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prostata – nádory

Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
MSH

new abnormal prostate tissue that grows by excessive cellular division and proliferation more rapidly than normal and continues to grow after the stimuli that initiated the new growth cease.
CSP

A benign or malignant tumor involving the prostate gland.
NCI

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virus západní encefalitidy koňské

A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines in the United States, southern Canada, and parts of South America.
MSH

species of Alphavirus that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines in the United States, southern Canada, and parts of South America.
CSP

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jaterní cirhóza

liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.
CSP

A type of chronic, progressive liver disease in which liver cells are replaced by scar tissue.
NCI

Cirrhosis is scarring of the liver. Scar tissue forms because of injury or long-term disease. Scar tissue cannot do what healthy liver tissue does – make protein, help fight infections, clean the blood, help digest food and store energy. Cirrhosis can lead to

  • Easy bruising or bleeding, or nosebleeds
  • Swelling of the abdomen or legs
  • Extra sensitivity to medicines
  • High blood pressure in the vein entering the liver
  • Enlarged veins in the esophagus and stomach
  • Kidney failure

About 5 percent of people with cirrhosis get liver cancer.

Cirrhosis has many causes. In the United States, the most common causes are chronic alcoholism and hepatitis. Nothing will make the scar tissue disappear, but treating the cause can keep it from getting worse. If too much scar tissue forms, you may need to consider a liver transplant.

NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases


MEDLINEPLUS

A disorder characterized by replacement of the liver parenchyma with fibrous tissue and regenerative nodules. It is usually caused by alcoholisms, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C. Complications include the development of ascites, esophageal varices, bleeding, and hepatic encephalopathy.
NCI

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acetylkarnitin

An acetic acid ester of CARNITINE that facilitates movement of ACETYL COA into the matrices of mammalian MITOCHONDRIA during the oxidation of FATTY ACIDS.
MSH

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vápník – poruchy metabolismu

Disorders in the processing of calcium in the body: its absorption, transport, storage, and utilization.
MSH

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volné radikály

Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
MSH

chemicals whose molecular or ionic structure includes an unpaired (“free”) electron, usually conferring high reactivity; in biological systems, most free radicals contain oxygen (prefer FREE RADICAL OXYGEN).
CSP

A type of unstable molecule that is made during normal cell metabolism (chemical changes that take place in a cell). Free radicals can build up in cells and cause damage to other molecules, such as DNA, lipids, and proteins. This damage may increase the risk of cancer and other diseases.
NCI

Molecules or atoms with at least one unpaired or `free` electron in the outermost electron shell. Chemically unstable, free radicals stabilize themselves by appropriating an electron from a nearby molecule, thereby damaging that molecule by altering the electron number in its outermost electron shell. By-products of both normal cell processes and environmental toxin exposure, oxygen free-radicals in high concentrations may damage DNA, proteins, and lipids, thereby increasing the risk for various diseases including cancer. (NCI04)
NCI

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exsudativní enteropatie

Pathological conditions in the INTESTINES that are characterized by the gastrointestinal loss of serum proteins, including SERUM ALBUMIN; IMMUNOGLOBULINS; and at times LYMPHOCYTES. Severe condition can result in HYPOGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA or LYMPHOPENIA. Protein-losing enteropathies are associated with a number of diseases including INTESTINAL LYMPHANGIECTASIS; WHIPPLE`S DISEASE; and NEOPLASMS of the SMALL INTESTINE.
MSH

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endokrinní systém – nemoci

impairment of health or a condition of abnormal functioning of the system of glands that release their secretions (hormones) directly into the circulatory system.
CSP

Any deviation from the normal structure or function of the endocrine system that is manifested by a characteristic set of symptoms and signs. (NCI)
NCI

Your endocrine system includes eight major glands throughout your body. These glands make hormones. Hormones are chemical messengers. They travel through your bloodstream to tissues or organs. Hormones work slowly and affect body processes from head to toe. These include

  • Growth and development
  • Metabolism – digestion, elimination, breathing, blood circulation and maintaining body temperature
  • Sexual function
  • Reproduction
  • Mood

If your hormone levels are too high or too low, you may have a hormone disorder. Hormone diseases also occur if your body does not respond to hormones the way it is supposed to. Stress, infection and changes in your blood`s fluid and electrolyte balance can also influence hormone levels.

In the United States, the most common endocrine disease is diabetes. There are many others. They are usually treated by controlling how much hormone your body makes. Hormone supplements can help if the problem is too little of a hormone.


MEDLINEPLUS

Pathological processes of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, and diseases resulting from abnormal level of available HORMONES.
MSH

Any deviation from the normal structure or function of the endocrine system that is manifested by a characteristic set of symptoms and signs.
NCI

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loaiáza

A parasitic infection caused by the nematode Loa loa. The vector in the transmission of this infection is the horsefly (Tabanus) or the deerfly or mango fly (Chrysops). The larvae may be seen just beneath the skin or passing through the conjunctiva. Eye lesions are not uncommon. The disease is generally mild and painless.
MSH

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renální tubulární acidóza

A group of genetic disorders of the KIDNEY TUBULES characterized by the accumulation of metabolically produced acids with elevated plasma chloride, hyperchloremic metabolic ACIDOSIS. Defective renal acidification of URINE (proximal tubules) or low renal acid excretion (distal tubules) can lead to complications such as HYPOKALEMIA, hypercalcinuria with NEPHROLITHIASIS and NEPHROCALCINOSIS, and RICKETS.
MSH

rare sometimes familial disorder of the renal tubule characterized by the inability to excrete urine of normal acidity; this leads to a hyperchloremic acidosis which is often associated with one or more secondary complications such as hypercalcinuria with nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis, rickets, or osteomalacia and severe potassium depletion.
CSP

A rare disorder in which structures in the kidney that filter the blood are impaired, producing urine that is more acid than normal.
NCI

Failure of the renal tubules of the kidney to excrete urine of normal acidity resulting in metabolic acidosis. It may lead to hypercalcinuria, nephrolithiasis, and renal failure. Causes include autoimmune disorders (e.g., Sjogren syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, and rheumatoid arthritis), medications (e.g., non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, diuretics, and blood pressure medications), Fanconi syndrome, or it may be familiar.
NCI

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kalpain

Cysteine proteinase found in many tissues. Hydrolyzes a variety of endogenous proteins including NEUROPEPTIDES; CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS; proteins from SMOOTH MUSCLE; CARDIAC MUSCLE; liver; platelets; and erythrocytes. Two subclasses having high and low calcium sensitivity are known. Removes Z-discs and M-lines from myofibrils. Activates phosphorylase kinase and cyclic nucleotide-independent protein kinase. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.22.4.
MSH

an intracellular, non-lysosomal enzyme.
CSP

A class of calcium-dependent thiol-proteases that proteolytically cleave a wide variety of cytoskeletal, membrane-associated, and regulatory proteins. There are two main isoforms of the protein, which differ in their calcium requirement for activation. These enzymes have been linked to both acute and chronic neurodegenerative processes, such as: ischemia, trauma, and Alzheimer`s disease.
NCI

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ovoce

The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
MSH

edible fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
CSP

A structure consisting of the fertilized and mature ovules (“seeds”) and the ovary wall, which may be fleshy (as in the apple) or dry and hard (as in a maple fruit.
NCI

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prune belly syndrom

A syndrome characterized by abdominal wall musculature deficiency, cryptorchism, and urinary tract abnormalities. The syndrome derives its name from its characteristic distended abdomen with wrinkled skin.
MSH

A rare congenital syndrome occurring almost exclusively in males. It is characterized by partial or complete lack of the abdominal wall muscles, enlarged bladder, dilated ureters, hydronephrosis, and undescended testes.
NCI

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endotel lymfatický

Unbroken cellular lining (intima) of the lymph vessels (e.g., the high endothelial lymphatic venules). It is more permeable than vascular endothelium, lacking selective absorption and functioning mainly to remove plasma proteins that have filtered through the capillaries into the tissue spaces.
MSH

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Ludwigova angína

Severe cellulitis of the submaxillary space with secondary involvement of the sublingual and submental space. It usually results from infection in the lower molar area or from a penetrating injury to the mouth floor. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
MSH

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akromion

The lateral extension of the spine of the SCAPULA and the highest point of the SHOULDER.
MSH

The upper distal process of the scapula. (NCI)
NCI

The upper distal process of the scapula.
NCI

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kanabinol

A physiologically inactive constituent of Cannabis sativa L.
MSH

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Fusarium

mitosporic Hypocreales fungal genus, various species of which are important parasitic pathogens of plants and a variety of vertebrates.
CSP

A mitosporic Hypocreales fungal genus, various species of which are important parasitic pathogens of plants and a variety of vertebrates. Teleomorphs include GIBBERELLA.
MSH

A genus of filamentous fungi in the phylum Ascomycota that is widely distributed in soil and in association with plants.
NCI

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pseudoxanthoma elasticum

An inherited disorder of connective tissue with extensive degeneration and calcification of ELASTIC TISSUE primarily in the skin, eye, and vasculature. At least two forms exist, autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant. This disorder is caused by mutations of one of the ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. Patients are predisposed to MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION and GASTROINTESTINAL HEMORRHAGE.
MSH

rare, progressive inherited disorder resulting from extensive basophilic degeneration of elastic tissue, usually presenting after puberty and involving the skin, eye, and cardiovascular system.
CSP

A rare, progressive, autosomal recessive inherited disorder caused by mutations in the ABCC6 gene. It is characterized by calcification and fragmentation of the elastic fibers of the skin, retina, and cardiovascular system. Signs and symptoms include skin plaques and bumps, thickened skin, retinal hemorrhage and obstruction of the blood vessels.
NCI

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glukagonu podobné peptidy

Peptides derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of pancreatic GLUCAGON. Despite expression of proglucagon in multiple tissues, the major production site of glucagon-like peptides (GLPs) is the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLPs include glucagon-like peptide 1, glucagon-like peptide 2, and the various truncated forms.
MSH

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luteom

An ovarian neoplasm composed of LUTEAL CELLS derived from luteinized GRANULOSA CELLS and THECA CELLS. Luteomas respond to GONADOTROPINS, and vary in their hormone production (PROGESTERONE; ESTROGENS; or ANDROGENS). During PREGNANCY, a transient type of luteoma may develop due to an exaggerated LUTEINIZATION of the OVARY.
MSH

A benign ovarian stromal tumor in which more than 90% of the tumor cells resemble steroid hormone-secreting cells. Crystals of Reinke are not present. It occurs in post-menopausal women and it is usually associated with estrogenic effects.
NCI

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pojišťovací analýza

The application of probability and statistical methods to calculate the risk of occurrence of any event, such as onset of illness, recurrent disease, hospitalization, disability, or death. It may include calculation of the anticipated money costs of such events and of the premiums necessary to provide for payment of such costs.
MSH

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karbamoylfosfát

Phosphate salt of carbamic acid.
MSH

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galaktosylceramidasa

An enzyme that hydrolyzes galactose from ceramide monohexosides. Deficiency of this enzyme may cause globoid cell leukodystrophy (LEUKODYSTROPHY, GLOBOID CELL). EC 3.2.1.46.
MSH

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psychologie práce

The branch of applied psychology concerned with the application of psychologic principles and methods to industrial problems including selection and training of workers, working conditions, etc.
MSH

The branch of applied psychology that is concerned with efficient management of an industrial labor force and especially with problems encountered by workers in a mechanized environment. (Bartleby.com)
NCI

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lymfocytární choriomeningitida

A form of meningitis caused by LYMPHOCYTIC CHORIOMENINGITIS VIRUS. MICE and other rodents serve as the natural hosts, and infection in humans usually occurs through inhalation or ingestion of infectious particles. Clinical manifestations include an influenza-like syndrome followed by stiff neck, alterations of mentation, ATAXIA, and incontinence. Maternal infections may result in fetal malformations and injury, including neonatal HYDROCEPHALUS, aqueductal stenosis, CHORIORETINITIS, and MICROCEPHALY. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp1-3)
MSH

benign viral infection of meninges and central nervous system producing an infiltration of lymphocytes in the choroid plexus.
CSP

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adenolymfom

A benign tumor characterized histologically by tall columnar epithelium within a lymphoid tissue stroma. It is usually found in the salivary glands, especially the parotid.
MSH

An adenoma characterized by an oncocytic, often papillary, epithelial component, dense lymphoid stroma, and cystic spaces. It occurs primarily in the parotid gland, and is the second most common benign parotid salivary gland tumor. A strong association with smoking has been reported. About 10% develop simultaneous or metachronous contralateral tumors. It typically presents as a painless swelling in the lower portion of the parotid gland.
NCI

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karboanhydrasa I

A cytosolic carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme primarily expressed in ERYTHROCYTES, vascular endothelial cells, and the gastrointestinal mucosa. EC 4.2.1.-
MSH

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gamma-Tubulin

Ubiquitous or widely expressed 51-kDa conserved Gamma-Tubulins (Tubulin Family) constitute a major essential component of microtubule organizing centers such as spindle poles or centrosomes that are likely involved in minus-end nucleation of microtubule assembly. (NCI)
NCI

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gama-glutamylhydrolasa

Catalyzes the hydrolysis of pteroylpolyglutamic acids in gamma linkage to pterolylmonoglutamic acid and free glutamic acid. EC 3.4.19.9.
MSH

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