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hernie femorální

A groin hernia occurring inferior to the inguinal ligament and medial to the FEMORAL VEIN and FEMORAL ARTERY. The femoral hernia sac has a small neck but may enlarge considerably when it enters the subcutaneous tissue of the thigh. It is caused by defects in the ABDOMINAL WALL.
MSH

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citráty

citric acid, its salts or esters; found in citrus fruits; an intermediate in the Krebs cycle; used as an anticoagulant for stored blood specimens.
CSP

A salt or ester of citric acid.
NCI

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alkuronium

A non-depolarizing skeletal muscle relaxant similar to TUBOCURARINE. It is used as an anesthesia adjuvant.
MSH

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záření – látky senzibilizující

Drugs used to potentiate the effectiveness of radiation therapy in destroying unwanted cells.
MSH

chemotherapeutic agent used to enhance the effect of radiation therapy.
CSP

Drugs that make tumor cells more sensitive to radiation therapy.
NCI

An agent that makes tumor cells more sensitive to radiation therapy.
NCI

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multivariační analýza

A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
MSH

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heterosexualita

The sexual attraction or relationship between members of the opposite SEX.
MSH

A sexual attraction to members of the opposite sex. (WordNet)
NCI

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klinické praxe

Undergraduate education programs for second- , third- , and fourth-year students in health sciences in which the students receive clinical training and experience in teaching hospitals or affiliated health centers.
MSH

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alkylsulfonany

any compound of the type R-SO3-.
CSP

Organic esters or salts of sulfonic acid derivatives containing an aliphatic hydrocarbon radical.
MSH

An ester of alkane sulfonic acid that acts as an alkylating agent.
NCI

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radioligandová zkouška

Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).
MSH

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svalové dystrofie

A heterogeneous group of inherited MYOPATHIES, characterized by wasting and weakness of the SKELETAL MUSCLE. They are categorized by the sites of MUSCLE WEAKNESS; AGE OF ONSET; and INHERITANCE PATTERNS.
MSH

general term for a group of inherited disorders which are characterized by progressive degeneration of skeletal muscles.
CSP

Muscular dystrophy (MD) refers to a group of more than 30 inherited diseases that cause muscle weakness and muscle loss. Some forms of MD appear in infancy or childhood, while others may not appear until middle age or later. The different muscular dystrophies vary in who they affect and the symptoms. All forms of MD grow worse as the person`s muscles get weaker. Most people with MD eventually lose the ability to walk.

There is no cure for muscular dystrophy. Treatments include physical and speech therapy, orthopedic devices, surgery and medications. Some people with muscular dystrophy have mild cases that worsen slowly. Other cases are disabling and severe.

NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke


MEDLINEPLUS

A group of inherited progressive muscle disorders characterized by muscle weakness and eventual death of the muscle tissues. Examples include Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Becker`s muscular dystrophy, Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy, facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy, and limb-girdle muscular dystrophy.
NCI

an inherited disease where skeletal muscles are progressively weakened and wasted.
CHV

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vysokofrekvenční proudová ventilace

Respiratory support system used primarily with rates of about 100 to 200/min with volumes of from about one to three times predicted anatomic dead space. Used to treat respiratory failure and maintain ventilation under severe circumstances.
MSH

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kloprostenol

A synthetic prostaglandin F2alpha analog. The compound has luteolytic effects and is used for the synchronization of estrus in cattle.
MSH

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mucinóza folikulární

A disease of the pilosebaceous unit, presenting clinically as grouped follicular papules or plaques with associated hair loss. It is caused by mucinous infiltration of tissues, and usually involving the scalp, face, and neck. It may be primary (idiopathic) or secondary to mycosis fungoides or reticulosis.
MSH

A rare dermatologic disorder characterized by the accumulation of mucinous material in the hair follicles. In some cases it is associated with lymphoproliferative disorders, most often mycosis fungoides and Hodgkin lymphoma.
NCI

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náhodné rozdělení

A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
MSH

When referring to an experiment or clinical trial, the process by which animal or human subjects are assigned by chance to separate groups that compare different treatments or other interventions. Randomization gives each participant an equal chance of being assigned to any of the groups.
NCI

The process of assigning trial subjects to treatment or control groups using an element of chance to determine the assignments in order to reduce bias. NOTE: Unequal randomization is used to allocate subjects into groups at a differential rate; for example, three subjects may be assigned to a treatment group for every one assigned to the control group. [ICH E6 1.48] See also balanced study. (CDISC glossary)
NCI

The allocation of individuals to groups by chance, especially in order to control the variables in an experiment.
NCI

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Mycobacterium phlei

A saprophytic bacterium widely distributed in soil and dust and on plants.
MSH

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histidinolfosfatasa

An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of histidinol-phosphate to histidinol. One of the regulatory enzymes in histidine biosynthesis. EC 3.1.3.15.
MSH

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kokarcinogeneze

The combination of two or more different factors in the production of cancer.
MSH

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alternativní sestřih

A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.
MSH

Alternate Splicing is a process in which multiple protein isoforms or products are generated from a single gene as a result of splicing together different nonconsecutive exons during the processing of initially identical nascent transcripts of a gene into mature mRNA transcripts. An exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form the mRNA and generate related proteins, often in a tissue or developmental stage specific manner.
NCI

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Raynaudův fenomén

WHAT: Raynaud`s phenomenon.
AIR

A set of symptoms characteristic of peripheral vascular disease, namely caused by an inappropriate response of the peripheral arteries in reaction to environmental stimuli, usually to the cold. The term is used when an underlying disease (mostly connective tissue/autoimmune disorders such as lupus, scleroderma, rheumatoid arthritis, etc.) is primarily causative and a range of symptoms including the peripheral vascular spasm is secondary. The term does not refer to the primary Raynaud`s or Raynaud`s disease.
NCI

Intermittent bilateral attacks of ischemia of the fingers or toes and sometimes of the ears or nose, marked by severe pallor, and often accompanied by paresthesia and pain.
NCI

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myiáza

The invasion of living tissues of man and other mammals by dipterous larvae.
MSH

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histrionství

A personality disorder characterized by overly reactive and intensely expressed or overly dramatic behavior, proneness to exaggeration, emotional excitability, and disturbances in interpersonal relationships.
MSH

A disorder characterized by an enduring pattern of excessively intense and superficial emotionality, attention seeking behavior, seductive appearance and speech, self dramatization and/or theatrical behavior.
NCI

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nátlak

The use of force or intimidation to obtain compliance.
MSH

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Ambystoma mexicanum

A salamander found in Mexican mountain lakes and accounting for about 30 percent of the urodeles used in research. The axolotl remains in larval form throughout its life, a phenomenon known as neoteny.
MSH

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receptory opiátové

Cell membrane proteins that bind opioids and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The endogenous ligands for opioid receptors in mammals include three families of peptides, the enkephalins, endorphins, and dynorphins. The receptor classes include mu, delta, and kappa receptors. Sigma receptors bind several psychoactive substances, including certain opioids, but their endogenous ligands are not known.
MSH

family of cell surface receptors which mediate opiate drug effects on neurons, lymphocytes, macrophages, and other cells; may or may not coincide with neuropeptide receptors; some are G protein coupled to calcium channel inhibition.
CSP

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myotonická dystrofie

An autosomal dominant neuromuscular disorder which usually presents in early adulthood, characterized by progressive muscular atrophy (most frequently involving the hands, forearms, and face), myotonia, frontal baldness, lenticular opacities, and testicular atrophy. Cardiac conduction abnormalities, diaphragmatic weakness, and mild INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY may also occur. Congenital myotonic dystrophy is a severe form of this disorder, characterized by neonatal MUSCLE HYPOTONIA, feeding difficulties, respiratory muscle weakness, and an increased incidence of INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1423-5; Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch16, pp16-7)
MSH

autosomal dominant neuromuscular disorder which usually presents in early adulthood, characterized by progressive muscular atrophy (most frequently involving the hands, forearms, and face), myotonia, frontal baldness, lenticular opacities, and testicular atrophy; cardiac conduction abnormalities, diaphragmatic weakness, and mild mental retardation may also occur; congenital myotonic dystrophy is a severe form of this disorder.
CSP

An inherited progressive disorder affecting the muscles. It is characterized by muscle wasting and hypotonia, cataracts, heart conduction defects and endocrinopathies.
NCI

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HLA-DR3 antigen

An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*03 alleles.
MSH

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kolagenózy

Historically, a heterogeneous group of acute and chronic diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, progressive systemic sclerosis, dermatomyositis, etc. This classification was based on the notion that “collagen” was equivalent to “connective tissue”, but with the present recognition of the different types of collagen and the aggregates derived from them as distinct entities, the term “collagen diseases” now pertains exclusively to those inherited conditions in which the primary defect is at the gene level and affects collagen biosynthesis, post-translational modification, or extracellular processing directly. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1494)
MSH

pertains to those conditions in which the primary defect is at the gene level and affects collagen biosynthesis, post-translational modification, or extracellular processing directly.
CSP

A term previously used to describe chronic diseases of the connective tissue (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and systemic sclerosis), but now is thought to be more appropriate for diseases associated with defects in collagen, which is a component of the connective tissue.
NCI

Inflammatory and degenerative diseases of connective tissue structures, such as arthritis.
NCI

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aminy

A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh`s Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
MSH

group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens.
CSP

A class of organic compounds that contain nitrogen as the pivotal atom for functional groups. There are several different types of amines and the class is extensive.
NCI

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receptory somatotropinu

Cell surface proteins that bind GROWTH HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Activation of growth hormone receptors regulates amino acid transport through cell membranes, RNA translation to protein, DNA transcription, and protein and amino acid catabolism in many cell types. Many of these effects are mediated indirectly through stimulation of the release of somatomedins.
MSH

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nadolol

A non-selective beta-adrenergic antagonist with a long half-life, used in cardiovascular disease to treat arrhythmias, angina pectoris, and hypertension. Nadolol is also used for MIGRAINE DISORDERS and for tremor.
MSH

A non-selective beta-adrenergic antagonist with antihypertensive and antiarrhythmic activities. Nadolol competitively blocks beta-1 adrenergic receptors located in the heart and vascular smooth muscle, inhibiting the activities of the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine and producing negative inotropic and chronotropic effects. This agent exhibits antiarrhythmic activity via the impairment of atrioventricular (AV) node conduction and a corresponding reduction in sinus rate. In the kidney, inhibition of the beta-2 receptor within the juxtaglomerular apparatus results in the inhibition of renin production and a subsequent reduction in angiotensin II and aldosterone levels, thus inhibiting angiotensin II-dependent vasoconstriction and aldosterone-dependent water retention.
NCI

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