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mikrofotografie

Photography of objects viewed under a microscope using ordinary photographic methods.
MSH

photography of objects viewed under a microscope.
CSP

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Complication

In medicine, a medical problem that occurs during a disease, or after a procedure or treatment. The complication may be caused by the disease, procedure, or treatment or may be unrelated to them.
NCI

Any disease or disorder that occurs during the course of (or because of) another disease.
NCI

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leukémie chronická lymfocytární B-buněčná

chronic leukemia characterized by morphologically mature but immunologically less mature lymphocytes; manifested by an abnormal accumulation of these cells in blood, bone marrow, and lymphatic tissue.
CSP

An indolent (slow-growing) cancer in which too many immature lymphocytes (white blood cells) are found mostly in the blood and bone marrow. Sometimes, in later stages of the disease, cancer cells are found in the lymph nodes and the disease is called small lymphocytic lymphoma.
NCI

A chronic leukemia characterized by abnormal B-lymphocytes and often generalized lymphadenopathy. In patients presenting predominately with blood and bone marrow involvement it is called chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL); in those predominately with enlarged lymph nodes it is called small lymphocytic lymphoma. These terms represent spectrums of the same disease.
MSH

Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. White blood cells help your body fight infection. Your blood cells form in your bone marrow. In leukemia, however, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells. These cells crowd out the healthy blood cells, making it hard for blood to do its work. In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), there are too many of a specific type of white blood cell called a lymphocyte.

CLL is the second most common form of leukemia in adults. It often occurs during or after middle age and rarely occurs in children.

Usually CLL does not cause any symptoms at all. If you have symptoms, they may include:

  • Painless swelling of the lymph nodes in the neck, underarm, stomach or groin
  • Feeling very tired
  • Pain or a feeling of fullness below the ribs
  • Fever and infection
  • Weight loss

Tests that examine the blood, bone marrow, and lymph nodes diagnose CLL. Your doctor may choose to just monitor you until you have symptoms. Treatments include radiation therapy, chemotherapy, surgery to remove the spleen, and targeted immune therapy.

NIH: National Cancer Institute


MEDLINEPLUS

The most common type of chronic lymphoid leukemia. It comprises 90% of chronic lymphoid leukemias in the United States. Morphologically, the neoplastic cells are small, round B-lymphocytes. This type of leukemia is not considered to be curable with available therapy. (WHO, 2001)
NCI

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sulfamethizol

A sulfathiazole antibacterial agent.
MSH

A broad-spectrum sulfanilamide and a synthetic analog of para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) with antibacterial property. Sulfamethizole competes with PABA for the bacterial enzyme dihydropteroate synthase, thereby preventing the incorporation of PABA into dihydrofolic acid, the immediate precursor of folic acid. This leads to an inhibition of bacterial folic acid synthesis and de novo synthesis of purines and pyrimidines, ultimately resulting in cell growth arrest and cell death.
NCI

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flavoproteiny

protein containing a flavin ribonucleotide as a prosthetic group; most are enzymes; many are found in complexes containing metal ions and an iron-sulfur complex or a heme; they catalyze a wide variety of oxidation-reduction reactions.
CSP

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role lékaře

The expected function of a member of the medical profession.
MSH

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konduktometrie

Determination of the quantity of a material present in a mixture by measurement of its effect on the electrical conductivity of the mixture. (Webster, 3d ed)
MSH

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leukocyty – počet

The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
MSH

number of white blood cells per unit volume in venous blood.
CSP

A test to determine the number of leukocytes in a sample of blood.
NCI

A measurement of the leukocytes in a biological specimen.
NCI

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sulfotransferasy

Enzymes which transfer sulfate groups to various acceptor molecules. They are involved in posttranslational sulfation of proteins and sulfate conjugation of exogenous chemicals and bile acids. EC 2.8.2.
MSH

Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a sulfate group from 3`-phosphoadenylyl sulfate (active sulfate) to the hydroxyl group of an acceptor, which produces the sulfated derivative and 3`-phosphoadenosine 5`-phosphate. The enzymes are also involved in both the posttranslational sulfation of proteins and sulfate conjugation of exogenous chemicals and bile acids.
NCI

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fluokortolon

A glucocorticoid with anti-inflammatory activity used topically for various skin disorders.
MSH

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pikrotoxin

A noncompetitive antagonist at GABA-A receptors and thus a convulsant. Picrotoxin blocks the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-activated chloride ionophore. Although it is most often used as a research tool, it has been used as a CNS stimulant and an antidote in poisoning by CNS depressants, especially the barbiturates.
MSH

nonalkaloid extract from the seeds of Anamirta cocculus used as a CNS and respiratory stimulant to counteract toxicity of CNS depressants such as barbiturates; GABA-A receptor antagonist used to probe GABA function in the CNS.
CSP

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konzervovaná sekvence

A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
MSH

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Leydigovy buňky

Steroid-producing cells in the interstitial tissue of the TESTIS. They are under the regulation of PITUITARY HORMONES; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; or interstitial cell-stimulating hormone. TESTOSTERONE is the major androgen (ANDROGENS) produced.
MSH

epithelioid cells constituting the endocrine tissue of the testis, which elaborate androgens, chiefly testosterone.
CSP

Cells in the interstitial tissue of the testis that are believed to furnish the internal secretion of that gland. (MeSH)
NCI

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supinační poloha

The posture of an individual lying face up.
MSH

A posterior recumbent body position whereby the person lies on its back and faces upward.
NCI

A posterior recumbent body position whereby the person lies on its back and faces upward. (NCI)
NCI

Deprecation Comment:This concept has been deprecated because it does not describe a type of Act (as it should in the ActClass code system), but rather encodes the result or value of an observation. The same code has been added to the ObservationValue code system.


HL7V3.0

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flurazepam

A benzodiazepine derivative used mainly as a hypnotic.
MSH

benzodiazepine derivative used mainly as a sedative and hypnotic in the treatment of insomnia.
CSP

A member of the benzodiazepines and a long-acting depressor of the central nervous system (CNS) with sedative and hypnotic effects. Flurazepam binds to a specific site on the benzodiazepine-gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-A-chloride ionophore receptor complex located on the neuronal membrane. Binding causes an allosteric modification of the receptor thereby enhancing the affinity of GABA to the receptor leading to an increase in the frequency of chloride-channel opening events, which leads to an increase in chloride ion conductance, neuronal hyperpolarization, inhibition of the action potential, and a decrease in neuronal excitability. By modulating binding of the GABA inhibitory neurotransmitter to GABA-A receptors in the ascending reticular activating system, flurazepam blocks arousal of the cortical and limbic system, thereby exerting its sedative and hypnotic effect.
NCI

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pirinitramid

A diphenylpropylamine with intense narcotic analgesic activity of long duration. It is a derivative of MEPERIDINE with similar activity and usage.
MSH

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antikoncepční látky orální hormonální

Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.
MSH

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stadia vývoje bezobratlých

the series of stages in form and functional activity through which an organism passes between successive recurrences of a specified primary stage; a series of stages through which an individual passes during its lifetime.
CSP

The continuous sequence of changes undergone by metamorphosing insects and other animals during the post-embryonic development process.
MSH

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stomatochirurgie

A dental specialty concerned with the diagnosis and surgical treatment of disease, injuries, and defects of the human oral and maxillofacial region.
MSH

Surgical procedures for treating diseases and disorders of the oral cavity.
NCI

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potravinová alergie

gastrointestinal disturbances, skin eruptions, or shock due to allergic reactions to allergens in food.
CSP

An allergy to a substance generally consumed for nutritional purposes.


HL7V3.0

Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by your body`s immune system. Allergic reactions to food can sometimes cause serious illness and death. Tree nuts and peanuts are the leading causes of deadly allergic reactions called anaphylaxis.

In adults, the foods that most often trigger allergic reactions include

  • Fish and shellfish, such as shrimp, lobster and crab
  • Peanuts
  • Tree nuts, such as walnuts
  • Eggs

Problem foods for children are eggs, milk (especially in infants and young children) and peanuts.

Sometimes a reaction to food is not an allergy. It is often a reaction called "food intolerance". Your immune system does not cause the symptoms of food intolerance. However, these symptoms can look and feel like those of a food allergy.

NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases


MEDLINEPLUS

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placentární extrakty

Extracts prepared from placental tissue; they may contain specific but uncharacterized factors or proteins with specific activities.
MSH

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koproporfyriny

Porphyrins with four methyl and four propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings. Elevated levels of Coproporphyrin III in the urine and feces are major findings in patients with HEREDITARY COPROPORPHYRIA.
MSH

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lněný olej

The fixed oil obtained from the dried ripe seed of linseed, Linum usitatissimum (L. Linaceae). It is used as an emollient in liniments, pastes, and medicinal soaps, and in veterinary medicine as a laxative. It is also called flaxseed oil. (Dorland, 28th ed)
MSH

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pot

The fluid excreted by the SWEAT GLANDS. It consists of water containing sodium chloride, phosphate, urea, ammonia, and other waste products.
MSH

Secretion produced by a sweat gland.
UWDA

fluid excreted by the sweat glands; consists of water containing sodium chloride, phosphate, urea, ammonia, and other waste products.
CSP

Sweat is a clear, salty liquid produced by glands in your skin. Sweating is how your body cools itself. You sweat mainly under your arms and on your feet and palms. When sweat mixes with bacteria on your skin, it can cause a smell. Bathing regularly and using antiperspirants or deodorants can help control the odor.

Sweating a lot is normal when it is hot or when you exercise, are anxious or have a fever. It also happens during menopause. However, if you often sweat too much, which is called hyperhidrosis, it might be due to a thyroid or nervous system disorder, low blood sugar or another health problem.

Sweating too little, anhidrosis, can be life-threatening because your body can overheat. Causes of anhidrosis include dehydration, burns, and some skin and nerve disorders.


MEDLINEPLUS

The liquid secreted by the sweat glands. (NCI)
NCI

Secretion produced by a sweat gland.
FMA

The liquid secreted by the sweat glands, having a salty taste and a pH that varies from 4.5 to 7.5. Sweat produced by the eccrine sweat glands is clear with a faint characteristic odor, and contains water, sodium chloride, and traces of albumin, urea, and other compounds. Its composition varies with many factors, e.g., fluid intake, external temperature and humidity, and some hormonal activity. Sweat produced by the larger, deeper, apocrine sweat glands of the axillae contains, in addition, organic material which on bacterial decomposition produces an offensive odor.
NCI

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Forceps

A manual surgical instrument for general use is a nonpowered, hand-held, or hand-manipulated device, either reusable or disposable, intended to be used in various general surgical procedures. The device includes the applicator, clip applier, biopsy brush, manual dermabrasion brush, scrub brush, cannula, ligature carrier, chisel, clamp, contractor, curette, cutter, dissector, elevator, skin graft expander, file, forceps, gouge, instrument guide, needle guide, hammer, hemostat, amputation hook, ligature passing and knot-tying instrument, knife, blood lancet, mallet, disposable or reusable aspiration and injection needle, disposable or reusable suturing needle, osteotome, pliers, rasp, retainer, retractor, saw, scalpel blade, scalpel handle, one-piece scalpel, snare, spatula, stapler, disposable or reusable stripper, stylet, suturing apparatus for the stomach and intestine, measuring tape, and calipers. A surgical instrument that has specialized uses in a specific medical specialty is classified in separate regulations in Parts 868 through 892.
SPN

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plazmatická transglutaminasa

Despite the non-specific name it generally refers to Factor XIIIa. A few citations use the term nonspecif to state of activation.
MSH

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corpora allata

Paired or fused ganglion-like bodies in the head of insects. The bodies secrete hormones important in the regulation of metamorphosis and the development of some adult tissues.
MSH

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lipoproteiny

Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
MSH

An important class of serum proteins in which a spherical hydrophobic core of triglycerides or cholesterol esters surrounded by an amphipathic monolayer of phospholipids, cholesterol and apolipoproteins. Classified according to density: chylomicrons, large low density particles, very low density, low density and high density species. Important in lipid transport, especially cholesterol transport in the blood stream. Abnormalities in lipoprotein metabolism have been implicated in certain heart diseases. (On-line Medical Dictionary)
NCI

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anémie sideroblastická

Anemia characterized by the presence of erythroblasts containing excessive deposits of iron in the marrow.
MSH

acquired or hereditary anemia marked by sideroblasts: bone marrow cells with large mitochondrial deposits of insoluble iron due to defective heme synthesis, leading to ineffective erythropoiesis.
CSP

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syndaktylie

A congenital anomaly of the hand or foot, marked by the webbing between adjacent fingers or toes. Syndactylies are classified as complete or incomplete by the degree of joining. Syndactylies can also be simple or complex. Simple syndactyly indicates joining of only skin or soft tissue; complex syndactyly marks joining of bony elements.
MSH

A congenital condition characterized by webbing between the fingers and/or toes, joining the digits together. In rare cases, the joining of the fingers or toes may involve bony fusion between the digits. Common causes include Down Syndrome and hereditary syndactyly.
NCI

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