but differ in atomic weight. Hg-196, 198-201, and 204 are stable mercury isotopes.
MSH

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tělní krajiny

Anatomical areas of the body.
MSH

a general term for grouping regions of the body; preference is to use NTs.
CSP

Named areas of the body.
NCI

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granulocyty

Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.
MSH

leukocytes with abundant neutrophilic, eosinophilic or basophilic granules in the cytoplasm; mature granulocytes are the neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils.
CSP

A type of immune cell that has granules (small particles) with enzymes that are released during infections, allergic reactions, and asthma. Neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils are granulocytes. A granulocyte is a type of white blood cell.
NCI

A leucocyte with conspicuous cytoplasmic granules. In humans the granulocytes are also classified as polymorphonuclear leucocytes and are subdivided according to the staining properties of the granules into eosinophils, basophils and neutrophils. (On-line Medical Dictionary)
NCI

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AIDS

An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.
MSH

one or more indicator diseases, depending on laboratory evidence of HIV infection (CDC); late phase of HIV infection characterized by marked suppression of immune function resulting in opportunistic infections, neoplasms, and other systemic symptoms (NIAID).
CSP

A disease caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). People with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are at an increased risk for developing certain cancers and for infections that usually occur only in individuals with a weak immune system.
NCI

A syndrome resulting from the acquired deficiency of cellular immunity caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It is characterized by the reduction of the Helper T-lymphocytes in the peripheral blood and the lymph nodes. Symptoms include generalized lymphadenopathy, fever, weight loss, and chronic diarrhea. Patients with AIDS are especially susceptible to opportunistic infections (usually pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections, tuberculosis, candida infections, and cryptococcosis), and the development of malignant neoplasms (usually non-Hodgkin`s lymphoma and Kaposi`s sarcoma). The human immunodeficiency virus is transmitted through sexual contact, sharing of contaminated needles, or transfusion of contaminated blood.
NCI

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Pseudomonas pseudomallei

A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes MELIOIDOSIS. It has been isolated from soil and water in tropical regions, particularly Southeast Asia.
MSH

Any bacterial organism that can be assigned to the species Burkholderia pseudomallei.
NCI

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ucho střední

The space and structures directly internal to the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE and external to the inner ear (LABYRINTH). Its major components include the AUDITORY OSSICLES and the EUSTACHIAN TUBE that connects the cavity of middle ear (tympanic cavity) to the upper part of the throat.
MSH

portion of the ear between the tympanic membrane and the cochlea, containing the tympanic cavity and its bones, the malleus, incus, and stapes.
CSP

The part of the ear including the eardrum and ossicles. The middle ear leads to the inner ear. (NCI)
NCI

The part of the ear including the eardrum and ossicles. The middle ear leads to the inner ear.
NCI

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metabolismus

The chemical reactions that occur within the cells, tissues, or an organism. These processes include both the biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) and the breakdown (CATABOLISM) of organic materials utilized by the living organism.
MSH

sum of chemical changes that occur within the tissues of an organism consisting of anabolism (biosynthesis) and catabolism; the buildup and breakdown of molecules for utilization by the organism.
CSP

The chemical changes that take place in a cell or an organism. These changes make energy and the materials cells and organisms need to grow, reproduce, and stay healthy. Metabolism also helps get rid of toxic substances.
NCI

The chemical reactions and pathways, including anabolism and catabolism, by which living organisms transform chemical substances. Metabolic processes typically transform small molecules, but also include macromolecular processes such as DNA repair and replication, and protein synthesis and degradation. [GOC:go_curators, ISBN:0198547684]
GO

All the reactions in an organism concerned with storing and generating metabolic energy and with the biosynthesis of low-molecular weight compounds, energy-storage compounds, and basic materials needed for important life processes. It does not include nucleic acid and protein synthesis.
NCI

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transplantace kostní dřeně

The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
MSH

transference of bone marrow within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
CSP

procedure to replace bone marrow that has been destroyed by treatment with high doses of anticancer drugs or radiation. Transplantation may be autologous (an individual`s own marrow saved before treatment), allogeneic (marrow donated by someone else), or syngeneic (marrow donated by an identical twin).
NCI

Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones, such as your hip and thigh bones. It contains immature cells, called stem cells. The stem cells can develop into the red blood cells that carry oxygen through your body, the white blood cells that fight infections, and the platelets that help with blood clotting.

If there is a problem with your bone marrow, a transplant can give you healthy new marrow. You could need a transplant because of a disease, such as bone marrow diseases or cancers like leukemia or lymphoma. Or you might need one if a strong cancer treatment kills your healthy blood cells.

People with cancer sometimes donate bone marrow before treatment to be transplanted later. But often the new marrow comes from a donor, either a close family member or someone unrelated.


MEDLINEPLUS

A procedure to replace diseased or pathologic bone marrow with transplanted healthy bone marrow cells.
NCI

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skupinové procesy

The procedures through which a group approaches, attacks, and solves a common problem.
MSH

procedures by which a group of individuals approach and solve their common objectives.
CSP

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aktinomykóza cervikofaciální

A form of ACTINOMYCOSIS characterized by slow-growing inflammatory lesions of the lymph nodes that drain the mouth (lumpy jaw), reddening of the overlying skin, and intraperitoneal abscesses.
MSH

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psychologické testy

standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.
CSP

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echovirus 6 lidský

A species of ENTEROVIRUS that has caused outbreaks of aseptic meningitis in children and adults.
MSH

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methacholinové sloučeniny

A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta-methylacetylcholine (methacholine).
MSH

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Borrelia

causes borreliosis in man; helical rod with 3-10 coarse uneven coils and bent or hooked ends; gram negative; unique motility by a flexing motion of the cell; transmited to man by the human louse or various species of ticks.
CSP

A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, helical bacteria, various species of which produce RELAPSING FEVER in humans and other animals.
MSH

Any bacteria that is not assigned to the species level but can be assigned to the Borrelia genus level.
NCI

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guanosintrifosfát

Guanosine 5`-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
MSH

guanosine 5`-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate); a guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
CSP

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