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usilovný výdech – objem

Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.
MSH

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ohledači mrtvol a lékařští vyšetřovatelé

Physicians appointed to investigate all cases of sudden or violent death.
MSH

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organizace – afiliace

Formal relationships established between otherwise independent organizations. These include affiliation agreements, interlocking boards, common controls, hospital medical school affiliations, etc.
MSH

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srpkovitá anémie

A disease characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia, episodic painful crises, and pathologic involvement of many organs. It is the clinical expression of homozygosity for hemoglobin S.
MSH

disease characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia, episodic painful crises, and pathologic involvement of many organs; the clinical expression of homozygosity for hemoglobin S.
CSP

Sickle cell anemia is a disease in which your body produces abnormally shaped red blood cells. The cells are shaped like a crescent or sickle. They don`t last as long as normal, round red blood cells, which leads to anemia. The sickle cells also get stuck in blood vessels, blocking blood flow. This can cause pain and organ damage.

A genetic problem causes sickle cell anemia. People with the disease are born with two sickle cell genes, one from each parent. If you only have one sickle cell gene, it`s called sickle cell trait. About 1 in 12 African Americans has sickle cell trait. A blood test can show if you have the trait or anemia. Most states test newborn babies as part of their newborn screening programs.


MEDLINEPLUS

An inherited disease in which the red blood cells have an abnormal crescent shape, block small blood vessels, and do not last as long as normal red blood cells. Sickle cell anemia is caused by a mutation (change) in one of the genes for hemoglobin (the substance inside red blood cells that binds to oxygen and carries it from the lungs to the tissues). It is most common in people of West and Central African descent.
NCI

A blood disorder characterized by the appearance of sickle-shaped red blood cells and anemia.
NCI

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lipoprotein-X

An abnormal lipoprotein present in large amounts in patients with obstructive liver diseases such as INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS. LP-X derives from the reflux of BILE lipoproteins into the bloodstream. LP-X is a low-density lipoprotein rich in free CHOLESTEROL and PHOSPHOLIPIDS but poor in TRIGLYCERIDES; CHOLESTEROL ESTERS; and protein.
MSH

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skopolamin

An alkaloid from SOLANACEAE, especially DATURA and SCOPOLIA. Scopolamine and its quaternary derivatives act as antimuscarinics like ATROPINE, but may have more central nervous system effects. Among the many uses are as an anesthetic premedication, in URINARY INCONTINENCE, in MOTION SICKNESS, as an antispasmodic, and as a mydriatic and cycloplegic.
MSH

The hydrobromide salt form of scopolamine, a tropane alkaloid derived from plants of the nightshade family (Solanaceae), specifically Hyoscyamus niger and Atropa belladonna, with anticholinergic, antiemetic and antivertigo properties. Structurally similar to acetylcholine, scopolamine antagonizes acetylcholine activity mediated by muscarinic receptors located on structures innervated by postganglionic cholinergic nerves as well as on smooth muscles that respond to acetylcholine but lack cholinergic innervation. The agent is used to cause mydriasis, cycloplegia, to control the secretion of saliva and gastric acid, to slow gut motility, and prevent vomiting.
NCI

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Forssmanův antigen

A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.
MSH

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cosyntropin

A synthetic peptide that is identical to the 24-amino acid segment at the N-terminal of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. ACTH (1-24), a segment similar in all species, contains the biological activity that stimulates production of CORTICOSTEROIDS in the ADRENAL CORTEX.
MSH

A synthetically-derived subunit of the endogenous peptide pituitary hormone adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Consisting of the first 24 amino acids from the amino terminal of ACTH, Cortrosyn is usually prepared for injection and intended for diagnostic and not therapeutic use. Similar to endogenous ACTH, this agent stimulates the adrenal secretion of specific adrenal steroids that can be measured in the plasma. (NCI04)
NCI

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orfenadrin

A muscarinic antagonist used to treat drug-induced parkinsonism and to relieve pain from muscle spasm.
MSH

A muscarinic antagonist with muscle relaxant activity. Although the mechanism of action has not been determined, orphenadrine appears to block muscarinic acetylcholine receptors as well as N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the central nervous system (CNS). This may interfere with the transmission of nerve impulses from the spinal cord to the muscles and may help relax muscles. In addition, orphenadrine exerts antagonistic effects on histamine H1 receptors.
NCI

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Angiogenesis Factor

group of agents that induce or stimulate the physiologic angiogenesis process.
CSP

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jaterní cirhóza

liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.
CSP

A type of chronic, progressive liver disease in which liver cells are replaced by scar tissue.
NCI

Cirrhosis is scarring of the liver. Scar tissue forms because of injury or long-term disease. Scar tissue cannot do what healthy liver tissue does – make protein, help fight infections, clean the blood, help digest food and store energy. Cirrhosis can lead to

  • Easy bruising or bleeding, or nosebleeds
  • Swelling of the abdomen or legs
  • Extra sensitivity to medicines
  • High blood pressure in the vein entering the liver
  • Enlarged veins in the esophagus and stomach
  • Kidney failure

About 5 percent of people with cirrhosis get liver cancer.

Cirrhosis has many causes. In the United States, the most common causes are chronic alcoholism and hepatitis. Nothing will make the scar tissue disappear, but treating the cause can keep it from getting worse. If too much scar tissue forms, you may need to consider a liver transplant.

NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases


MEDLINEPLUS

A disorder characterized by replacement of the liver parenchyma with fibrous tissue and regenerative nodules. It is usually caused by alcoholisms, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C. Complications include the development of ascites, esophageal varices, bleeding, and hepatic encephalopathy.
NCI

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Process of secretion

production of a hormone or other substance which will perform a specialized function outside the gland, cell or organ.
CSP

Used for the discharge across the cell membrane, into the extracellular space or ducts, of endogenous substances resulting from the activity of intact cells of glands, tissues, or organs.
MSH

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volné radikály

Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
MSH

chemicals whose molecular or ionic structure includes an unpaired (“free”) electron, usually conferring high reactivity; in biological systems, most free radicals contain oxygen (prefer FREE RADICAL OXYGEN).
CSP

A type of unstable molecule that is made during normal cell metabolism (chemical changes that take place in a cell). Free radicals can build up in cells and cause damage to other molecules, such as DNA, lipids, and proteins. This damage may increase the risk of cancer and other diseases.
NCI

Molecules or atoms with at least one unpaired or `free` electron in the outermost electron shell. Chemically unstable, free radicals stabilize themselves by appropriating an electron from a nearby molecule, thereby damaging that molecule by altering the electron number in its outermost electron shell. By-products of both normal cell processes and environmental toxin exposure, oxygen free-radicals in high concentrations may damage DNA, proteins, and lipids, thereby increasing the risk for various diseases including cancer. (NCI04)
NCI

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kraniofaciální dysostóza

Autosomal dominant CRANIOSYNOSTOSIS with shallow ORBITS; EXOPHTHALMOS; and maxillary hypoplasia.
MSH

autosomal dominant disorder characterized by acrocephaly, exophthalmos, hypertelorism, strabismus, parrot-beaked nose, and hypoplastic maxilla with relative mandibular prognathism.
CSP

A syndrome inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern. It is characterized by early fusion of the bones of the skull and face. Patients have a distinctive facial appearance which includes low-set ears, brachycephaly, hypertelorism, exophthalmos, and mandibular prognathism.
NCI

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osteitis deformans

A disease marked by repeated episodes of increased bone resorption followed by excessive attempts at repair, resulting in weakened, deformed bones of increased mass. The resultant architecture of the bone assumes a mosaic pattern in which the fibers take on a haphazard pattern instead of the normal parallel symmetry.
MSH

disease marked by repeated episodes of increased bone resorption followed by excessive repair, resulting in weakened, deformed bones of increased mass.
CSP

A disease of bone that initially results in the excessive resorption of bone (by osteoclasts) followed by the replacement of normal bone marrow with vascular and fibrous tissue. (On-line Medical Dictionary)
NCI

Paget`s disease of bone causes your bones to grow larger and weaker than normal. They also might break easily. The disease can lead to other health problems, too, such as arthritis and hearing loss. You can have Paget`s disease in any bone, but it is most common in the spine, pelvis, skull and legs. The disease might affect one or several bones, but not your entire skeleton. More men than women have the disease. It is most common in older people.

Many people do not know they have Paget`s disease because their symptoms are mild. For others, symptoms can include

  • Pain
  • Enlarged bones
  • Broken bones
  • Damaged cartilage in joints

No one knows what causes Paget`s disease. In some cases, a virus might be responsible. It tends to run in families. You can treat Paget`s disease with medicine and sometimes surgery. A good diet and exercise might also help.

NIH: National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases


MEDLINEPLUS

A disease marked by repeated episodes of increased bone resorption followed by excessive attempts at repair, resulting in weakened, deformed bones of increased mass.
CHV

A chronic condition in which both the breakdown and regrowth of bone are increased. Paget disease of bone occurs most frequently in the pelvic and leg bones, skull, and lower spine. It is most common in older individuals, and may lead to bone pain, deformities, and fractures.
NCI

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zvířata – identifikační systémy

Procedures for recognizing individual animals and certain identifiable characteristics pertaining to them; includes computerized methods, ear tags, etc.
MSH

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loaiáza

A parasitic infection caused by the nematode Loa loa. The vector in the transmission of this infection is the horsefly (Tabanus) or the deerfly or mango fly (Chrysops). The larvae may be seen just beneath the skin or passing through the conjunctiva. Eye lesions are not uncommon. The disease is generally mild and painless.
MSH

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semeno – uchovávání

The process by which semen is kept viable outside of the organism from which it was derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).
MSH

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ovoce

The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
MSH

edible fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
CSP

A structure consisting of the fertilized and mature ovules (“seeds”) and the ovary wall, which may be fleshy (as in the apple) or dry and hard (as in a maple fruit.
NCI

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kritické období (psychologie)

A specific stage in animal and human development during which certain types of behavior normally are shaped and molded for life.
MSH

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osteoradionekróza

Necrosis of bone following radiation injury.
MSH

Necrosis of bone following exposure to a source of radiation.
NCI

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Anoplura

An order of insects comprising the sucking lice, which are blood-sucking ectoparasites of mammals. Recognized families include: Echinphthiriidae, Haematopinidae, and Pediculidae. The latter contains the medically important genera affecting humans: PEDICULUS and PHTHIRUS.
MSH

A taxonomic order of wingless insects that are obligate ectoparasites of birds and mammals. Lice attach tightly to hair, fur, and feathers of the host organism and feed on blood, skin, and sebaceous secretions.
NCI

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Ludwigova angína

Severe cellulitis of the submaxillary space with secondary involvement of the sublingual and submental space. It usually results from infection in the lower molar area or from a penetrating injury to the mouth floor. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
MSH

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L-serindehydratasa

A PYRIDOXAL-phosphate containing enzyme that catalyzes the dehydration and deamination of L-serine to form pyruvate. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.2.1.13.
MSH

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Fusarium

mitosporic Hypocreales fungal genus, various species of which are important parasitic pathogens of plants and a variety of vertebrates.
CSP

A mitosporic Hypocreales fungal genus, various species of which are important parasitic pathogens of plants and a variety of vertebrates. Teleomorphs include GIBBERELLA.
MSH

A genus of filamentous fungi in the phylum Ascomycota that is widely distributed in soil and in association with plants.
NCI

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kryptokokóza

infection with a fungus of the species Cryptococcus neoformans.
CSP

An acute or chronic, localized or disseminated infection by Cryptococcus neoformans. Sites of involvement include the lungs, central nervous system and meninges, skin, and visceral organs.–2004
NCI

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přeučení

Learning in which practice proceeds beyond the point where the act can just be performed with the required degree of excellence.
MSH

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antropologie kulturní

It is the study of social phenomena which characterize the learned, shared, and transmitted social activities of particular ethnic groups with focus on the causes, consequences, and complexities of human social and cultural variability.
MSH

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luteom

An ovarian neoplasm composed of LUTEAL CELLS derived from luteinized GRANULOSA CELLS and THECA CELLS. Luteomas respond to GONADOTROPINS, and vary in their hormone production (PROGESTERONE; ESTROGENS; or ANDROGENS). During PREGNANCY, a transient type of luteoma may develop due to an exaggerated LUTEINIZATION of the OVARY.
MSH

A benign ovarian stromal tumor in which more than 90% of the tumor cells resemble steroid hormone-secreting cells. Crystals of Reinke are not present. It occurs in post-menopausal women and it is usually associated with estrogenic effects.
NCI

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setariáza

Infection with nematodes of the genus Setaria. This condition is usually seen in cattle and equines and is of little pathogenic significance, although migration of the worm to the eye may lead to blindness.
MSH

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