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pankreas – funkční testy

Tests based on the biochemistry and physiology of the exocrine pancreas and involving analysis of blood, duodenal contents, feces, or urine for products of pancreatic secretion.
MSH

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rozvojové země

Countries in the process of change directed toward economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
MSH

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svalové dystrofie

A heterogeneous group of inherited MYOPATHIES, characterized by wasting and weakness of the SKELETAL MUSCLE. They are categorized by the sites of MUSCLE WEAKNESS; AGE OF ONSET; and INHERITANCE PATTERNS.
MSH

general term for a group of inherited disorders which are characterized by progressive degeneration of skeletal muscles.
CSP

Muscular dystrophy (MD) refers to a group of more than 30 inherited diseases that cause muscle weakness and muscle loss. Some forms of MD appear in infancy or childhood, while others may not appear until middle age or later. The different muscular dystrophies vary in who they affect and the symptoms. All forms of MD grow worse as the person`s muscles get weaker. Most people with MD eventually lose the ability to walk.

There is no cure for muscular dystrophy. Treatments include physical and speech therapy, orthopedic devices, surgery and medications. Some people with muscular dystrophy have mild cases that worsen slowly. Other cases are disabling and severe.

NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke


MEDLINEPLUS

A group of inherited progressive muscle disorders characterized by muscle weakness and eventual death of the muscle tissues. Examples include Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Becker`s muscular dystrophy, Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy, facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy, and limb-girdle muscular dystrophy.
NCI

an inherited disease where skeletal muscles are progressively weakened and wasted.
CHV

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sinoatriální blokáda

Disturbance in the atrial activation that is caused by transient failure of impulse conduction from the SINOATRIAL NODE to the HEART ATRIA. It is characterized by a delayed in heartbeat and pauses between P waves in an ELECTROCARDIOGRAM.
MSH

A blockage of electrical conduction within the sinoatrial node resulting in the prolongation or failure (intermittent or complete) of impulse transmission from the sinoatrial node to the surrounding atrial tissue.
NCI

A blockage of electrical conduction within the sinoatrial node resulting in the failure of impulse transmission from the sinoatrial node. (NCI)
NCI

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učení vyhýbat se

A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.
MSH

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vysokofrekvenční proudová ventilace

Respiratory support system used primarily with rates of about 100 to 200/min with volumes of from about one to three times predicted anatomic dead space. Used to treat respiratory failure and maintain ventilation under severe circumstances.
MSH

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Papillonova-Lefevreova nemoc

Rare, autosomal recessive disorder occurring between the first and fifth years of life. It is characterized by palmoplantar keratoderma with periodontitis followed by the premature shedding of both deciduous and permanent teeth. Mutations in the gene for CATHEPSIN C have been associated with this disease.
MSH

A rare autosomal recessive inherited disorder caused by mutations in the cathepsin C gene. It is manifested with periodontitis resulting in the premature loss of teeth and palmoplantar keratoderma.
NCI

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diagnóza

The determination of the nature of a disease or condition, or the distinguishing of one disease or condition from another. Assessment may be made through physical examination, laboratory tests, or the likes. Computerized programs may be used to enhance the decision-making process.
MSH

general term for detecting and classifying diseases.
CSP

The process of identifying a disease, such as cancer, from its signs and symptoms.
NCI

Set of codes depicting clinical disease and conditions


HL7V3.0

The investigation, analysis and recognition of the presence and nature of disease, condition, or injury from expressed signs and symptoms; also, the scientific determination of any kind; the concise results of such an investigation.
NCI

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Mycobacterium phlei

A saprophytic bacterium widely distributed in soil and dust and on plants.
MSH

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kůže – fyziologické jevy

The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.
MSH

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Azotobacter

genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria found in soil and water; its organisms occur singly, in pairs or irregular clumps, and sometimes in chains of varying lengths.
CSP

A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria found in soil and water. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs or irregular clumps, and sometimes in chains of varying lengths.
MSH

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histidinolfosfatasa

An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of histidinol-phosphate to histidinol. One of the regulatory enzymes in histidine biosynthesis. EC 3.1.3.15.
MSH

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střední zdravotnický personál

An individual trained and certified to provide all basic and intermediate life support measures in addition to using invasive medical procedures (including intravenous therapy, cardiac defibrillation, administering medications and solutions, and using ventilation devices) as dictated by state law and performed under medical control in case of medical emergencies, hazardous materials exposure, child birth, abuse, fires, flood, accidents, trauma, and psychiatric crises.
NCI

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bránice – eventrace

A congenital abnormality characterized by the elevation of the DIAPHRAGM dome. It is the result of a thinned diaphragmatic muscle and injured PHRENIC NERVE, allowing the intra-abdominal viscera to push the diaphragm upward against the LUNG.
MSH

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myiáza

The invasion of living tissues of man and other mammals by dipterous larvae.
MSH

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kouření

Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of tobacco or something similar to tobacco.
MSH

to inhale and exhale the smoke produced by the combustion of a substance.
CSP

There`s no way around it. Smoking is bad for your health. Smoking harms nearly every organ of the body. Cigarette smoking causes 87 percent of lung cancer deaths. It is also responsible for many other cancers and health problems. These include lung disease, heart and blood vessel disease, stroke and cataracts. Women who smoke have a greater chance of certain pregnancy problems or having a baby die from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Your smoke is also bad for other people – they breathe in your smoke secondhand and can get many of the same problems as smokers do.

Quitting smoking can reduce your risk of these problems. The earlier you quit, the greater the health benefit.

NIH: National Cancer Institute


MEDLINEPLUS

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baktérie – počet

The quantitative determination of bacterial populations. The two most widely used methods for determining bacterial numbers are: 1) the standard, or viable, plate count method and 2) spectrophotometric (turbidimetric) analysis.
NCI

A measurement of the bacteria in a biological specimen.
NCI

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histrionství

A personality disorder characterized by overly reactive and intensely expressed or overly dramatic behavior, proneness to exaggeration, emotional excitability, and disturbances in interpersonal relationships.
MSH

A disorder characterized by an enduring pattern of excessively intense and superficial emotionality, attention seeking behavior, seductive appearance and speech, self dramatization and/or theatrical behavior.
NCI

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paratyreoidea – nemoci

Pathological processes of the PARATHYROID GLANDS. They usually manifest as hypersecretion or hyposecretion of PARATHYROID HORMONE that regulates the balance of CALCIUM; PHOSPHORUS; and MAGNESIUM in the body.
MSH

deviation from or interruption of the normal structure or function of the parathyroid gland.
CSP

Most people have four pea-sized glands, called parathyroid glands, on the thyroid gland in the neck. Though their names are similar, the thyroid and parathyroid glands are completely different. The parathyroid glands make parathyroid hormone (PTH), which helps your body keep the right balance of calcium and phosphorous.

If your parathyroid glands make too much or too little hormone, it disrupts this balance. If they secrete extra PTH, you have hyperparathyroidism, and your blood calcium rises. In many cases, a benign tumor on a parathyroid gland makes it overactive. Or, the extra hormones can come from enlarged parathyroid glands. Very rarely, the cause is cancer.

If you do not have enough PTH, you have hypoparathyroidism. Your blood will have too little calcium and too much phosphorous. Causes include injury to the glands, endocrine disorders or genetic conditions. Treatment is aimed at restoring the balance of calcium and phosphorous.

NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases


MEDLINEPLUS

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dichlorfenamid

A carbonic anhydrase inhibitor that is used in the treatment of glaucoma.
MSH

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myotonická dystrofie

An autosomal dominant neuromuscular disorder which usually presents in early adulthood, characterized by progressive muscular atrophy (most frequently involving the hands, forearms, and face), myotonia, frontal baldness, lenticular opacities, and testicular atrophy. Cardiac conduction abnormalities, diaphragmatic weakness, and mild INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY may also occur. Congenital myotonic dystrophy is a severe form of this disorder, characterized by neonatal MUSCLE HYPOTONIA, feeding difficulties, respiratory muscle weakness, and an increased incidence of INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1423-5; Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch16, pp16-7)
MSH

autosomal dominant neuromuscular disorder which usually presents in early adulthood, characterized by progressive muscular atrophy (most frequently involving the hands, forearms, and face), myotonia, frontal baldness, lenticular opacities, and testicular atrophy; cardiac conduction abnormalities, diaphragmatic weakness, and mild mental retardation may also occur; congenital myotonic dystrophy is a severe form of this disorder.
CSP

An inherited progressive disorder affecting the muscles. It is characterized by muscle wasting and hypotonia, cataracts, heart conduction defects and endocrinopathies.
NCI

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sociální pohyb

The movement or shifting of membership between or within social classes by individuals or by groups.
MSH

movement or shifting of membership between or within social classes by individuals or by groups.
CSP

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pobaltské republiky

The collective name for the republics of ESTONIA; LATVIA; and LITHUANIA on the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea. (Webster`s New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p111)
MSH

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HLA-DR3 antigen

An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*03 alleles.
MSH

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Paroxysmální komorová tachykardie

An episodic form of ventricular tachycardia, with abrupt onset and termination.
NCI

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dieta kariogenní

A diet that contributes to the development and advancement of DENTAL CARIES.
MSH

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nadolol

A non-selective beta-adrenergic antagonist with a long half-life, used in cardiovascular disease to treat arrhythmias, angina pectoris, and hypertension. Nadolol is also used for MIGRAINE DISORDERS and for tremor.
MSH

A non-selective beta-adrenergic antagonist with antihypertensive and antiarrhythmic activities. Nadolol competitively blocks beta-1 adrenergic receptors located in the heart and vascular smooth muscle, inhibiting the activities of the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine and producing negative inotropic and chronotropic effects. This agent exhibits antiarrhythmic activity via the impairment of atrioventricular (AV) node conduction and a corresponding reduction in sinus rate. In the kidney, inhibition of the beta-2 receptor within the juxtaglomerular apparatus results in the inhibition of renin production and a subsequent reduction in angiotensin II and aldosterone levels, thus inhibiting angiotensin II-dependent vasoconstriction and aldosterone-dependent water retention.
NCI

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sodíkové kanály

Cell membrane glycoproteins selective for sodium ions. Fast sodium current is associated with the action potential in neural membranes.
MSH

cell membrane glycoproteins selective for sodium ions; fast sodium current is associated with the action potential in neural membranes.
CSP

An ion channel with selective permeability for sodium.
NCI

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Basidiomycota

phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium; includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird`s-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.
CSP

A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird`s-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.
MSH

A phylum of filamentous fungi that reproduce sexually via the formation of specialized club-shaped end cells called basidia that normally bear external spores.
NCI

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Hominidae

Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).
MSH

A taxonomic family that was originally restricted to humans and their extinct relatives, but now also includes the gorilla, orangutan, chimpanzee and bonobo.
NCI

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