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kotinin

The N-glucuronide conjugate of cotinine is a major urinary metabolite of NICOTINE. It thus serves as a biomarker of exposure to tobacco SMOKING. It has CNS stimulating properties.
MSH

The major metabolite of nicotine.
NCI

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Porucha pohlavního vzrušení u ženy

A disorder characterized by a recurrent or persistent inability to attain or maintain until completion of sexual activity an adequate physical response of sexual excitement, consisting of vasocongestion in the pelvis, vaginal lubrication and expansion, and swelling of the external genitalia.
NCI

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Tetrahymena

genus in the order Hymenostomatida; ciliate protozoa commonly used in genetic, cytological and other research.
CSP

A genus of ciliate protozoa commonly used in genetic, cytological, and other research.
MSH

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angiografie

radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.
CSP

A procedure to x-ray blood vessels. The blood vessels can be seen because of an injection of a dye that shows up in the x-ray.
NCI

An x-ray of blood vessels. The person receives an injection of dye to outline the vessels on the x-ray.
NCI

The X-ray examination of the blood vessels or chambers of the heart.
NCI

An X-ray representation of blood vessels made after the injection of a radiopaque substance.
NCI

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portokavální zkrat chirurgický

Surgical portasystemic shunt between the portal vein and inferior vena cava.
MSH

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larynx umělý

A device, activated electronically or by expired pulmonary air, which simulates laryngeal activity and enables a laryngectomized person to speak. Examples of the pneumatic mechanical device are the Tokyo and Van Hunen artificial larynges. Electronic devices include the Western Electric electrolarynx, Tait oral vibrator, Cooper-Rand electrolarynx and the Ticchioni pipe.
MSH

A laryngeal prosthesis (Taub design) is a device intended to direct pulmonary air flow to the pharynx in the absence of the larynx, thereby permitting esophageal speech. The device is interposed between openings in the trachea and the esophagus and may be removed and replaced each day by the patient. During phonation, air from the lungs is directed to flow through the device and over the esophageal mucosa to provide a sound source that is articulated as speech.
SPN

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kraniologie

The scientific study of variations in size, shape, and proportion of the cranium.
MSH

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železnaté sloučeniny

Inorganic or organic compounds that contain divalent iron.
MSH

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thenoyltrifluoraceton

Chelating agent and inhibitor of cellular respiration.
MSH

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práva zvířat

The moral and ethical bases of the protection of animals from cruelty and abuse. The rights are extended to domestic animals, laboratory animals, and wild animals.
MSH

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jodid draselný

An inorganic compound that is used as a source of iodine in thyrotoxic crisis and in the preparation of thyrotoxic patients for thyroidectomy. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
MSH

A metal halide composed of potassium and iodide with thyroid protecting and expectorant properties. Potassium iodide can block absorption of radioactive iodine by the thyroid gland through flooding the thyroid with non-radioactive iodine and preventing intake of radioactive molecules, thereby protecting the thyroid from cancer causing radiation. In addition, this agent acts as an expectorant by increasing secretion of respiratory fluids resulting in decreased mucus viscosity.
NCI

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poruchy učení

Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual`s perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, dyscalculia, and dysgraphia.
MSH

conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual`s perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills; may result from organic or psychological conditions.
CSP

Learning disorders affect how a person understands, remembers and responds to new information. People with learning disorders may have problems

  • Listening or paying attention
  • Speaking
  • Reading or writing
  • Doing math

Although learning disorders occur in very young children, they are usually not recognized until the child reaches school age. About one-third of children who have learning disabilities also have ADHD, which makes it hard to focus.

Evaluation and testing by a trained professional can help identify a learning disorder. The next step is special education, which involves helping your child in the areas where he or she needs the most help. Sometimes tutors or speech or language therapists also work with the children. Learning disorders do not go away, but strategies to work around them can make them less of a problem.

NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke


MEDLINEPLUS

A group of disorders that affect a person`s ability to learn or process specific types of information which is in contrast to his/her apparent level of intellect.
NCI

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kritický stav

A disease or state in which death is possible or imminent.
MSH

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fetišismus (psychiatrický)

A condition in which inanimate objects are utilized as a preferred or exclusive method of stimulating erotic arousal.
MSH

A disorder characterized by recurrent sexual urges, fantasies, or behaviors involving the use of nonliving objects such as women`s wearing apparel (the “fetish”).
NCI

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thiamintrifosfatasa

An enzyme present in nerve tissue. It catalyzes reversibly the formation of thiamine diphosphate and orthophosphate from thiamine triphosphate. EC 3.6.1.28.
MSH

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anorexie

The lack or loss of APPETITE accompanied by an aversion to food and the inability to eat. It is the defining characteristic of the disorder ANOREXIA NERVOSA.
MSH

clinical manifestation consisting of a physiopathological lack or loss of appetite accompanied by an aversion to food and the inability to eat.
CSP

An abnormal loss of the appetite for food. Anorexia can be caused by cancer, AIDS, a mental disorder (i.e., anorexia nervosa), or other diseases.
NCI

A disorder characterized by a loss of appetite.
NCI

Loss of appetite.
NCI

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preexcitace – typ Mahaimův

A form of ventricular pre-excitation characterized by a normal PR interval and a long QRS interval with an initial slow deflection (delta wave). In this syndrome, the atrial impulse travel to the ventricle via the MAHAIM FIBERS which connect ATRIOVENTRICULAR NODE directly to the right ventricle wall (NODOVENTRICULAR ACCESSORY PATHWAY) or to the RIGHT BUNDLE BRANCH OF HIS (nodofascicular accessory pathway).
MSH

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zákonodárství veterinární

Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of veterinary medicine, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.
MSH

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Cryptococcus

mitosporic Tremellales fungal genus whose species usually have a capsule and do not form pseudomycellium.
CSP

A mitosporic Tremellales fungal genus whose species usually have a capsule and do not form pseudomycellium. Teleomorphs include Filobasidiella and Fidobasidium.
MSH

A genus of fungi in the phylum Basidiomycota that grows in culture as an encapsulated yeast. Its sexual form is called Filobasidiella and its asexual form is called Cryptococcus.
NCI

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fibróza

Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.
MSH

development of excess fibrous connective tissue in an organ.
CSP

The growth of fibrous tissue.
NCI

The formation of fibrous tissue; fibroid or fibrous degeneration.
NCI

formation of excess fibrous connective tissue
CHV

The formation of fibrous tissue; fibroid or fibrous degeneration.
NCI

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thioredoxin-disulfidreduktasa

A FLAVOPROTEIN enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of THIOREDOXINS to thioredoxin disulfide in the presence of NADP+. It was formerly listed as EC 1.6.4.5
MSH

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antropologie fyzická

The comparative science dealing with the physical characteristics of humans as related to their origin, evolution, and development in the total environment.
MSH

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těhotenství – třetí trimestr

The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.
MSH

The period of gestation that ranges from the 28th week of pregnancy until delivery.
NCI

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levhart

The species Panthera pardus, not to be confused with leopards in other genera.
MSH

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kyanatany

organic salts of cyanic acid containing the -OCN radical.
CSP

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hasicí systémy

Automatic or hand operated equipment used to control and extinguish fires.
MSH

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threonin-tRNA-ligasa

An enzyme that activates threonine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.3.
MSH

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protilátky – rozmanitost

The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.
MSH

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prenatální expozice – zpožděný efekt

The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
MSH

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leukémie chronická lymfocytární B-buněčná

chronic leukemia characterized by morphologically mature but immunologically less mature lymphocytes; manifested by an abnormal accumulation of these cells in blood, bone marrow, and lymphatic tissue.
CSP

An indolent (slow-growing) cancer in which too many immature lymphocytes (white blood cells) are found mostly in the blood and bone marrow. Sometimes, in later stages of the disease, cancer cells are found in the lymph nodes and the disease is called small lymphocytic lymphoma.
NCI

A chronic leukemia characterized by abnormal B-lymphocytes and often generalized lymphadenopathy. In patients presenting predominately with blood and bone marrow involvement it is called chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL); in those predominately with enlarged lymph nodes it is called small lymphocytic lymphoma. These terms represent spectrums of the same disease.
MSH

Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. White blood cells help your body fight infection. Your blood cells form in your bone marrow. In leukemia, however, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells. These cells crowd out the healthy blood cells, making it hard for blood to do its work. In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), there are too many of a specific type of white blood cell called a lymphocyte.

CLL is the second most common form of leukemia in adults. It often occurs during or after middle age and rarely occurs in children.

Usually CLL does not cause any symptoms at all. If you have symptoms, they may include:

  • Painless swelling of the lymph nodes in the neck, underarm, stomach or groin
  • Feeling very tired
  • Pain or a feeling of fullness below the ribs
  • Fever and infection
  • Weight loss

Tests that examine the blood, bone marrow, and lymph nodes diagnose CLL. Your doctor may choose to just monitor you until you have symptoms. Treatments include radiation therapy, chemotherapy, surgery to remove the spleen, and targeted immune therapy.

NIH: National Cancer Institute


MEDLINEPLUS

The most common type of chronic lymphoid leukemia. It comprises 90% of chronic lymphoid leukemias in the United States. Morphologically, the neoplastic cells are small, round B-lymphocytes. This type of leukemia is not considered to be curable with available therapy. (WHO, 2001)
NCI

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