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atrioventrikulární nodální reentry tachykardie

Abnormally rapid heartbeats caused by reentry of atrial impulse into the dual (fast and slow) pathways of ATRIOVENTRICULAR NODE. The common type involves a blocked atrial impulse in the slow pathway which reenters the fast pathway in a retrograde direction and simultaneously conducts to the atria and the ventricles leading to rapid HEART RATE of 150-250 beats per minute.
MSH

A supraventricular tachycardia due to reentry along a circuit contained within the AV node. AVNRT is the most common form of supraventricular tachycardia and usually presents as a narrow QRS complex tachycardia at a rate between 150 and 250 beats per minute. (NCI)
NCI

A supraventricular tachycardia due to reentry along a circuit contained within the AV node. AVNRT is the most common form of supraventricular tachycardia and usually presents as a narrow QRS complex tachycardia at a rate between 150 and 250 beats per minute.
NCI

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larynx umělý

A device, activated electronically or by expired pulmonary air, which simulates laryngeal activity and enables a laryngectomized person to speak. Examples of the pneumatic mechanical device are the Tokyo and Van Hunen artificial larynges. Electronic devices include the Western Electric electrolarynx, Tait oral vibrator, Cooper-Rand electrolarynx and the Ticchioni pipe.
MSH

A laryngeal prosthesis (Taub design) is a device intended to direct pulmonary air flow to the pharynx in the absence of the larynx, thereby permitting esophageal speech. The device is interposed between openings in the trachea and the esophagus and may be removed and replaced each day by the patient. During phonation, air from the lungs is directed to flow through the device and over the esophageal mucosa to provide a sound source that is articulated as speech.
SPN

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Basidiomycota

phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium; includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird`s-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.
CSP

A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird`s-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.
MSH

A phylum of filamentous fungi that reproduce sexually via the formation of specialized club-shaped end cells called basidia that normally bear external spores.
NCI

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Pneumocystis carinii

opportunistic pathogen which can cause a fatal pneumonitis in an immunocompromised host; occurs in 75% of AIDS patients.
CSP

The prototype species of PNEUMOCYSTIS infecting the laboratory rat, Rattus norvegicus (RATS). It was formerly called Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. carinii. Other species of Pneumocystis can also infect rats.
MSH

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železnaté sloučeniny

Inorganic or organic compounds that contain divalent iron.
MSH

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Digitalis

A genus of toxic herbaceous Eurasian plants of the SCROPHULARIACEAE which yield cardiotonic DIGITALIS GLYCOSIDES. The most useful species are Digitalis lanata and D. purpurea.
MSH

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tarzální tunelový syndrom

Entrapment of the distal branches of the posterior TIBIAL NERVE (which divides into the medial plantar, lateral plantar, and calcanial nerves) in the tarsal tunnel, which lies posterior to the internal malleolus and beneath the retinaculum of the flexor muscles of the foot. Symptoms include ankle pain radiating into the foot which tends to be aggravated by walking. Examination may reveal Tinel`s sign (radiating pain following nerve percussion) over the tibial nerve at the ankle, weakness and atrophy of the small foot muscles, or loss of sensation in the foot. (From Foot Ankle 1990;11(1):47-52)
MSH

A syndrome resulting from the entrapment and compression of the tibial nerve. Signs and symptoms include burning sensation, tingling, and pain in the foot sole.
NCI

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poruchy učení

Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual`s perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, dyscalculia, and dysgraphia.
MSH

conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual`s perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills; may result from organic or psychological conditions.
CSP

Learning disorders affect how a person understands, remembers and responds to new information. People with learning disorders may have problems

  • Listening or paying attention
  • Speaking
  • Reading or writing
  • Doing math

Although learning disorders occur in very young children, they are usually not recognized until the child reaches school age. About one-third of children who have learning disabilities also have ADHD, which makes it hard to focus.

Evaluation and testing by a trained professional can help identify a learning disorder. The next step is special education, which involves helping your child in the areas where he or she needs the most help. Sometimes tutors or speech or language therapists also work with the children. Learning disorders do not go away, but strategies to work around them can make them less of a problem.

NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke


MEDLINEPLUS

A group of disorders that affect a person`s ability to learn or process specific types of information which is in contrast to his/her apparent level of intellect.
NCI

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chování a mechanismy chování

The observable response made to a situation and the unconscious processes underlying it.
MSH

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jedy

Substances which, when ingested, inhaled, or absorbed, or when applied to, injected into, or developed within the body in relatively small amounts may, by their chemical action, cause damage to structure or disturbance of function. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
MSH

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fetišismus (psychiatrický)

A condition in which inanimate objects are utilized as a preferred or exclusive method of stimulating erotic arousal.
MSH

A disorder characterized by recurrent sexual urges, fantasies, or behaviors involving the use of nonliving objects such as women`s wearing apparel (the “fetish”).
NCI

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dijodthyroniny

These metabolites of THYROXINE are formed by the deiodination of T3 or reverse T3.
MSH

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technologie zubolékařská

The field of dentistry involved in procedures for designing and constructing dental appliances. It includes also the application of any technology to the field of dentistry.
MSH

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zákonodárství veterinární

Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of veterinary medicine, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.
MSH

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bentonit

A colloidal, hydrated aluminum silicate that swells 12 times its dry size when added to water.
MSH

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polykarboxylátový cement

Water-soluble low-molecular-weight polymers of acrylic or methacrylic acid that form solid, insoluble products when mixed with specially prepared ZnO powder. The resulting cement adheres to dental enamel and is also used as a luting agent.
MSH

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fibróza

Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.
MSH

development of excess fibrous connective tissue in an organ.
CSP

The growth of fibrous tissue.
NCI

The formation of fibrous tissue; fibroid or fibrous degeneration.
NCI

formation of excess fibrous connective tissue
CHV

The formation of fibrous tissue; fibroid or fibrous degeneration.
NCI

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Dinitrophenyl Compounds

Nitroaromatic compounds containing two nitrogen groups on a phenyl ring used as pharmaceuticals, pesticides, explosives, and comprise a group of environmental pollutants.
NCI

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temporomandibulární kloub – nemoci

A variety of conditions affecting the anatomic and functional characteristics of the temporomandibular joint. Factors contributing to the complexity of temporomandibular diseases are its relation to dentition and mastication and the symptomatic effects in other areas which account for referred pain to the joint and the difficulties in applying traditional diagnostic procedures to temporomandibular joint pathology where tissue is rarely obtained and x-rays are often inadequate or nonspecific. Common diseases are developmental abnormalities, trauma, subluxation, luxation, arthritis, and neoplasia. (From Thoma`s Oral Pathology, 6th ed, pp577-600)
MSH

Any condition affecting the anatomic and functional characteristics of the temporomandibular joint.
NCI

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levhart

The species Panthera pardus, not to be confused with leopards in other genera.
MSH

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benzoylarginin-2-naftylamid

An enzyme substrate which permits the measurement of peptide hydrolase activity, e.g. trypsin and thrombin. The enzymes liberate 2-naphthylamine, which is measured by colorimetric procedures.
MSH

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polymery

Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
MSH

compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds; these compounds often form large macromolecules; for example, plastics, polypeptides, polysaccharides, and nucleic acids.
CSP

A molecule made up of a linked series of repeated monomers.
NCI

A molecule made up of small identical molecules called monomers. The monomers are joined together in a repeating pattern.
NCI

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hasicí systémy

Automatic or hand operated equipment used to control and extinguish fires.
MSH

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Diptera

have one pair of membraneous wings, 3 segmented antennae, compound eye, sucking mouth parts, and 5 segmented tarsi; metamorphosis is complete; many larvae are parasitic; some species of adults are disease vectors.
CSP

An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).
MSH

A large order of insects having a single pair of wings and sucking or piercing mouths; includes true flies and mosquitoes and gnats and crane flies.
NCI

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syndrom rezistence na androgeny

A disorder of sexual development transmitted as an X-linked recessive trait. These patients have a karyotype of 46,XY with end-organ resistance to androgen due to mutations in the androgen receptor (RECEPTORS, ANDROGEN) gene. Severity of the defect in receptor quantity or quality correlates with their phenotypes. In these genetic males, the phenotypic spectrum ranges from those with normal female external genitalia, through those with genital ambiguity as in Reifenstein Syndrome, to that of a normal male with INFERTILITY.
MSH

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leukémie chronická lymfocytární B-buněčná

chronic leukemia characterized by morphologically mature but immunologically less mature lymphocytes; manifested by an abnormal accumulation of these cells in blood, bone marrow, and lymphatic tissue.
CSP

An indolent (slow-growing) cancer in which too many immature lymphocytes (white blood cells) are found mostly in the blood and bone marrow. Sometimes, in later stages of the disease, cancer cells are found in the lymph nodes and the disease is called small lymphocytic lymphoma.
NCI

A chronic leukemia characterized by abnormal B-lymphocytes and often generalized lymphadenopathy. In patients presenting predominately with blood and bone marrow involvement it is called chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL); in those predominately with enlarged lymph nodes it is called small lymphocytic lymphoma. These terms represent spectrums of the same disease.
MSH

Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. White blood cells help your body fight infection. Your blood cells form in your bone marrow. In leukemia, however, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells. These cells crowd out the healthy blood cells, making it hard for blood to do its work. In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), there are too many of a specific type of white blood cell called a lymphocyte.

CLL is the second most common form of leukemia in adults. It often occurs during or after middle age and rarely occurs in children.

Usually CLL does not cause any symptoms at all. If you have symptoms, they may include:

  • Painless swelling of the lymph nodes in the neck, underarm, stomach or groin
  • Feeling very tired
  • Pain or a feeling of fullness below the ribs
  • Fever and infection
  • Weight loss

Tests that examine the blood, bone marrow, and lymph nodes diagnose CLL. Your doctor may choose to just monitor you until you have symptoms. Treatments include radiation therapy, chemotherapy, surgery to remove the spleen, and targeted immune therapy.

NIH: National Cancer Institute


MEDLINEPLUS

The most common type of chronic lymphoid leukemia. It comprises 90% of chronic lymphoid leukemias in the United States. Morphologically, the neoplastic cells are small, round B-lymphocytes. This type of leukemia is not considered to be curable with available therapy. (WHO, 2001)
NCI

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beta-endorfin

A 31-amino acid peptide that is the C-terminal fragment of BETA-LIPOTROPIN. It acts on OPIOID RECEPTORS and is an analgesic. Its first four amino acids at the N-terminal are identical to the tetrapeptide sequence of METHIONINE ENKEPHALIN and LEUCINE ENKEPHALIN.
MSH

A substance produced in the brain, especially in the pituitary gland, that blocks the sensation of pain. It is produced in response to pain, exercise, and other forms of stress. It is a type of polypeptide hormone.
NCI

An endogenous opioid-like substance found in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland that produces a sense of well-being, euphoria, and can reduce physical and emotional pain.
NCI

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polythiazid

A thiazide diuretic with actions and uses similar to those of HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p826)
MSH

A sulfonamide derivative and a synthetic thiazide with diuretic, antihypertensive and anti-urolithic properties. By blocking the Na/Cl transporter, polythiazide inhibits reabsorption of sodium and chloride in the proximal and distal convoluted tubule of the kidney, resulting in increased excretion of water and electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chloride, magnesium, and bicarbonate) and subsequent reversal of hypertension. In addition, this agent exerts its anti-urolithic effect by decreasing calcium and uric acid excretion.
NCI

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flavoproteiny

protein containing a flavin ribonucleotide as a prosthetic group; most are enzymes; many are found in complexes containing metal ions and an iron-sulfur complex or a heme; they catalyze a wide variety of oxidation-reduction reactions.
CSP

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kromoglykát dvojsodný

A chromone complex that acts by inhibiting the release of chemical mediators from sensitized mast cells. It is used in the prophylactic treatment of both allergic and exercise-induced asthma, but does not affect an established asthmatic attack.
MSH

The sodium salt form of cromolyn, a mast cell stabilizer with anti-inflammatory activity. Cromolyn sodium probably interferes with the antigen-stimulated calcium transport across the mast cell membrane, thereby inhibiting mast cell release of histamine, leukotrienes, and other substances that cause hypersensitivity reactions. Cromolyn sodium also inhibits eosinophil chemotaxis.
NCI

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