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hydroxyprolin

A hydroxylated form of the imino acid proline. A deficiency in ASCORBIC ACID can result in impaired hydroxyproline formation.
MSH

C5H9NO3; amino acid derived from proline, found in collagen and gelatin.
CSP

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periferní nervy

Subdivision of peripheral nervous system which is a tree whose trunk is a branch of a somatic nerve plexus (cervical, brachial or lumbosacral); it has shared parts with the somatic nerves that contribute to its parent plexus. Examples: phrenic nerve, radial nerve, ilioinguinal nerve, sciatic nerve.
UWDA

The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.
MSH

Neural tree (organ) which is directly continuous with the neuraxis. Examples: phrenic nerve, radial nerve, ilioinguinal nerve, sciatic nerve.
FMA

Any nerve outside the brain or spinal cord that connects with peripheral receptors or effectors. (NCI)
NCI

Any nerve outside the brain or spinal cord that connects with peripheral receptors or effectors.
NCI

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choroidea

The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the RETINA and SCLERA.
MSH

A thin layer of tissue that is part of the middle layer of the wall of the eye, between the sclera (white outer layer of the eye) and the retina (the inner layer of nerve tissue at the back of the eye). The choriod is filled with blood vessels that bring oxygen and nutrients to the eye.
NCI

A blood vessel-containing membrane of the eye that lies between the retina and the sclera.
NCI

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neuroendokrinologie

The study of the anatomical and functional relationships between the nervous system and the endocrine system.
MSH

Studies of the interactions between the nervous system and endocrine system.
NCI

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spondylolýza

Deficient development or degeneration of a portion of the VERTEBRA, usually in the pars interarticularis (the bone bridge between the superior and inferior facet joints of the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE) leading to SPONDYLOLISTHESIS.
MSH

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hyperglykémie

abnormally high blood glucose level.
CSP

Higher than normal amount of glucose (a type of sugar) in the blood. Hyperglycemia can be a sign of diabetes or other conditions.
NCI

A disorder characterized by laboratory test results that indicate an elevation in the concentration of blood sugar. It is usually an indication of diabetes mellitus or glucose intolerance.
NCI

A high level of blood sugar. It is usually an indication of diabetes mellitus.
NCI

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NORTASUNAREN NAHASTEA

A major deviation from normal patterns of behavior.
MSH

when normal personality traits become inflexible and maladaptive, causing subjective distress or impaired social functioning, they can be considered disorders.
CSP

Personality disorders are long-term patterns of thoughts and behaviors that cause serious problems with relationships and work. People with personality disorders have difficulty dealing with everyday stresses and problems. They often have stormy relationships with other people. The exact cause of personality disorders is unknown. However, genes and childhood experiences may play a role.

Symptoms vary widely depending on the specific type of personality disorder. Treatment usually includes talk therapy and sometimes medicine.


MEDLINEPLUS

A diverse category of psychiatric disorders characterized by behavior that deviates markedly from the expectations of the individual`s culture; this pattern of deviation is pervasive and inflexible and is stable over time. The behavioral pattern negatively interferes with relationships and work.
NCI

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chrom – slitiny

Specific alloys not less than 85% chromium and nickel or cobalt, with traces of either nickel or cobalt, molybdenum, and other substances. They are used in partial dentures, orthopedic implants, etc.
MSH

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neuropeptidy

Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
MSH

peptides released by neural tissue as intercellular messengers; many are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
CSP

A member of a class of protein-like molecules made in the brain. Neuropeptides consist of short chains of amino acids, with some functioning as neurotransmitters and some functioning as hormones.
NCI

Peptides with direct synaptic effects or indirect modulatory effects on the nervous system. A neuropeptide is a molecule released by neurons as an intercellular neurotransmitter. Alternatively, neuropeptides can be released by non-neuronal cells as hormones. They are endogenous peptides such as endorphins that influence neural activity or functioning.
NCI

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musculus stapedius

A tiny muscle that arises from the posterior wall of the TYMPANIC CAVITY of MIDDLE EAR with its tendon inserted onto the neck of the STAPES. Stapedius pulls the stapes posteriorly and controls its movement.
MSH

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hypertenze

Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
MSH

persistantly high arterial blood pressure.
CSP

A blood pressure of 140/90 or higher. High blood pressure usually has no symptoms. It can harm the arteries and cause an increase in the risk of stroke, heart attack, kidney failure, and blindness.
NCI

Blood pressure is the force of your blood pushing against the walls of your arteries. Each time your heart beats, it pumps out blood into the arteries. Your blood pressure is highest when your heart beats, pumping the blood. This is called systolic pressure. When your heart is at rest, between beats, your blood pressure falls. This is the diastolic pressure.

Your blood pressure reading uses these two numbers, the systolic and diastolic pressures. Usually they are written one above or before the other. A reading of

  • 120/80 or lower is normal blood pressure
  • 140/90 or higher is high blood pressure
  • Between 120 and 139 for the top number, or between 80 and 89 for the bottom number is prehypertension

High blood pressure usually has no symptoms, but it can cause serious problems such as stroke, heart failure, heart attack and kidney failure. You can control high blood pressure through healthy lifestyle habits and taking medicines, if needed.

NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute


MEDLINEPLUS

A disorder characterized by a pathological increase in blood pressure; a repeatedly elevation in the blood pressure exceeding 140 over 90 mm Hg.
NCI

Pathological increase in blood pressure; a repeatedly elevated blood pressure exceeding 140 over 90 mmHg.
NCI

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fagocyty – baktericidní dysfunkce

disorders in which phagocytic cells cannot kill ingested bacteria; characterized by frequent recurring infection with formulation of granulomas.
CSP

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chromozómy lidské, pár 14

A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
MSH

The designation for each member of the fourteenth largest human autosomal chromosome pair. Chromosome 14 spans about 105 million base pairs and represents between 3 and 3.5% of the total DNA in normal diploid cells.
NCI

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Nová Anglie

The geographic area of New England in general and when the specific state or states are not indicated. States usually included in this region are Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island.
MSH

The area in the United States comprised of the following states: Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, and New Jersey. (from SEERS 2004 codeset)
NCI

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stearyl-CoA desaturasa

An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of oleoyl-CoA, A, and water from stearoyl-CoA, AH2, and oxygen where AH2 is an unspecified hydrogen donor.
MSH

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hypoglykemika

Substances which lower blood glucose levels.
MSH

class of agents which lower blood glucose levels.
CSP

Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, is too high. If you can`t control your diabetes with wise food choices and physical activity, you may need diabetes medicines. The kind of medicine you take depends on your type of diabetes, your schedule, and your other health conditions.

With Type 1 diabetes, your pancreas does not make insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps glucose get into your cells to give them energy. Without insulin, too much glucose stays in your blood. If you have type 1 diabetes, you will need to take insulin.

Type 2 diabetes, the most common type, can start when the body doesn`t use insulin as it should. If your body can`t keep up with the need for insulin, you may need to take pills. Some people need both insulin and pills. Along with meal planning and physical activity, diabetes pills help people with type 2 diabetes or gestational diabetes keep their blood glucose levels on target. Several kinds of pills are available. Each works in a different way. Many people take two or three kinds of pills. Some people take combination pills. Combination pills contain two kinds of diabetes medicine in one tablet. Some people take pills and insulin.

NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases


MEDLINEPLUS

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fenazocin

An opioid analgesic with actions and uses similar to MORPHINE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1095)
MSH

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cialit

Tissue preservative.
MSH

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nifuratel

Local antiprotozoal and antifungal agent that may also be given orally.
MSH

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Stevensův-Johnsonův syndrom

A variant of bullous erythema multiforme. It ranges from mild skin and mucous membrane lesions to a severe, sometimes fatal systemic disorder. Ocular symptoms include ulcerative conjunctivitis, keratitis, iritis, uveitis, and sometimes blindness. The cause of the disease is unknown.
MSH

A systemic, serious, and life-threatening disorder characterized by lesions in the skin and mucous membranes that may lead to necrosis. The lesions may appear anywhere in the body but they occur more commonly in the palms, soles, dorsum of the hands, and extensor surfaces. The lesions are vesicular or necrotic in the center, surrounded by an erythematous zone and occupy less than 10% of the body surfaces. The appearance of the mucocutaneous lesions is preceded by an upper respiratory tract infection. It is an immune complex hypersensitivity reaction usually caused by drugs (e.g., sulfa, phenytoin, penicillin), viruses (e.g., herpes simplex, influenza, hepatitis), and malignancies (e.g., carcinoma and lymphoma).
NCI

A disorder characterized by less than 10% total body skin area separation of dermis. The syndrome is thought to be a hypersensitivity complex affecting the skin and the mucous membranes.
NCI

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hypotyreóza

A syndrome that results from abnormally low secretion of THYROID HORMONES from the THYROID GLAND, leading to a decrease in BASAL METABOLIC RATE. In its most severe form, there is accumulation of MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDES in the SKIN and EDEMA, known as MYXEDEMA.
MSH

deficiency of thyroid gland activity; characterized by decreased basal metabolic rate, fatigue and lethargy, sensitivity to cold, and menstrual disturbances; untreated it progresses to myxedema; in infants severe hypothyroidism leads to cretinism.
CSP

A disorder characterized by a decrease in production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland.
NCI

Too little thyroid hormone. Symptoms include weight gain, constipation, dry skin, and sensitivity to the cold.
NCI

A condition in which the production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland is diminished. Signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism include low metabolic rate, tendency to weight gain, somnolence and sometimes myxedema. In the United States, the most common cause of hypothyroidism is Hashimoto`s thyroiditis, an autoimmune disorder.
NCI

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fenylbutyráty

cytostatic, apoptosis inducing agent; effects cell differentiation.
CSP

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citráty

citric acid, its salts or esters; found in citrus fruits; an intermediate in the Krebs cycle; used as an anticoagulant for stored blood specimens.
CSP

A salt or ester of citric acid.
NCI

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dusíkaté sloučeniny

Compounds having the nitro group, -NO2, attached to carbon. When attached to nitrogen they are nitramines and attached to oxygen they are NITRATES.
MSH

compound containing the chemical group N02.
CSP

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Lactococcus lactis

A non-pathogenic species of LACTOCOCCUS found in DAIRY PRODUCTS and responsible for the souring of MILK and the production of LACTIC ACID.
MSH

A species of Gram positive, cocci shaped, lactic acid bacteria assigned to the phylum Firmicutes. This species is nonmotile, catalase negative, nonsporulating and produces lactic acid from lactose fermentation. L lactis may be an opportunistic pathogen in humans and animals. Most significantly this microorganism is used commercially in the production of buttermilk and cheese.
NCI

Any bacterial organism that can be assigned to the species Lactococcus lactis.
NCI

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idarubicin

An orally administered anthracycline antineoplastic. The compound has shown activity against breast cancer, lymphomas and leukemias, together with the potential for reduced cardiac toxicity.
MSH

An anticancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called antitumor antibiotics.
NCI

A semisynthetic anthracycline antineoplastic antibiotic derived from daunorubicin. Idarubicin intercalates into DNA and interacts with topoisomerase II, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and repair and RNA and protein synthesis. Due to its high lipophilicity, idarubicin penetrates cell membranes better than other anthracycline antibiotics. Idarubicin hydrochloride is the therapeutic form of this drug. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39753&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39753&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C562″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A semisynthetic 4-demethoxy analogue of the antineoplastic anthracycline antibiotic daunorubicin. Idarubicin intercalates into DNA and interferes with the activity of topoisomerase II, thereby inhibiting DNA replication, RNA transcription and protein synthesis. Due to its high lipophilicity, idarubicin penetrates cell membranes more efficiently than other anthracycline antibiotic compounds.
NCI

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flebitida

Inflammation of a vein, often a vein in the leg. Phlebitis associated with a blood clot is called (THROMBOPHLEBITIS).
MSH

A disorder characterized by inflammation of the wall of a vein.
NCI

Inflammation (redness, swelling, pain, and heat) of a vein, usually in the legs. Phlebitis may be caused by infection, injury, or irritation.
NCI

Inflammation of a vein.
NCI

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klinické praxe

Undergraduate education programs for second- , third- , and fourth-year students in health sciences in which the students receive clinical training and experience in teaching hospitals or affiliated health centers.
MSH

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kyselina dusitá

Nitrous acid (HNO2). A weak acid that exists only in solution. It can form water-soluble nitrites and stable esters. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
MSH

the weak acid HNO.
CSP

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Strongyloides

A genus of parasitic nematodes widely distributed as intestinal parasites of mammals.
MSH

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