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adenom

A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
MSH

benign epithelial tumor in which the cells form recognizable glandular structures or in which the cells are clearly derived from glandular epithelium.
CSP

A tumor that is not cancer. It starts in gland-like cells of the epithelial tissue (thin layer of tissue that covers organs, glands, and other structures within the body).
NCI

A neoplasm arising from the epithelium. It may be encapsulated or non-encapsulated but non-invasive. The neoplastic epithelial cells may or may not display cellular atypia or dysplasia. In the gastrointestinal tract, when dysplasia becomes severe it is sometimes called carcinoma in situ. Representative examples are pituitary gland adenoma, follicular adenoma of the thyroid gland, and adenomas (or adenomatous polyps) of the gastrointestinal tract.
NCI

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chlorfenamidin

An acaricide used against many organophosphate and carbamate resistant pests. It acts as an uncoupling agent and monoamine oxidase inhibitor.
MSH

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hypoglykemika

Substances which lower blood glucose levels.
MSH

class of agents which lower blood glucose levels.
CSP

Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, is too high. If you can`t control your diabetes with wise food choices and physical activity, you may need diabetes medicines. The kind of medicine you take depends on your type of diabetes, your schedule, and your other health conditions.

With Type 1 diabetes, your pancreas does not make insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps glucose get into your cells to give them energy. Without insulin, too much glucose stays in your blood. If you have type 1 diabetes, you will need to take insulin.

Type 2 diabetes, the most common type, can start when the body doesn`t use insulin as it should. If your body can`t keep up with the need for insulin, you may need to take pills. Some people need both insulin and pills. Along with meal planning and physical activity, diabetes pills help people with type 2 diabetes or gestational diabetes keep their blood glucose levels on target. Several kinds of pills are available. Each works in a different way. Many people take two or three kinds of pills. Some people take combination pills. Combination pills contain two kinds of diabetes medicine in one tablet. Some people take pills and insulin.

NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases


MEDLINEPLUS

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kyseliny pteroylpolyglutamové

Derivatives of folic acid (pteroylglutamic acid). In gamma-glutamyl linkage they are found in many tissues. They are converted to folic acid by the action of pteroylpolyglutamate hydrolase or synthesized from folic acid by the action of folate polyglutamate synthetase. Synthetic pteroylpolyglutamic acids, which are in alpha-glutamyl linkage, are active in bacterial growth assays.
MSH

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nifuratel

Local antiprotozoal and antifungal agent that may also be given orally.
MSH

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adenylsukcinátlyasa

An enzyme that, in the course of purine ribonucleotide biosynthesis, catalyzes the conversion of 5`-phosphoribosyl-4-(N-succinocarboxamide)-5-aminoimidazole to 5`-phosphoribosyl-4-carboxamide-5-aminoimidazole and the conversion of adenylosuccinic acid to AMP. EC 4.3.2.2.
MSH

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cholera

An acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and Southeast Asia whose causative agent is VIBRIO CHOLERAE. This condition can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated.
MSH

acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and southeast Asia whose causative agent is Vibrio cholerae; can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated.
CSP

Cholera is a bacterial infection that causes diarrhea. The cholera bacterium is usually found in water or food contaminated by feces (poop). Cholera is rare in the US. You may get it if you travel to parts of the world with inadequate water treatment and poor sanitation, and lack of sewage treatment. Outbreaks can also happen after disasters. The disease is not likely to spread directly from one person to another.

Often the infection is mild or without symptoms, but sometimes it can be severe. Severe symptoms include profuse watery diarrhea, vomiting, and leg cramps. In severe cases, rapid loss of body fluids leads to dehydration and shock. Without treatment, death can occur within hours.

Doctors diagnose cholera with a stool sample or rectal swab. Treatment includes replacing fluid and salts and sometimes antibiotics.

Anyone who thinks they may have cholera should seek medical attention immediately. Dehydration can be rapid so fluid replacement is essential.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention


MEDLINEPLUS

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hypotyreóza

A syndrome that results from abnormally low secretion of THYROID HORMONES from the THYROID GLAND, leading to a decrease in BASAL METABOLIC RATE. In its most severe form, there is accumulation of MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDES in the SKIN and EDEMA, known as MYXEDEMA.
MSH

deficiency of thyroid gland activity; characterized by decreased basal metabolic rate, fatigue and lethargy, sensitivity to cold, and menstrual disturbances; untreated it progresses to myxedema; in infants severe hypothyroidism leads to cretinism.
CSP

A disorder characterized by a decrease in production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland.
NCI

Too little thyroid hormone. Symptoms include weight gain, constipation, dry skin, and sensitivity to the cold.
NCI

A condition in which the production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland is diminished. Signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism include low metabolic rate, tendency to weight gain, somnolence and sometimes myxedema. In the United States, the most common cause of hypothyroidism is Hashimoto`s thyroiditis, an autoimmune disorder.
NCI

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pneumologie

A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM. It is especially concerned with diagnosis and treatment of diseases and defects of the lungs and bronchial tree.
MSH

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dusíkaté sloučeniny

Compounds having the nitro group, -NO2, attached to carbon. When attached to nitrogen they are nitramines and attached to oxygen they are NITRATES.
MSH

compound containing the chemical group N02.
CSP

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dorostové lékařství

A branch of medicine pertaining to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases occurring during the period beginning with puberty until the cessation of somatic growth.
MSH

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cholinergní vlákna

Nerve fibers liberating acetylcholine at the synapse after an impulse.
MSH

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idarubicin

An orally administered anthracycline antineoplastic. The compound has shown activity against breast cancer, lymphomas and leukemias, together with the potential for reduced cardiac toxicity.
MSH

An anticancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called antitumor antibiotics.
NCI

A semisynthetic anthracycline antineoplastic antibiotic derived from daunorubicin. Idarubicin intercalates into DNA and interacts with topoisomerase II, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and repair and RNA and protein synthesis. Due to its high lipophilicity, idarubicin penetrates cell membranes better than other anthracycline antibiotics. Idarubicin hydrochloride is the therapeutic form of this drug. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39753&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39753&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C562″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A semisynthetic 4-demethoxy analogue of the antineoplastic anthracycline antibiotic daunorubicin. Idarubicin intercalates into DNA and interferes with the activity of topoisomerase II, thereby inhibiting DNA replication, RNA transcription and protein synthesis. Due to its high lipophilicity, idarubicin penetrates cell membranes more efficiently than other anthracycline antibiotic compounds.
NCI

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poruchy zornice

Conditions which affect the structure or function of the pupil of the eye, including disorders of innervation to the pupillary constrictor or dilator muscles, and disorders of pupillary reflexes.
MSH

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kyselina dusitá

Nitrous acid (HNO2). A weak acid that exists only in solution. It can form water-soluble nitrites and stable esters. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
MSH

the weak acid HNO.
CSP

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adrenochrom

Pigment obtained by the oxidation of epinephrine.
MSH

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choroidea

The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the RETINA and SCLERA.
MSH

A thin layer of tissue that is part of the middle layer of the wall of the eye, between the sclera (white outer layer of the eye) and the retina (the inner layer of nerve tissue at the back of the eye). The choriod is filled with blood vessels that bring oxygen and nutrients to the eye.
NCI

A blood vessel-containing membrane of the eye that lies between the retina and the sclera.
NCI

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obrazy – zpracování pomocí počítače

A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
MSH

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pyokyanin

Antibiotic pigment produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
MSH

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noradrenalin

Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
MSH

precursor of epinephrine; widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter, principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers; secreted by the adrenal medulla; used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
CSP

A synthetic phenylethylamine that mimics the sympathomimetic actions of the endogenous norepinephrine. Norepinephrine acts directly on the alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors. Clinically, norepinephrine is used as a peripheral vasoconstrictor that causes constriction of arterial and venous beds via its alpha-adrenergic action. It is also used as a potent inotropic and chronotropic stimulator of the heart mediated through its beta-1 adrenergic action.
NCI

A naturally occurring catecholamine hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter in the sympathetic nervous system. Norepinephrine directly stimulates adrenergic receptors. Stimulation of alpha-adrenergic receptors causes vasoconstriction of the radial smooth muscle of the iris, arteries, arterioles, veins, urinary bladder, and the sphincter of the gastrointestinal tract. Stimulation of beta-1 adrenergic receptors causes an increase in myocardial contractility, heart rate, automaticity, and atrioventricular (AV) conduction while stimulation of beta-2 adrenergic receptors causes bronchiolar and vascular smooth muscle dilatation.
NCI

A chemical made by some nerve cells and in the adrenal gland. It can act as both a neurotransmitter (a chemical messenger used by nerve cells) and a hormone (a chemical that travels in the blood and controls the actions of other cells or organs). Noradrenaline is released from the adrenal gland in response to stress and low blood pressure.
NCI

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Afrika východní

The geographical area of Africa comprising BURUNDI; DJIBOUTI; ETHIOPIA; KENYA; RWANDA; SOMALIA; SUDAN; TANZANIA; and UGANDA.
MSH

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chrom – slitiny

Specific alloys not less than 85% chromium and nickel or cobalt, with traces of either nickel or cobalt, molybdenum, and other substances. They are used in partial dentures, orthopedic implants, etc.
MSH

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imunoblastická lymfadenopatie

A disorder characterized by proliferation of arborizing small vessels, prominent immunoblastic proliferations and amorphous acidophilic interstitial material. Clinical manifestations include fever, sweats, weight loss, generalized lymphadenopathy and frequently hepatosplenomegaly.
MSH

An aggressive (fast-growing) type of T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma marked by enlarged lymph nodes and hypergammaglobulinemia (increased antibodies in the blood). Other symptoms may include a skin rash, fever, weight loss, or night sweats.
NCI

A mature T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, characterized by systemic disease and a polymorphous infiltrate involving lymph nodes. It occurs in the middle aged and elderly, with an equal incidence in males and females. The clinical course is typically aggressive. (WHO, 2001)
NCI

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pyrimidinnukleotidy

Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE and phosphate attached that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.
MSH

one of the monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed, consisting of a pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group.
CSP

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Agorafobie bez panické poruchy v anamnéze

An anxiety disorder characterized by agoraphobia in the absence of a history of panic attacks; the individual fears incapacitation or humiliation in open, public places or situations due to panic-like symptoms rather than a full-blown panic attack.
NCI

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chromozómy lidské, pár 14

A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
MSH

The designation for each member of the fourteenth largest human autosomal chromosome pair. Chromosome 14 spans about 105 million base pairs and represents between 3 and 3.5% of the total DNA in normal diploid cells.
NCI

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imunologický capping

An energy dependent process following the crosslinking of B CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS by multivalent ligands (bivalent anti-antibodies, LECTINS or ANTIGENS), on the B-cell surface. The crosslinked ligand-antigen receptor complexes collect in patches which flow to and aggregate at one pole of the cell to form a large mass – the cap. The caps may then be endocytosed or shed into the environment.
MSH

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Q beta replikasa

An enzyme that catalyzes the replication of the RNA of coliphage Q beta. EC 2.7.7.-.
MSH

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alanin

A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
MSH

non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma; it is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases immunity, and provides energy for muscle tissue, brain, and the central nervous system.
CSP

Amino acid with side chain -CH3.
NCI

A small non-essential amino acid in humans, Alanine is one of the most widely used for protein construction and is involved in the metabolism of tryptophan and vitamin pyridoxine. Alanine is an important source of energy for muscles and central nervous system, strengthens the immune system, helps in the metabolism of sugars and organic acids, and displays a cholesterol-reducing effect in animals. (NCI04)
NCI

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cialit

Tissue preservative.
MSH

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