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pikrotoxin

A noncompetitive antagonist at GABA-A receptors and thus a convulsant. Picrotoxin blocks the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-activated chloride ionophore. Although it is most often used as a research tool, it has been used as a CNS stimulant and an antidote in poisoning by CNS depressants, especially the barbiturates.
MSH

nonalkaloid extract from the seeds of Anamirta cocculus used as a CNS and respiratory stimulant to counteract toxicity of CNS depressants such as barbiturates; GABA-A receptor antagonist used to probe GABA function in the CNS.
CSP

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nervový systém – nemoci

Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.
MSH

Any deviation from the normal structure or function of the nervous system that is manifested by a characteristic set of symptoms and signs. (NCI)
NCI

impairment of health or a condition of abnormal functioning of the nervous system.
CSP

Any deviation from the normal structure or function of the nervous system that is manifested by a characteristic set of symptoms and signs.
NCI

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kuřecí embryo

The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
MSH

domestic chicken or any other bird at any stage of development prior to hatching.
CSP

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hydroxyprolin

A hydroxylated form of the imino acid proline. A deficiency in ASCORBIC ACID can result in impaired hydroxyproline formation.
MSH

C5H9NO3; amino acid derived from proline, found in collagen and gelatin.
CSP

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supinační poloha

The posture of an individual lying face up.
MSH

A posterior recumbent body position whereby the person lies on its back and faces upward.
NCI

A posterior recumbent body position whereby the person lies on its back and faces upward. (NCI)
NCI

Deprecation Comment:This concept has been deprecated because it does not describe a type of Act (as it should in the ActClass code system), but rather encodes the result or value of an observation. The same code has been added to the ObservationValue code system.


HL7V3.0

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pirinitramid

A diphenylpropylamine with intense narcotic analgesic activity of long duration. It is a derivative of MEPERIDINE with similar activity and usage.
MSH

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neuroendokrinologie

The study of the anatomical and functional relationships between the nervous system and the endocrine system.
MSH

Studies of the interactions between the nervous system and endocrine system.
NCI

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dítě hospitalizované

Child hospitalized for short term care.
MSH

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hyperglykémie

abnormally high blood glucose level.
CSP

Higher than normal amount of glucose (a type of sugar) in the blood. Hyperglycemia can be a sign of diabetes or other conditions.
NCI

A disorder characterized by laboratory test results that indicate an elevation in the concentration of blood sugar. It is usually an indication of diabetes mellitus or glucose intolerance.
NCI

A high level of blood sugar. It is usually an indication of diabetes mellitus.
NCI

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stomatochirurgie

A dental specialty concerned with the diagnosis and surgical treatment of disease, injuries, and defects of the human oral and maxillofacial region.
MSH

Surgical procedures for treating diseases and disorders of the oral cavity.
NCI

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placentární extrakty

Extracts prepared from placental tissue; they may contain specific but uncharacterized factors or proteins with specific activities.
MSH

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neuropeptidy

Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
MSH

peptides released by neural tissue as intercellular messengers; many are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
CSP

A member of a class of protein-like molecules made in the brain. Neuropeptides consist of short chains of amino acids, with some functioning as neurotransmitters and some functioning as hormones.
NCI

Peptides with direct synaptic effects or indirect modulatory effects on the nervous system. A neuropeptide is a molecule released by neurons as an intercellular neurotransmitter. Alternatively, neuropeptides can be released by non-neuronal cells as hormones. They are endogenous peptides such as endorphins that influence neural activity or functioning.
NCI

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chlordan

A highly poisonous organochlorine insecticide. The EPA has cancelled registrations of pesticides containing this compound with the exception of its use through subsurface ground insertion for termite control and the dipping of roots or tops of non-food plants. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
MSH

highly poisonous organochlorine insecticide; the EPA has cancelled registrations of pesticides containing this compound with the exception of its use through subsurface ground insertion for termite control and the dipping of roots or tops of non-food plants.
CSP

Chlordane is a chlorinated hydrocarbon used as a non-systemic contact insecticide for lawns and crops. Actually a complex mixture of isomers, other chlorinated hydrocarbons, and by-products, chlordane is used in termite and ant control, and as a protective treatment for underground cables. Chlordane may be irritant and toxic by ingestion, inhalation, or skin absorption; toxic effects may be cumulative. When heated to decomposition, chlordane emits toxic fumes of carbon monoxide, hydrogen chloride, chlorine, and phosgene. Chlordane is very persistent in the environment, surviving in soils for more than 20 years. U.S. production of chlordane was stopped in 1976. (NCI04)
NCI

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hypertenze

Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
MSH

persistantly high arterial blood pressure.
CSP

A blood pressure of 140/90 or higher. High blood pressure usually has no symptoms. It can harm the arteries and cause an increase in the risk of stroke, heart attack, kidney failure, and blindness.
NCI

Blood pressure is the force of your blood pushing against the walls of your arteries. Each time your heart beats, it pumps out blood into the arteries. Your blood pressure is highest when your heart beats, pumping the blood. This is called systolic pressure. When your heart is at rest, between beats, your blood pressure falls. This is the diastolic pressure.

Your blood pressure reading uses these two numbers, the systolic and diastolic pressures. Usually they are written one above or before the other. A reading of

  • 120/80 or lower is normal blood pressure
  • 140/90 or higher is high blood pressure
  • Between 120 and 139 for the top number, or between 80 and 89 for the bottom number is prehypertension

High blood pressure usually has no symptoms, but it can cause serious problems such as stroke, heart failure, heart attack and kidney failure. You can control high blood pressure through healthy lifestyle habits and taking medicines, if needed.

NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute


MEDLINEPLUS

A disorder characterized by a pathological increase in blood pressure; a repeatedly elevation in the blood pressure exceeding 140 over 90 mm Hg.
NCI

Pathological increase in blood pressure; a repeatedly elevated blood pressure exceeding 140 over 90 mmHg.
NCI

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pot

The fluid excreted by the SWEAT GLANDS. It consists of water containing sodium chloride, phosphate, urea, ammonia, and other waste products.
MSH

Secretion produced by a sweat gland.
UWDA

fluid excreted by the sweat glands; consists of water containing sodium chloride, phosphate, urea, ammonia, and other waste products.
CSP

Sweat is a clear, salty liquid produced by glands in your skin. Sweating is how your body cools itself. You sweat mainly under your arms and on your feet and palms. When sweat mixes with bacteria on your skin, it can cause a smell. Bathing regularly and using antiperspirants or deodorants can help control the odor.

Sweating a lot is normal when it is hot or when you exercise, are anxious or have a fever. It also happens during menopause. However, if you often sweat too much, which is called hyperhidrosis, it might be due to a thyroid or nervous system disorder, low blood sugar or another health problem.

Sweating too little, anhidrosis, can be life-threatening because your body can overheat. Causes of anhidrosis include dehydration, burns, and some skin and nerve disorders.


MEDLINEPLUS

The liquid secreted by the sweat glands. (NCI)
NCI

Secretion produced by a sweat gland.
FMA

The liquid secreted by the sweat glands, having a salty taste and a pH that varies from 4.5 to 7.5. Sweat produced by the eccrine sweat glands is clear with a faint characteristic odor, and contains water, sodium chloride, and traces of albumin, urea, and other compounds. Its composition varies with many factors, e.g., fluid intake, external temperature and humidity, and some hormonal activity. Sweat produced by the larger, deeper, apocrine sweat glands of the axillae contains, in addition, organic material which on bacterial decomposition produces an offensive odor.
NCI

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plazmatická transglutaminasa

Despite the non-specific name it generally refers to Factor XIIIa. A few citations use the term nonspecif to state of activation.
MSH

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Nová Anglie

The geographic area of New England in general and when the specific state or states are not indicated. States usually included in this region are Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island.
MSH

The area in the United States comprised of the following states: Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, and New Jersey. (from SEERS 2004 codeset)
NCI

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chlorfenamidin

An acaricide used against many organophosphate and carbamate resistant pests. It acts as an uncoupling agent and monoamine oxidase inhibitor.
MSH

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hypoglykemika

Substances which lower blood glucose levels.
MSH

class of agents which lower blood glucose levels.
CSP

Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, is too high. If you can`t control your diabetes with wise food choices and physical activity, you may need diabetes medicines. The kind of medicine you take depends on your type of diabetes, your schedule, and your other health conditions.

With Type 1 diabetes, your pancreas does not make insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps glucose get into your cells to give them energy. Without insulin, too much glucose stays in your blood. If you have type 1 diabetes, you will need to take insulin.

Type 2 diabetes, the most common type, can start when the body doesn`t use insulin as it should. If your body can`t keep up with the need for insulin, you may need to take pills. Some people need both insulin and pills. Along with meal planning and physical activity, diabetes pills help people with type 2 diabetes or gestational diabetes keep their blood glucose levels on target. Several kinds of pills are available. Each works in a different way. Many people take two or three kinds of pills. Some people take combination pills. Combination pills contain two kinds of diabetes medicine in one tablet. Some people take pills and insulin.

NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases


MEDLINEPLUS

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syndaktylie

A congenital anomaly of the hand or foot, marked by the webbing between adjacent fingers or toes. Syndactylies are classified as complete or incomplete by the degree of joining. Syndactylies can also be simple or complex. Simple syndactyly indicates joining of only skin or soft tissue; complex syndactyly marks joining of bony elements.
MSH

A congenital condition characterized by webbing between the fingers and/or toes, joining the digits together. In rare cases, the joining of the fingers or toes may involve bony fusion between the digits. Common causes include Down Syndrome and hereditary syndactyly.
NCI

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trombocyty – deficit ukládacího poolu

Disorder characterized by a decrease or lack of platelet dense bodies in which the releasable pool of adenine nucleotides and 5HT are normally stored.
MSH

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nifuratel

Local antiprotozoal and antifungal agent that may also be given orally.
MSH

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cholera

An acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and Southeast Asia whose causative agent is VIBRIO CHOLERAE. This condition can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated.
MSH

acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and southeast Asia whose causative agent is Vibrio cholerae; can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated.
CSP

Cholera is a bacterial infection that causes diarrhea. The cholera bacterium is usually found in water or food contaminated by feces (poop). Cholera is rare in the US. You may get it if you travel to parts of the world with inadequate water treatment and poor sanitation, and lack of sewage treatment. Outbreaks can also happen after disasters. The disease is not likely to spread directly from one person to another.

Often the infection is mild or without symptoms, but sometimes it can be severe. Severe symptoms include profuse watery diarrhea, vomiting, and leg cramps. In severe cases, rapid loss of body fluids leads to dehydration and shock. Without treatment, death can occur within hours.

Doctors diagnose cholera with a stool sample or rectal swab. Treatment includes replacing fluid and salts and sometimes antibiotics.

Anyone who thinks they may have cholera should seek medical attention immediately. Dehydration can be rapid so fluid replacement is essential.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention


MEDLINEPLUS

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hypotyreóza

A syndrome that results from abnormally low secretion of THYROID HORMONES from the THYROID GLAND, leading to a decrease in BASAL METABOLIC RATE. In its most severe form, there is accumulation of MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDES in the SKIN and EDEMA, known as MYXEDEMA.
MSH

deficiency of thyroid gland activity; characterized by decreased basal metabolic rate, fatigue and lethargy, sensitivity to cold, and menstrual disturbances; untreated it progresses to myxedema; in infants severe hypothyroidism leads to cretinism.
CSP

A disorder characterized by a decrease in production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland.
NCI

Too little thyroid hormone. Symptoms include weight gain, constipation, dry skin, and sensitivity to the cold.
NCI

A condition in which the production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland is diminished. Signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism include low metabolic rate, tendency to weight gain, somnolence and sometimes myxedema. In the United States, the most common cause of hypothyroidism is Hashimoto`s thyroiditis, an autoimmune disorder.
NCI

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atrioventrikulární nodální reentry tachykardie

Abnormally rapid heartbeats caused by reentry of atrial impulse into the dual (fast and slow) pathways of ATRIOVENTRICULAR NODE. The common type involves a blocked atrial impulse in the slow pathway which reenters the fast pathway in a retrograde direction and simultaneously conducts to the atria and the ventricles leading to rapid HEART RATE of 150-250 beats per minute.
MSH

A supraventricular tachycardia due to reentry along a circuit contained within the AV node. AVNRT is the most common form of supraventricular tachycardia and usually presents as a narrow QRS complex tachycardia at a rate between 150 and 250 beats per minute. (NCI)
NCI

A supraventricular tachycardia due to reentry along a circuit contained within the AV node. AVNRT is the most common form of supraventricular tachycardia and usually presents as a narrow QRS complex tachycardia at a rate between 150 and 250 beats per minute.
NCI

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Pneumocystis carinii

opportunistic pathogen which can cause a fatal pneumonitis in an immunocompromised host; occurs in 75% of AIDS patients.
CSP

The prototype species of PNEUMOCYSTIS infecting the laboratory rat, Rattus norvegicus (RATS). It was formerly called Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. carinii. Other species of Pneumocystis can also infect rats.
MSH

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dusíkaté sloučeniny

Compounds having the nitro group, -NO2, attached to carbon. When attached to nitrogen they are nitramines and attached to oxygen they are NITRATES.
MSH

compound containing the chemical group N02.
CSP

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cholinergní vlákna

Nerve fibers liberating acetylcholine at the synapse after an impulse.
MSH

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idarubicin

An orally administered anthracycline antineoplastic. The compound has shown activity against breast cancer, lymphomas and leukemias, together with the potential for reduced cardiac toxicity.
MSH

An anticancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called antitumor antibiotics.
NCI

A semisynthetic anthracycline antineoplastic antibiotic derived from daunorubicin. Idarubicin intercalates into DNA and interacts with topoisomerase II, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and repair and RNA and protein synthesis. Due to its high lipophilicity, idarubicin penetrates cell membranes better than other anthracycline antibiotics. Idarubicin hydrochloride is the therapeutic form of this drug. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39753&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39753&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C562″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A semisynthetic 4-demethoxy analogue of the antineoplastic anthracycline antibiotic daunorubicin. Idarubicin intercalates into DNA and interferes with the activity of topoisomerase II, thereby inhibiting DNA replication, RNA transcription and protein synthesis. Due to its high lipophilicity, idarubicin penetrates cell membranes more efficiently than other anthracycline antibiotic compounds.
NCI

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tarzální tunelový syndrom

Entrapment of the distal branches of the posterior TIBIAL NERVE (which divides into the medial plantar, lateral plantar, and calcanial nerves) in the tarsal tunnel, which lies posterior to the internal malleolus and beneath the retinaculum of the flexor muscles of the foot. Symptoms include ankle pain radiating into the foot which tends to be aggravated by walking. Examination may reveal Tinel`s sign (radiating pain following nerve percussion) over the tibial nerve at the ankle, weakness and atrophy of the small foot muscles, or loss of sensation in the foot. (From Foot Ankle 1990;11(1):47-52)
MSH

A syndrome resulting from the entrapment and compression of the tibial nerve. Signs and symptoms include burning sensation, tingling, and pain in the foot sole.
NCI

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