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An enlarged THYROID GLAND containing multiple nodules (THYROID NODULE), usually resulting from recurrent thyroid HYPERPLASIA and involution over many years to produce the irregular enlargement. Multinodular goiters may be nontoxic or may induce THYROTOXICOSIS.
MSH

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receptory serotoninové

Cell-surface proteins that bind SEROTONIN and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Several types of serotonin receptors have been recognized which differ in their pharmacology, molecular biology, and mode of action.
MSH

diverse family of receptors that mediate the effects of serotonin on neurons, lymphocytes, and other cells; in neurons, serotonin can be either excitatory or inhibitory; some serotonin receptors are G protein coupled.
CSP

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duodenum – obstrukce

Hindrance of the passage of luminal contents in the DUODENUM. Duodenal obstruction can be partial or complete, and caused by intrinsic or extrinsic factors. Simple obstruction is associated with diminished or stopped flow of luminal contents. Strangulating obstruction is associated with impaired blood flow to the duodenum in addition to obstructed flow of luminal contents.
MSH

Blockage of the normal flow of stomach contents through the duodenum.
NCI

A disorder characterized by blockage of the normal flow of stomach contents through the duodenum.
NCI

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asociace pro duševní zdraví

Voluntary organizations which support educational programs and research in psychiatry with the objective of the promotion of mental health. An early association in the United States was founded as the National Committee for Mental Hygiene in 1909, became the Mental Health Association in 1976 and later the National Mental Health Association in 1980. State and local mental health associations in this country are chartered by the national organization and affiliated with it.
MSH

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hematoencefalická bariéra

Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
MSH

a physical barrier and a system of cellular transport mechanisms which maintain homeostasis in the brain by restricting the entrance of potentially harmful chemicals from the blood and by allowing the entrance of essential nutrients.
CSP

A network of blood vessels and tissue that is made up of closely spaced cells and helps keep harmful substances from reaching the brain. The blood-brain barrier lets some substances, such as water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and general anesthetics, pass into the brain. It also keeps out bacteria and other substances, such as many anticancer drugs.
NCI

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kyselina aminolevulová

A compound produced from succinyl-CoA and GLYCINE as an intermediate in heme synthesis. It is used as a PHOTOCHEMOTHERAPY for actinic KERATOSIS.
MSH

The active ingredient in a drug used to treat actinic keratosis (a skin condition that may become cancer). The drug is also being studied in the treatment of squamous cell and basal cell skin cancers and other types of cancer. When aminolevulinic acid is taken up by cells, including cancer cells, and then exposed to certain types of light, it becomes active and kills the cells. It is a type of photosensitizing agent.
NCI

A topically administered metabolic precursor of protoporphyrin IX. After topical administration, aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is converted to protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) which is a photosensitizer. When the proper wavelength of light activates protoporphyrin IX, singlet oxygen is produced, resulting in a local cytotoxic effect. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=42648&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=42648&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C234″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A topically administered metabolic precursor of protoporphyrin IX. After topical administration, aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is converted to protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) which is a photosensitizer. When the proper wavelength of light activates protoporphyrin IX, singlet oxygen is produced, resulting in a local cytotoxic effect. (NCI04)
NCI

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vládní organizace

Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.
MSH

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nucleus ruber

A pinkish-yellow portion of the midbrain situated in the rostral mesencephalic tegmentum. It receives a large projection from the contralateral half of the CEREBELLUM via the superior cerebellar peduncle and a projection from the ipsilateral MOTOR CORTEX.
MSH

pinkish-yellow portion of the midbrain situated in the rostral mesencephalic tegmentum receiving a large projection from the contralateral half of the cerebellum via the superior cerebellar peduncle and a projection from the ipsilateral motor cortex.
CSP

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dyslexie získaná

A receptive visual aphasia characterized by the loss of a previously possessed ability to comprehend the meaning or significance of handwritten words, despite intact vision. This condition may be associated with posterior cerebral artery infarction (INFARCTION, POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY) and other BRAIN DISEASES.
MSH

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mezenterium – cysta

A rare intra-abdominal tumor in the MESENTERY. Mesenteric cysts are usually benign and can be very large fluid-filled (2000 mL) lesions.
MSH

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Bolívie

A country in Central South America, southwest of Brazil. (NCI)
NCI

A country in Central South America, southwest of Brazil. (CIA World Factbook 2002)
NCI

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amodiachin

A 4-aminoquinoline compound with anti-inflammatory properties.
MSH

An orally active 4-aminoquinoline derivative with antimalarial and anti-inflammatory properties. Similar in structure and activity to chloroquine, amodiaquine is effective against some chloroquine-resistant strains, particularly Plasmodium falciparum, the most deadly malaria parasite. Although the mechanism of plasmodicidal action has not been fully elucidated, like other quinoline derivatives, amodiaquine likely is able to inhibit heme polymerase activity in the body. This results in accumulation of free heme, which is toxic to the parasites.
NCI

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granulózobuněčný nádor

A neoplasm composed entirely of GRANULOSA CELLS, occurring mostly in the OVARY. In the adult form, it may contain some THECA CELLS. This tumor often produces ESTRADIOL and INHIBIN. The excess estrogen exposure can lead to other malignancies in women and PRECOCIOUS PUBERTY in girls. In rare cases, granulosa cell tumors have been identified in the TESTES.
MSH

A type of slow-growing, malignant tumor that usually affects the ovary.
NCI

A slow-growing, malignant tumor, characterize by the presence of granulosa-like cells and Call-Exner bodies, that is almost always found in the ovary. In rare cases, it has also been found in the testicle. There are two types of granulosa cell tumor that can be distinguished under the microscope: the adult and the juvenile. The testicular juvenile granulosa cell tumors are perhaps the most common congenital testicular neoplasms.
NCI

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regresní analýza

Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
MSH

Regression analysis provides a “best-fit” mathematical equation for the relationship between the dependent variable (response) and independent variable(s) (covariates). There are two major classes of regression – parametric and non-parametric. Parametric regression requires choice of the regression equation with one or a greater number of unknown parameters. Linear regression, in which a linear relationship between the dependent variable and independent variables is posited, is an example. The aim of parametric regression is to find the values of these parameters which provide the best fit to the data. The number of parameters is usually much smaller than the number of data points. In contrast, the non-parametric regression requires no such a choice of the regression equation. (Statistics.com Glossary)
NCI

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ekkrinní žlázy

Simple sweat glands that secrete sweat directly onto the SKIN.
MSH

A type of simple sweat gland that is found in almost all regions of the skin. These glands produce sweat that reaches the surface of the skin by way of coiled ducts (tubes). The body is cooled as sweat evaporates from the skin.
NCI

An unbranched, coiled, tubular gland not associated with the hair follicle that promotes cooling by evaporation of its secretion. It is innervated by cholinergic nerve fibers.
NCI

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hutnictví

The science, art, or technology dealing with processes involved in the separation of metals from their ores, the technique of making or compounding the alloys, the techniques of working or heat-treating metals, and the mining of metals. It includes industrial metallurgy as well as metallurgical techniques employed in the preparation and working of metals used in dentistry, with special reference to orthodontic and prosthodontic appliances. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p494)
MSH

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polygrafie

The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing books. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
MSH

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amyloidóza

A group of sporadic, familial and/or inherited, degenerative, and infectious disease processes, linked by the common theme of abnormal protein folding and deposition of AMYLOID. As the amyloid deposits enlarge they displace normal tissue structures, causing disruption of function. Various signs and symptoms depend on the location and size of the deposits.
MSH

any disease manifested by the pathogenic accumulation of amyloid in organs and tissues.
CSP

A group of diseases in which protein builds up in certain organs (localized amyloidosis) or throughout the body (systemic amyloidosis). Amyloidosis may be either primary (with no known cause), secondary (caused by another disease, including some types of cancer, such as multiple myeloma), or hereditary (passed down from parents to children). Many organs are affected by amyloidosis. The organs affected may depend on whether the amyloidosis is the primary, secondary, or hereditary form.
NCI

A group of diseases in which protein is deposited in specific organs or throughout the body.
CHV

Amyloidosis occurs when abnormal proteins build up and form deposits. The deposits can collect in organs such as the kidney and heart. This can cause the organs to become stiff and unable to work the way they should.

There are three main types of amyloidosis:

  • Primary – with no known cause
  • Secondary – caused by another disease, including some types of cancer
  • Familial – passed down through genes

Treatment depends on the type of amyloidosis you have.


MEDLINEPLUS

A disorder characterized by the localized or diffuse accumulation of amyloid protein in various anatomic sites. It may be primary, due to clonal plasma cell proliferations; secondary, due to long standing infections, chronic inflammatory disorders, or malignancies; or familial. It may affect the nerves, skin, tongue, joints, heart, liver, spleen, kidneys and adrenal glands.
NCI

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GTP-fosfohydrolasy

nonEC; family of high energy phosphate hydrolases; unlike ATPases, which are mainly involved in bioenergetics, GTPases are mainly involved in biological signal transduction.
CSP

Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
MSH

Proteins that hydrolyze guanine triphosphate to yield guanine diphosphate. This is a class of proteins that belongs to a family of high energy phosphate hydrolases. Members of this family play major roles in biological signal transduction pathways.
NCI

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nemocnice náboženských organizací

Private hospitals that are owned or sponsored by religious organizations.
MSH

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ekonomická hodnota života

The evaluation of the monetary value of a life lost or a life saved.
MSH

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methansulfonáty

Organic salts or esters of methanesulfonic acid.
MSH

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botulotoxiny

Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.
MSH

toxins produced by Clostridium botulinum; there are at least seven different substances, most being proteins; they have neuro-, entero-, and hemotoxic properties, are immunogenic, and are among the most potent poisons known; used medically to block release of acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses.
CSP

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anatomy & histology (qualifier)

Used with organs, regions, and tissues for normal descriptive anatomy and histology, and for the normal anatomy and structure of animals and plants.
MSH

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Caviidae

Taxonomic family which includes Guinea pigs, wild cavies, and the capybara.
NCI

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reprodukce nepohlavní

Reproduction without fusion of two types of cells, mostly found in ALGAE; FUNGI; and PLANTS. Asexual reproduction occurs in several ways, such as budding, fission, or splitting from “parent” cells. Only few groups of ANIMALS reproduce asexually or unisexually (PARTHENOGENESIS).
MSH

The biological process in which new individuals are produced by either a single cell or a group of cells, in the absence of any sexual process. [ISBN:0387520546]
GO

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Educational aspects

Used for education, training programs, and courses in various fields and disciplines, and for training groups of persons.
MSH

The activities of educating or instructing or teaching; activities that impart knowledge or skill.
NCI

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methoxyfluran

An inhalation anesthetic. Currently, methoxyflurane is rarely used for surgical, obstetric, or dental anesthesia. If so employed, it should be administered with NITROUS OXIDE to achieve a relatively light level of anesthesia, and a neuromuscular blocking agent given concurrently to obtain the desired degree of muscular relaxation. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p180)
MSH

highly potent inhalation anesthetic used primarily to produce analgesia during the first stage of labor; use limited by dose related nephrotoxicity.
CSP

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Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis

Gram-negative aerobic cocci of low virulence that colonize the nasopharynx and occasionally cause MENINGITIS; BACTEREMIA; EMPYEMA; PERICARDITIS; and PNEUMONIA.
MSH

A species of gram-negative, aerobic, oxidase-positive diplococcus bacteria within the phylum Proteobacteria that causes upper respiratory tract infections, particularly in immunocompromised hosts.
NCI

Any bacterial organism that can be assigned to the species Moraxella catarrhalis.
NCI

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vláskové buňky vnitřní

Auditory sensory cells of organ of Corti, usually placed in one row medially to the core of spongy bone (the modiolus). Inner hair cells are in fewer numbers than the OUTER AUDITORY HAIR CELLS, and their STEREOCILIA are approximately twice as thick as those of the outer hair cells.
MSH

A cell situated on the inner most layer of the basilar membrane of the cochlea. Each cell has multiple, sensitive strands called stereocilia. In the resting state the stereocilia are leaning on each other in a conical bundle and touch the tectorial membrane. When the cochlea moves in response to sound, a slight shearing force occurs between the basilar and tectorial membranes, the stereocilia bend and send electrical impulses to the brain via the eighth cranial nerve.
NCI

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