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kyseliny pteroylpolyglutamové

Derivatives of folic acid (pteroylglutamic acid). In gamma-glutamyl linkage they are found in many tissues. They are converted to folic acid by the action of pteroylpolyglutamate hydrolase or synthesized from folic acid by the action of folate polyglutamate synthetase. Synthetic pteroylpolyglutamic acids, which are in alpha-glutamyl linkage, are active in bacterial growth assays.
MSH

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nifuratel

Local antiprotozoal and antifungal agent that may also be given orally.
MSH

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adenylsukcinátlyasa

An enzyme that, in the course of purine ribonucleotide biosynthesis, catalyzes the conversion of 5`-phosphoribosyl-4-(N-succinocarboxamide)-5-aminoimidazole to 5`-phosphoribosyl-4-carboxamide-5-aminoimidazole and the conversion of adenylosuccinic acid to AMP. EC 4.3.2.2.
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karcinom bazocelulární

A malignant skin neoplasm that seldom metastasizes but has potentialities for local invasion and destruction. Clinically it is divided into types: nodular, cicatricial, morphaic, and erythematoid (pagetoid). They develop on hair-bearing skin, most commonly on sun-exposed areas. Approximately 85% are found on the head and neck area and the remaining 15% on the trunk and limbs. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1471)
MSH

malignant skin neoplasm that seldom metastasizes but has potential for local invasion and destruction; clinically it is divided into types: nodular, cicatricial, morphaic, and erythematoid (pagetoid); develops on hair-bearing skin, most commonly on sun exposed areas.
CSP

Cancer that begins in the lower part of the epidermis (the outer layer of the skin). It may appear as a small white or flesh-colored bump that grows slowly and may bleed. Basal cell cancers are usually found on areas of the body exposed to the sun. Basal cell cancers rarely metastasize (spread) to other parts of the body. They are the most common form of skin cancer.
NCI

a kind of skin cancer
CHV

The most frequently seen skin cancer. It arises from basal cells of the epidermis and pilosebaceous units. Clinically it is divided into the following types: nodular, ulcerative, superficial, multicentric, erythematous, and sclerosing or morphea-like.. More than 95% of these carcinomas occur in patients over 40. They develop on hair-bearing skin, most commonly on sun-exposed areas. Approximately 85% are found on the head and neck and the remaining 15% on the trunk and extremities. Basal cell carcinoma usually grows in a slow and indolent fashion. However, if untreated, the tumor may invade the subcutaneous fat, skeletal muscle and bone. Distant metastases are rare. Excision, curettage and irradiation cure most basal cell carcinomas.
NCI

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hypotyreóza

A syndrome that results from abnormally low secretion of THYROID HORMONES from the THYROID GLAND, leading to a decrease in BASAL METABOLIC RATE. In its most severe form, there is accumulation of MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDES in the SKIN and EDEMA, known as MYXEDEMA.
MSH

deficiency of thyroid gland activity; characterized by decreased basal metabolic rate, fatigue and lethargy, sensitivity to cold, and menstrual disturbances; untreated it progresses to myxedema; in infants severe hypothyroidism leads to cretinism.
CSP

A disorder characterized by a decrease in production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland.
NCI

Too little thyroid hormone. Symptoms include weight gain, constipation, dry skin, and sensitivity to the cold.
NCI

A condition in which the production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland is diminished. Signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism include low metabolic rate, tendency to weight gain, somnolence and sometimes myxedema. In the United States, the most common cause of hypothyroidism is Hashimoto`s thyroiditis, an autoimmune disorder.
NCI

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pneumologie

A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM. It is especially concerned with diagnosis and treatment of diseases and defects of the lungs and bronchial tree.
MSH

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dusíkaté sloučeniny

Compounds having the nitro group, -NO2, attached to carbon. When attached to nitrogen they are nitramines and attached to oxygen they are NITRATES.
MSH

compound containing the chemical group N02.
CSP

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dorostové lékařství

A branch of medicine pertaining to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases occurring during the period beginning with puberty until the cessation of somatic growth.
MSH

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kardioplegické roztoky

Solutions which, upon administration, will temporarily arrest cardiac activity. They are used in the performance of heart surgery.
MSH

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idarubicin

An orally administered anthracycline antineoplastic. The compound has shown activity against breast cancer, lymphomas and leukemias, together with the potential for reduced cardiac toxicity.
MSH

An anticancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called antitumor antibiotics.
NCI

A semisynthetic anthracycline antineoplastic antibiotic derived from daunorubicin. Idarubicin intercalates into DNA and interacts with topoisomerase II, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and repair and RNA and protein synthesis. Due to its high lipophilicity, idarubicin penetrates cell membranes better than other anthracycline antibiotics. Idarubicin hydrochloride is the therapeutic form of this drug. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39753&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39753&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C562″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A semisynthetic 4-demethoxy analogue of the antineoplastic anthracycline antibiotic daunorubicin. Idarubicin intercalates into DNA and interferes with the activity of topoisomerase II, thereby inhibiting DNA replication, RNA transcription and protein synthesis. Due to its high lipophilicity, idarubicin penetrates cell membranes more efficiently than other anthracycline antibiotic compounds.
NCI

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poruchy zornice

Conditions which affect the structure or function of the pupil of the eye, including disorders of innervation to the pupillary constrictor or dilator muscles, and disorders of pupillary reflexes.
MSH

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kyselina dusitá

Nitrous acid (HNO2). A weak acid that exists only in solution. It can form water-soluble nitrites and stable esters. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
MSH

the weak acid HNO.
CSP

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adrenochrom

Pigment obtained by the oxidation of epinephrine.
MSH

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sinus caroticus

The dilated portion of the common carotid artery at its bifurcation into external and internal carotids. It contains baroreceptors which, when stimulated, cause slowing of the heart, vasodilatation, and a fall in blood pressure.
MSH

slight dilation in the carotid artery at its bifurcation into the external and internal carotid arteries; it contains baroreceptors (pressure sensors) that when stimulated, will cause a reflex slowing of the heart, vasodilation and a fall in blood pressure.
CSP

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obrazy – zpracování pomocí počítače

A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
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pyokyanin

Antibiotic pigment produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
MSH

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noradrenalin

Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
MSH

precursor of epinephrine; widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter, principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers; secreted by the adrenal medulla; used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
CSP

A synthetic phenylethylamine that mimics the sympathomimetic actions of the endogenous norepinephrine. Norepinephrine acts directly on the alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors. Clinically, norepinephrine is used as a peripheral vasoconstrictor that causes constriction of arterial and venous beds via its alpha-adrenergic action. It is also used as a potent inotropic and chronotropic stimulator of the heart mediated through its beta-1 adrenergic action.
NCI

A naturally occurring catecholamine hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter in the sympathetic nervous system. Norepinephrine directly stimulates adrenergic receptors. Stimulation of alpha-adrenergic receptors causes vasoconstriction of the radial smooth muscle of the iris, arteries, arterioles, veins, urinary bladder, and the sphincter of the gastrointestinal tract. Stimulation of beta-1 adrenergic receptors causes an increase in myocardial contractility, heart rate, automaticity, and atrioventricular (AV) conduction while stimulation of beta-2 adrenergic receptors causes bronchiolar and vascular smooth muscle dilatation.
NCI

A chemical made by some nerve cells and in the adrenal gland. It can act as both a neurotransmitter (a chemical messenger used by nerve cells) and a hormone (a chemical that travels in the blood and controls the actions of other cells or organs). Noradrenaline is released from the adrenal gland in response to stress and low blood pressure.
NCI

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Afrika východní

The geographical area of Africa comprising BURUNDI; DJIBOUTI; ETHIOPIA; KENYA; RWANDA; SOMALIA; SUDAN; TANZANIA; and UGANDA.
MSH

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kataplexie

A condition characterized by transient weakness or paralysis of somatic musculature triggered by an emotional stimulus or physical exertion. Cataplexy is frequently associated with NARCOLEPSY. During a cataplectic attack, there is a marked reduction in muscle tone similar to the normal physiologic hypotonia that accompanies rapid eye movement sleep (SLEEP, REM). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p396)
MSH

transient attack of weakness precipitated by emotional excitement; patient falls as if struck down.
CSP

A rare disorder characterized by sudden and transient episodes of loss of muscle tone. It often follows an experience of intense emotions. It is seen in patients with narcolepsy.
NCI

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imunoblastická lymfadenopatie

A disorder characterized by proliferation of arborizing small vessels, prominent immunoblastic proliferations and amorphous acidophilic interstitial material. Clinical manifestations include fever, sweats, weight loss, generalized lymphadenopathy and frequently hepatosplenomegaly.
MSH

An aggressive (fast-growing) type of T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma marked by enlarged lymph nodes and hypergammaglobulinemia (increased antibodies in the blood). Other symptoms may include a skin rash, fever, weight loss, or night sweats.
NCI

A mature T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, characterized by systemic disease and a polymorphous infiltrate involving lymph nodes. It occurs in the middle aged and elderly, with an equal incidence in males and females. The clinical course is typically aggressive. (WHO, 2001)
NCI

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pyrimidinnukleotidy

Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE and phosphate attached that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.
MSH

one of the monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed, consisting of a pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group.
CSP

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Agorafobie bez panické poruchy v anamnéze

An anxiety disorder characterized by agoraphobia in the absence of a history of panic attacks; the individual fears incapacitation or humiliation in open, public places or situations due to panic-like symptoms rather than a full-blown panic attack.
NCI

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skot – nemoci

Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
MSH

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imunologický capping

An energy dependent process following the crosslinking of B CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS by multivalent ligands (bivalent anti-antibodies, LECTINS or ANTIGENS), on the B-cell surface. The crosslinked ligand-antigen receptor complexes collect in patches which flow to and aggregate at one pole of the cell to form a large mass – the cap. The caps may then be endocytosed or shed into the environment.
MSH

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Q beta replikasa

An enzyme that catalyzes the replication of the RNA of coliphage Q beta. EC 2.7.7.-.
MSH

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alanin

A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
MSH

non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma; it is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases immunity, and provides energy for muscle tissue, brain, and the central nervous system.
CSP

Amino acid with side chain -CH3.
NCI

A small non-essential amino acid in humans, Alanine is one of the most widely used for protein construction and is involved in the metabolism of tryptophan and vitamin pyridoxine. Alanine is an important source of energy for muscles and central nervous system, strengthens the immune system, helps in the metabolism of sugars and organic acids, and displays a cholesterol-reducing effect in animals. (NCI04)
NCI

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cefsulodin

A pyridinium-substituted semisynthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial used especially for Pseudomonas infections in debilitated patients.
MSH

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Motieven

A benefit, consideration, or positive motivational influence, financial or otherwise, given to induce a specific action.
NCI

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chinonreduktasy

NAD(P)H:(quinone acceptor) oxidoreductases. A family that includes three enzymes which are distinguished by their sensitivity to various inhibitors. EC 1.6.99.2 (NAD(P)H DEHYDROGENASE (QUINONE);) is a flavoprotein which reduces various quinones in the presence of NADH or NADPH and is inhibited by dicoumarol. EC 1.6.99.5 (NADH dehydrogenase (quinone)) requires NADH, is inhibited by AMP and 2,4-dinitrophenol but not by dicoumarol or folic acid derivatives. EC 1.6.99.6 (NADPH dehydrogenase (quinone)) requires NADPH and is inhibited by dicoumarol and folic acid derivatives but not by 2,4-dinitrophenol.
MSH

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alkuronium

A non-depolarizing skeletal muscle relaxant similar to TUBOCURARINE. It is used as an anesthesia adjuvant.
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