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anus – nemoci

The anus is the opening of the rectum through which stool passes out of your body. Problems with the anus are common. They include hemorrhoids, abscesses, fissures (cracks), and cancer.

Many people are embarrassed to talk about anal troubles. But seeing your doctor about problems in this area is important. This is especially true if you have pain or bleeding. Treatments vary widely depending on the particular problem.

NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases


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programované instrukce

learning method consisting of materials which are presented in a predetermined order with provisions enabling students to check their answers and progress at their own rate; provides immediate feedback about achievement.
CSP

Works consisting of sequenced self-correction texts.
MSH

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novorozenec malý vzhledem ke gestačnímu věku

An infant having a birth weight lower than expected for its gestational age.
MSH

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cytoplazma

The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
MSH

protoplasm of a cell exclusive of that of the nucleus; it consists of a continuous aqueous solution (cytosol) and the organelles and inclusions suspended in it (phaneroplasm), and is the site of most of the chemical activities of the cell.
CSP

The fluid inside a cell but outside the cell`s nucleus. Most chemical reactions in a cell take place in the cytoplasm.
NCI

All of the contents of a cell excluding the plasma membrane and nucleus, but including other subcellular structures. [ISBN:0198547684]
GO

Cell component which has as its direct parts a portion of cytosol and one or more organelles. Examples: cytoplasm of hepatocyte, cytoplasm of erythrocyte, cytoplasm of thrombocyte, cytoplasm of neuron.
FMA

Cell substance which consists of cytosol and cytoplasmic organelles.
UWDA

That portion of the cell contained within the plasma membrane but excluding the nucleus.
NCI

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krevní skupiny – systém ABO

The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.
MSH

the major human blood type system, which depends on the presence or absence of the two antigenic structures, A and B.
CSP

A blood group system based on recognition of inherited differences in the H antigen as expressed on erythrocytes.
NCI

A system used to group human blood into different types, based on the presence or absence of certain markers on the surface of red blood cells. The four main blood types are A, B, O, and AB. For a blood transfusion, the ABO blood group system is used to match the blood type of the donor and the person receiving the transfusion. People with blood type O can donate blood to anyone and are called universal donors. People with blood type AB can accept blood from all donors and are called universal recipients. People with type A or B can receive matching blood or type O blood.
NCI

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afázie

A cognitive disorder marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or express language in its written or spoken form. This condition is caused by diseases which affect the language areas of the dominant hemisphere. Clinical features are used to classify the various subtypes of this condition. General categories include receptive, expressive, and mixed forms of aphasia.
MSH

cognitive disorder marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or express language in its written or spoken form; caused by diseases which affect the language areas of the dominant hemisphere; general categories include receptive, expressive, and mixed forms of aphasia.
CSP

Aphasia is a disorder caused by damage to the parts of the brain that control language. It can make it hard for you to read, write and say what you mean to say. It is most common in adults who have had a stroke. Brain tumors, infections, injuries and dementia can also cause it. The type of problem you have and how bad it is depends on which part of your brain is damaged and how much damage there is.

There are four main types:

  • Expressive aphasia – you know what you want to say, but you have trouble saying or writing what you mean
  • Receptive aphasia – you hear the voice or see the print, but you can`t make sense of the words
  • Anomic aphasia – you have trouble using the correct word for objects, places or events
  • Global aphasia – you can`t speak, understand speech, read or write

Some people recover from aphasia without treatment. Most, however, need language therapy as soon as possible.

NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke


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propanidid

An intravenous anesthetic that has been used for rapid induction of anesthesia and for maintenance of anesthesia of short duration. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p918)
MSH

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infúzní pumpy implantabilní

Implanted fluid propulsion systems with self-contained power source for providing long-term controlled-rate delivery of drugs such as chemotherapeutic agents or analgesics. Delivery rate may be externally controlled or osmotically or peristatically controlled with the aid of transcutaneous monitoring.
MSH

A small device installed under the skin to administer a steady dose of drugs.
NCI

A small device installed under the skin to provide long-term controlled-rate delivery of drugs such as chemotherapeutic agents or analgesics. Delivery rate may be externally controlled or osmotically or peristaltically controlled with the aid of transcutaneous monitoring.
NCI

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data – zobrazování

The visual display of data in a man-machine system. An example is when data is called from the computer and transmitted to a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY or LIQUID CRYSTAL display.
MSH

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akademie a ústavy

Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.
MSH

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apraxie

loss of ability to perform familiar, purposeful movements in the absence of paralysis or other neural sensorimotor impairment.
CSP

A group of cognitive disorders characterized by the inability to perform previously learned skills that cannot be attributed to deficits of motor or sensory function. The two major subtypes of this condition are ideomotor (see APRAXIA, IDEOMOTOR) and ideational apraxia, which refers to loss of the ability to mentally formulate the processes involved with performing an action. For example, dressing apraxia may result from an inability to mentally formulate the act of placing clothes on the body. Apraxias are generally associated with lesions of the dominant PARIETAL LOBE and supramarginal gyrus. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp56-7)
MSH

a kind of neurological disorder characterized by loss of the ability to perform voluntary and skillful movements
CHV

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propyljodon

Radiopaque medium usually in oil; used in bronchography.
MSH

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inosindifosfát

An inosine nucleotide containing a pyrophosphate group esterified to C5 of the sugar moiety.
MSH

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Deciduacel, reactie van de

The cellular and vascular changes occurring in the endometrium of the pregnant uterus just after the onset of blastocyst implantation. This process involves the proliferation and differentiation of the fibroblast-like endometrial stromal cells into large, polyploid decidual cells that eventually form the maternal component of the placenta. [ISBN:0721662544 “Dorland`s Illustrated Medical Dictionary”, PMID:11133685]
GO

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Acetabularia

A genus of green algae found in the Mediterranean and other warm seas.
MSH

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arbovirové infekce

Infections caused by arthropod-borne viruses, general or unspecified.
MSH

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prostatitida

Prostatitis: inflammation of the prostate, appreciated clinically as an enlarged, soft or tender prostate. Prostatic secretions contain large numbers of leukocytes.
AIR

Infiltration of inflammatory cells into the parenchyma of PROSTATE. The subtypes are classified by their varied laboratory analysis, clinical presentation and response to treatment.
MSH

inflammation of the prostate.
CSP

Inflammation of the prostate gland.
NCI

An infectious or non-infectious inflammatory process affecting the prostate gland.
NCI

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ústavy – řídící týmy

Administrator-selected management groups who are responsible for making decisions pertaining to the provision of integrated direction for various institutional functions.
MSH

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dehydrocholesteroly

Cholesterol derivatives having an additional double bond in any position. 24-Dehydrocholesterol is DESMOSTEROL. The other most prevalent dehydrocholesterol is the 7-isomer. This compound is a precursor of cholesterol and of vitamin D3.
MSH

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acetylcholin

A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
MSH

neurotransmitter; in vertebrates is the major transmitter at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
CSP

A chemical made by some types of nerve cells. It is used to send messages to other cells, including other nerve cells, muscle cells, and gland cells. It is released from the nerve ending and carries signals to cells on the other side of a synapse (space between nerve cells and other cells). Acetylcholine helps control memory and the action of certain muscles. It is a type of neurotransmitter.
NCI

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armin

A reversible organophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor. It also affects the presynaptic membrane and inhibits membrane postsynaptic cholinergic receptors. The compound had former use as a miotic.
MSH

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protein-tyrosinkinasy

Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
MSH

Kinases that phosphorylate protein tyrosine residues. These kinases play major roles in mitogenic signalling, and can be divided into two subfamilies: receptor tyrosine kinases, that have an extracellular ligand-binding domain, a single transmembrane domain, and an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain; and nonreceptor tyrosine kinases, which are soluble, cytoplasmic kinases. (Dictionary of Cell and Molecular Biology Online)
NCI

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pojištění životní

Insurance providing for payment of a stipulated sum to a designated beneficiary upon death of the insured.
MSH

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epidemie

Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.
MSH

An outbreak of a contagious disease that spreads rapidly and widely.
CHV

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dendritické buňky

Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
MSH

morphologic cell type; follicular d.c. found in germinal layers of spleen and lymph nodes and present antigen to B cells; cortical d.c. found in spleen white pulp and lymph node cortex and present antigen to T cells.
CSP

A special type of immune cell that is found in tissues, such as the skin, and boosts immune responses by showing antigens on its surface to other cells of the immune system. A dendritic cell is a type of phagocyte and a type of antigen-presenting cell (APC).
NCI

Immunocompetent cells of the lymphoid and hemopoietic systems and skin. They function morphologically and phenotypically by presenting or processing antigens, thereby stimulating cellular immunity. They represent the most potent antigen-presenting cells and, therefore, play a critical role in the primary T cell immune response.
NCI

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respirační acidóza

Respiratory retention of carbon dioxide. It may be chronic or acute.
MSH

excess retention of carbon dioxide in the body resulting from ventilatory impairment.
CSP

Acid base imbalance resulting from an accumulation of carbon dioxide secondary to hypoventilation.
NCI

A state due to excess retention of carbon dioxide in the body.
NCI

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dnavá artritida

Arthritis, especially of the great toe, as a result of gout. Acute gouty arthritis often is precipitated by trauma, infection, surgery, etc. The initial attacks are usually monoarticular but later attacks are often polyarticular.
MSH

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prurigo

A name applied to several itchy skin eruptions of unknown cause. The characteristic course is the formation of a dome-shaped papule with a small transient vesicle on top, followed by crusting over or lichenification. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
MSH

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interleukin-2

A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
MSH

interleukin 2 is produced by T cells in response to antigenic or mitogenic stimulation and the signal carried by interleukin 1; it stimulates the proliferation of T cells bearing specific receptors for interleukin 2, expressed by antigenically stimulated T cells; it also seems to induce production of interferon gamma, and is used as an anticancer agent in a wide variety of solid malignant tumors.
CSP

Encoded by human IL2 Gene, Interleukin-2 is a secreted cytokine important for proliferation of T and B lymphocytes. The receptor of this cytokine is a heterotrimeric protein complex whose gamma chain is also shared by interleukin 4 (IL4) and interleukin 7 (IL7). IL2 expression in mature thymocytes is monoallelic, which represents an unusual regulatory mode for controlling expression of a single gene. Targeted disruption of a similar gene in mice leads to ulcerative colitis-like disease, which suggests an essential role in the immune response to antigenic stimuli. (From LocusLink)
NCI

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epiziotomie

An incision of the posterior vaginal wall and a portion of the pudenda which enlarges the vaginal introitus to facilitate delivery and prevent lacerations.
MSH

A surgical widening of the introitus by cutting into the musculature of the maternal perineum with a linear midline or oblique incision so as to facilitate vaginal childbirth.
NCI

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