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extinkce (psychologie)

tendency of a conditioned response to decrease when positive reinforcement is discontinued or negative reinforcement is introduced; compare to BEHAVIORAL HABITUATION/SENSITIZATION.
CSP

The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.
MSH

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sulfinpyrazon

A uricosuric drug that is used to reduce the serum urate levels in gout therapy. It lacks anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and diuretic properties.
MSH

A phenylbutazone derivative with uricosuric and antithrombotic properties. Sulfinpyrazone competitively inhibits reabsorption of urate at the proximal renal tubule in the kidney. This agent acts on the organic anion transport exchanger, thereby increasing uric acid excretion and decreasing serum uric acid levels resulting in the prevention of urate deposition. Sulfinpyrazone also blocks tubular excretion of various acidic drugs, resulting in increased serum concentration of the drugs. In addition, sulfinpyrazone and its active metabolite inhibit the synthesis of thromboxane A2, by competitively inhibiting the activity of cyclooxygenase, thereby preventing platelet aggregation through restoration of platelet survival time to normal, and decreasing platelet adhesiveness to subendothelial cells.
NCI

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viry coxsackie – infekce

A heterogeneous group of infections produced by coxsackieviruses, including HERPANGINA, aseptic meningitis (MENINGITIS, ASEPTIC), a common-cold-like syndrome, a non-paralytic poliomyelitis-like syndrome, epidemic pleurodynia (PLEURODYNIA, EPIDEMIC) and a serious MYOCARDITIS.
MSH

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ledviny

body organ that filters blood for the secretion of urine and that regulates ion concentrations.
CSP

One of the two bean-shaped organs located on each side of the spine in the retroperitoneum. The right kidney is located below the liver and the left kidney below the diaphragm. The kidneys filter and secret the metabolic products and minerals from the blood, thus maintaining the homeostasis. On the superior pole of each kidney there is an adrenal gland. Each kidney and adrenal gland is surrounded by fat. (NCI)
NCI

One of a pair of organs in the abdomen. Kidneys remove waste from the blood (as urine), produce erythropoietin (a substance that stimulates red blood cell production), and play a role in blood pressure regulation.
NCI

One of the two bean-shaped organs located on each side of the spine in the retroperitoneum. The right kidney is located below the liver and the left kidney below the diaphragm. The kidneys filter and secret the metabolic products and minerals from the blood, thus maintaining the homeostasis. On the superior pole of each kidney there is an adrenal gland. Each kidney and adrenal gland is surrounded by fat.
NCI

Of or pertaining to the kidney.
NCI

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fytoplankton

Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.
MSH

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Aniline

compounds containing a benzene ring and an amine group.
CSP

Dye and chemical solution stains for medical purposes are mixtures of synthetic or natural dyes or nondye chemicals in solutions used in staining cells and tissues for diagnostic histopathology, cytopathology, or hematology.
SPN

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oční infekce parazitární

mild to severe infections of the eye and its adjacent structures (adnexa) by adult or larval protozoan or metazoan parasites.
CSP

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úžeh

Heat stroke caused by exposure to the sun. It is characterized by dangerously high BODY TEMPERATURE; red, hot skin; DELUSIONS; CONVULSIONS; or COMA. It can be a life-threatening emergency and is most common in infants and the elderly.
MSH

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prstencová chrupavka

The small thick cartilage that forms the lower and posterior parts of the laryngeal wall.
MSH

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kinestezie

Sense of movement of a part of the body, such as movement of fingers, elbows, knees, limbs, or weights.
MSH

The series of events by which an organism senses the speed and direction of movement of the body and its parts. [GOC:mah]
GO

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piperacilin

Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum, AMPICILLIN derived ureidopenicillin antibiotic proposed for PSEUDOMONAS infections. It is also used in combination with other antibiotics.
MSH

A broad-spectrum semisynthetic, ampicillin-derived ureidopenicillin antibiotic. Piperacillin binds to penicillin binding proteins (PBP), the enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of peptidoglycan, a critical component of the bacterial cell wall. This blockade leads to the interruption of cell wall synthesis, consequently, leading to bacterial cell growth inhibition and cell lysis.
NCI

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kotník

The region of the lower limb between the FOOT and the LEG.
MSH

joint formed by the articulation of the lower leg bones with the talus; ankle connects the foot with the leg.
CSP

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faktor IX

Storage-stable blood coagulation factor acting in the intrinsic pathway. Its activated form, IXa, forms a complex with factor VIII and calcium on platelet factor 3 to activate factor X to Xa. Deficiency of factor IX results in HEMOPHILIA B (Christmas Disease).
MSH

Factor IX is a vitamin k-dependent plasma protein that participates in the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation by converting factor X to its active form in the presence of ca(2+) ions, phospholipids, and factor VIIIa.
NCI

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Surgical aspects

Used for operative procedures on organs, regions, or tissues in the treatment of diseases, including tissue section by lasers. It excludes transplantation, for which “transplantation” is used.
MSH

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berle

Wooden or metal staffs designed to aid a person in walking. (UMDNS,1999)
MSH

A crutch is a device intended for medical purposes for use by disabled persons to provide minimal to moderate weight support while walking.
SPN

A wooden or metal staff that fits under the armpit and reaches to the ground, used as an aid while walking.
NCI

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Krukenbergův nádor

Mucocellular carcinoma of the ovary, usually metastatic from the gastrointestinal tract, characterized by areas of mucoid degeneration and the presence of signet-ring-like cells. It accounts for 30%-40% of metastatic cancers to the ovaries and possibly 1%-2% of all malignant ovarian tumors. The lesions may not be discovered until the primary disease is advanced, and most patients die of their disease within a year. In some cases, a primary tumor is not found. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1685)
MSH

A tumor in the ovary caused by the spread of stomach cancer.
NCI

Metastatic signet-ring cell carcinoma to the ovary from a gastrointestinal tract or breast primary tumor.
NCI

The spread of the cancer to the ovary. This may be from a primary ovarian cancer involving the opposite ovary, or from a cancer at a distant site.
NCI

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pityriáza

A name originally applied to a group of skin diseases characterized by the formation of fine, branny scales, but now used only with a modifier. (Dorland, 27th ed)
MSH

a kind of skin disease
CHV

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antrakóza

A diffuse parenchymal lung disease caused by accumulation of inhaled CARBON or coal dust. The disease can progress from asymptomatic anthracosis to massive lung fibrosis. This lung lesion usually occurs in coal miners, but can be seen in urban dwellers and tobacco smokers.
MSH

A chronic lung disorder characterized by deposition of coal dust in the lung parenchyma leading to the formation of black nodules and emphysema. It occurs in coal miners.
NCI

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vejcovody

Organ with organ cavity which connects the uterine cavity to the peritoneal cavity. Examples: There are only two uterine tubes, the right and the left uterine tubes.
UWDA

A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.
MSH

pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the uterus to its corresponding ovary; provide the means for ovum collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and fertilization; the fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae; its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.
CSP

Organ with organ cavity which connects the uterine cavity to the peritoneal cavity. Examples: There are only two uterine tubes, the right and the left uterine tubes.
FMA

One of a pair of tubes that extend from the uterus to each of the ovaries. Following ovulation the egg travels down the fallopian tube to the uterus where fertilization may or may not occur. (NCI)
NCI

The tubular tract in female animals through which eggs are discharged either to the exterior or, in mammals, to the uterus. (On-line Medical Dictionary)
NCI

A slender tube through which eggs pass from an ovary to the uterus. In the female reproductive tract, there is one ovary and one fallopian tube on each side of the uterus.
NCI

One of a pair of tubes that extend from the uterus to each of the ovaries. Following ovulation the egg travels down the fallopian tube to the uterus where fertilization may or may not occur.
NCI

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průzkumy

A document used in a method of data collection that involves interviewing (or giving questionnaires to) a representative and often large group of people.
NCI

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nervosvalové látky nedepolarizující

Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction without causing depolarization of the motor end plate. They prevent acetylcholine from triggering muscle contraction and are used as muscle relaxants during electroshock treatments, in convulsive states, and as anesthesia adjuvants.
MSH

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pot

The fluid excreted by the SWEAT GLANDS. It consists of water containing sodium chloride, phosphate, urea, ammonia, and other waste products.
MSH

Secretion produced by a sweat gland.
UWDA

fluid excreted by the sweat glands; consists of water containing sodium chloride, phosphate, urea, ammonia, and other waste products.
CSP

Sweat is a clear, salty liquid produced by glands in your skin. Sweating is how your body cools itself. You sweat mainly under your arms and on your feet and palms. When sweat mixes with bacteria on your skin, it can cause a smell. Bathing regularly and using antiperspirants or deodorants can help control the odor.

Sweating a lot is normal when it is hot or when you exercise, are anxious or have a fever. It also happens during menopause. However, if you often sweat too much, which is called hyperhidrosis, it might be due to a thyroid or nervous system disorder, low blood sugar or another health problem.

Sweating too little, anhidrosis, can be life-threatening because your body can overheat. Causes of anhidrosis include dehydration, burns, and some skin and nerve disorders.


MEDLINEPLUS

The liquid secreted by the sweat glands. (NCI)
NCI

Secretion produced by a sweat gland.
FMA

The liquid secreted by the sweat glands, having a salty taste and a pH that varies from 4.5 to 7.5. Sweat produced by the eccrine sweat glands is clear with a faint characteristic odor, and contains water, sodium chloride, and traces of albumin, urea, and other compounds. Its composition varies with many factors, e.g., fluid intake, external temperature and humidity, and some hormonal activity. Sweat produced by the larger, deeper, apocrine sweat glands of the axillae contains, in addition, organic material which on bacterial decomposition produces an offensive odor.
NCI

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kyanatany

organic salts of cyanic acid containing the -OCN radical.
CSP

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laktalbumin

albumin found in milk.
CSP

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plazmatická transglutaminasa

Despite the non-specific name it generally refers to Factor XIIIa. A few citations use the term nonspecif to state of activation.
MSH

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protilátky – rozmanitost

The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.
MSH

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kyseliny mastné mononenasycené

Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.
MSH

A class of dietary fatty acids containing one double bond.
NCI

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syndaktylie

A congenital anomaly of the hand or foot, marked by the webbing between adjacent fingers or toes. Syndactylies are classified as complete or incomplete by the degree of joining. Syndactylies can also be simple or complex. Simple syndactyly indicates joining of only skin or soft tissue; complex syndactyly marks joining of bony elements.
MSH

A congenital condition characterized by webbing between the fingers and/or toes, joining the digits together. In rare cases, the joining of the fingers or toes may involve bony fusion between the digits. Common causes include Down Syndrome and hereditary syndactyly.
NCI

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cyclopropane

C3H6; a flammable moderately toxic narcotic colorless gas used in organic synthesis and as an anesthetic.
CSP

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Langerhansovy buňky

recirculating, dendritic, antigen-presenting cells containing characteristic racket shaped granules (Birbeck granules); found principally in the stratum spinosum of the epidermis and are rich in Class II major histocompatibility complex molecules.
CSP

Recirculating, dendritic, antigen-presenting cells containing characteristic racket-shaped granules (Birbeck granules). They are found principally in the stratum spinosum of the EPIDERMIS and are rich in Class II MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX molecules. Langerhans cells were the first dendritic cell to be described and have been a model of study for other dendritic cells (DCs), especially other migrating DCs such as dermal DCs and INTERSTITIAL DENDRITIC CELLS.
MSH

Dendritic clear cells in the epidermis, containing distinctive granules that appear rod- or racket-shaped in section, but lacking tonofilaments, melanosomes, and desmosomes; they carry surface receptors for immunoglobulin (Fc) and complement (C3), and are believed to be antigen fixing and processing cells of monocytic origin; active participants in cutaneous delayed hypersensitivity.
NCI

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