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epidemie

Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.
MSH

An outbreak of a contagious disease that spreads rapidly and widely.
CHV

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alkylsulfonany

any compound of the type R-SO3-.
CSP

Organic esters or salts of sulfonic acid derivatives containing an aliphatic hydrocarbon radical.
MSH

An ester of alkane sulfonic acid that acts as an alkylating agent.
NCI

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interleukin-2

A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
MSH

interleukin 2 is produced by T cells in response to antigenic or mitogenic stimulation and the signal carried by interleukin 1; it stimulates the proliferation of T cells bearing specific receptors for interleukin 2, expressed by antigenically stimulated T cells; it also seems to induce production of interferon gamma, and is used as an anticancer agent in a wide variety of solid malignant tumors.
CSP

Encoded by human IL2 Gene, Interleukin-2 is a secreted cytokine important for proliferation of T and B lymphocytes. The receptor of this cytokine is a heterotrimeric protein complex whose gamma chain is also shared by interleukin 4 (IL4) and interleukin 7 (IL7). IL2 expression in mature thymocytes is monoallelic, which represents an unusual regulatory mode for controlling expression of a single gene. Targeted disruption of a similar gene in mice leads to ulcerative colitis-like disease, which suggests an essential role in the immune response to antigenic stimuli. (From LocusLink)
NCI

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klinické praxe

Undergraduate education programs for second- , third- , and fourth-year students in health sciences in which the students receive clinical training and experience in teaching hospitals or affiliated health centers.
MSH

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radioligandová zkouška

Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).
MSH

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epiziotomie

An incision of the posterior vaginal wall and a portion of the pudenda which enlarges the vaginal introitus to facilitate delivery and prevent lacerations.
MSH

A surgical widening of the introitus by cutting into the musculature of the maternal perineum with a linear midline or oblique incision so as to facilitate vaginal childbirth.
NCI

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mucinóza folikulární

A disease of the pilosebaceous unit, presenting clinically as grouped follicular papules or plaques with associated hair loss. It is caused by mucinous infiltration of tissues, and usually involving the scalp, face, and neck. It may be primary (idiopathic) or secondary to mycosis fungoides or reticulosis.
MSH

A rare dermatologic disorder characterized by the accumulation of mucinous material in the hair follicles. In some cases it is associated with lymphoproliferative disorders, most often mycosis fungoides and Hodgkin lymphoma.
NCI

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meziobratlová ploténka – chemolýza

The dissolving of the nucleus pulposus, the semi-gelatinous tissue of a displaced INTERVERTEBRAL DISC. It is usually achieved by the direct injection of a proteolytic enzyme, especially CHYMOPAPAIN, into the herniated disc.
MSH

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kloprostenol

A synthetic prostaglandin F2alpha analog. The compound has luteolytic effects and is used for the synchronization of estrus in cattle.
MSH

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náhodné rozdělení

A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
MSH

When referring to an experiment or clinical trial, the process by which animal or human subjects are assigned by chance to separate groups that compare different treatments or other interventions. Randomization gives each participant an equal chance of being assigned to any of the groups.
NCI

The process of assigning trial subjects to treatment or control groups using an element of chance to determine the assignments in order to reduce bias. NOTE: Unequal randomization is used to allocate subjects into groups at a differential rate; for example, three subjects may be assigned to a treatment group for every one assigned to the control group. [ICH E6 1.48] See also balanced study. (CDISC glossary)
NCI

The allocation of individuals to groups by chance, especially in order to control the variables in an experiment.
NCI

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Eremothecium

A genus of ascomycetous yeast in the family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES. Species in the genus are plant pathogens.
MSH

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alternativní sestřih

A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.
MSH

Alternate Splicing is a process in which multiple protein isoforms or products are generated from a single gene as a result of splicing together different nonconsecutive exons during the processing of initially identical nascent transcripts of a gene into mature mRNA transcripts. An exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form the mRNA and generate related proteins, often in a tissue or developmental stage specific manner.
NCI

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nitroděložní antikoncepční prostředky

Contraceptive devices placed high in the uterine fundus.
MSH

A device usually made of plastic or metal, inserted into the uterus to prevent conception. IUCD can be a coil, loop, triangle, or T in shape; its material can be impregnated with a pharmaceutical agent. The primary action of all IUCDs is the induction of a foreign-body reaction within the endometrium. This sterile inflammatory process is toxic to gametes, primarily spermatozoa, and effectively prevents viable sperm from passing into the fallopian tubes. The copper-bearing device has an independent toxic effect on spermatozoa. The progestin-releasing devices produce changes in endometrial architecture and function that reduce the potential for implantation of a fertilized egg. The progestin effect on the cervical mucus also reduces the penetrability of sperm.
NCI

A small, plastic T-shaped device that is placed inside the uterus (the small, hollow, pear-shaped organ in a woman`s pelvis in which a fetus develops) to prevent pregnancy. Intrauterine devices prevent sperm from fertilizing an egg, and prevent fertilized eggs from implanting in the uterus. The use of intrauterine devices is also being studied in the prevention and treatment of endometrial cancer and other conditions.
NCI

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kokarcinogeneze

The combination of two or more different factors in the production of cancer.
MSH

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Raynaudův fenomén

WHAT: Raynaud`s phenomenon.
AIR

A set of symptoms characteristic of peripheral vascular disease, namely caused by an inappropriate response of the peripheral arteries in reaction to environmental stimuli, usually to the cold. The term is used when an underlying disease (mostly connective tissue/autoimmune disorders such as lupus, scleroderma, rheumatoid arthritis, etc.) is primarily causative and a range of symptoms including the peripheral vascular spasm is secondary. The term does not refer to the primary Raynaud`s or Raynaud`s disease.
NCI

Intermittent bilateral attacks of ischemia of the fingers or toes and sometimes of the ears or nose, marked by severe pallor, and often accompanied by paresthesia and pain.
NCI

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Erythrocebus patas

A species of the genus ERYTHROCEBUS, subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE. It inhabits the flat open arid country of Africa. It is also known as the patas monkey or the red monkey.
MSH

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Ambystoma mexicanum

A salamander found in Mexican mountain lakes and accounting for about 30 percent of the urodeles used in research. The axolotl remains in larval form throughout its life, a phenomenon known as neoteny.
MSH

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jodpyracetát

An ionic monomeric contrast medium that was formerly used for a variety of diagnostic procedures. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p706)
MSH

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nátlak

The use of force or intimidation to obtain compliance.
MSH

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receptory opiátové

Cell membrane proteins that bind opioids and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The endogenous ligands for opioid receptors in mammals include three families of peptides, the enkephalins, endorphins, and dynorphins. The receptor classes include mu, delta, and kappa receptors. Sigma receptors bind several psychoactive substances, including certain opioids, but their endogenous ligands are not known.
MSH

family of cell surface receptors which mediate opiate drug effects on neurons, lymphocytes, macrophages, and other cells; may or may not coincide with neuropeptide receptors; some are G protein coupled to calcium channel inhibition.
CSP

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ezofágus – píštěl

Abnormal passage communicating with the ESOPHAGUS. The most common type is TRACHEOESOPHAGEAL FISTULA between the esophagus and the TRACHEA.
MSH

An abnormal communication between the esophagus and another organ or anatomic site.
NCI

A disorder characterized by an abnormal communication between the esophagus and another organ or anatomic site.
NCI

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aminy

A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh`s Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
MSH

group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens.
CSP

A class of organic compounds that contain nitrogen as the pivotal atom for functional groups. There are several different types of amines and the class is extensive.
NCI

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iris

The most anterior portion of the uveal layer, separating the anterior chamber from the posterior. It consists of two layers – the stroma and the pigmented epithelium. Color of the iris depends on the amount of melanin in the stroma on reflection from the pigmented epithelium.
MSH

most anterior portion of the uveal layer, separating the anterior chamber from the posterior; consists of two layers, the stroma and the pigmented epithelium; color of the iris depends on the amount of melanin in the stroma on reflection from the pigmented epithelium.
CSP

The colored tissue at the front of the eye that contains the pupil in the center. The iris helps control the size of the pupil to let more or less light into the eye.
NCI

The colored disc of the eye composed of connective tissue, epithelium, and endothelium. It separates the anterior chamber from the posterior chamber.
NCI

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kolagenózy

Historically, a heterogeneous group of acute and chronic diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, progressive systemic sclerosis, dermatomyositis, etc. This classification was based on the notion that “collagen” was equivalent to “connective tissue”, but with the present recognition of the different types of collagen and the aggregates derived from them as distinct entities, the term “collagen diseases” now pertains exclusively to those inherited conditions in which the primary defect is at the gene level and affects collagen biosynthesis, post-translational modification, or extracellular processing directly. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1494)
MSH

pertains to those conditions in which the primary defect is at the gene level and affects collagen biosynthesis, post-translational modification, or extracellular processing directly.
CSP

A term previously used to describe chronic diseases of the connective tissue (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and systemic sclerosis), but now is thought to be more appropriate for diseases associated with defects in collagen, which is a component of the connective tissue.
NCI

Inflammatory and degenerative diseases of connective tissue structures, such as arthritis.
NCI

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receptory somatotropinu

Cell surface proteins that bind GROWTH HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Activation of growth hormone receptors regulates amino acid transport through cell membranes, RNA translation to protein, DNA transcription, and protein and amino acid catabolism in many cell types. Many of these effects are mediated indirectly through stimulation of the release of somatomedins.
MSH

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estreny

Unsaturated derivatives of the ESTRANES with methyl groups at carbon-13, with no carbon at carbon-10, and with no more than one carbon at carbon-17. They must contain one or more double bonds.
MSH

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porfobilinogensynthasa

An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of porphobilinogen from two molecules of 5-aminolevulinic acid. EC 4.2.1.24.
MSH

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isoetharin

Adrenergic beta-2 agonist used as bronchodilator for emphysema, bronchitis and asthma.
MSH

A beta-adrenergic receptor agonist with bronchodilator activity. Isoetharine selectively binds to beta-2 adrenergic receptors in bronchial smooth muscle, thereby activating intracellular adenyl cyclase, an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to cyclic-3`,5`-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Increased cAMP levels cause relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle, relieve bronchospasms, improve mucociliary clearance and reduce mediator substance release from inflammatory cells, especially from mast cells.
NCI

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faktory stimulující kolonie

Glycoproteins found in a subfraction of normal mammalian plasma and urine. They stimulate the proliferation of bone marrow cells in agar cultures and the formation of colonies of granulocytes and/or macrophages. The factors include INTERLEUKIN-3; (IL-3); GRANULOCYTE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (G-CSF); MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (M-CSF); and GRANULOCYTE-MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (GM-CSF).
MSH

glycoprotein derived from monocytes, macrophages, or stimulated lymphocytes that are required for differentiation of stem cells into granulocyte and monocyte cell colonies.
CSP

Substances that stimulate the production of blood cells. Colony-stimulating factors include granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (also called G-CSF and filgrastim), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factors (also called GM-CSF and sargramostim), and promegapoietin.
NCI

A substance that stimulates the production of blood cells. Colony-stimulating factors include granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and promegapoietin.
NCI

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Reduviidae

A family of winged insects of the suborder HETEROPTERA, called assassin bugs, because most prey on other insects. However one subfamily, TRIATOMINAE, attacks humans and other vertebrates and transmits Chagas disease.
MSH

family of winged insects of the suborder Heteroptera, called assassin bugs, because most prey on other insects; however one subfamily, Triatominae, attacks humans and other vertebrates and transmits Chagas disease.
CSP

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