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nitroglycerin

A volatile vasodilator which relieves ANGINA PECTORIS by stimulating GUANYLATE CYCLASE and lowering cytosolic calcium. It is also sometimes used for TOCOLYSIS and explosives.
MSH

volatile vasodilator which relieves angina pectoris by stimulating guanylate cyclase and lowering cytosolic calcium; an explosive compound rendered safe when compounded in tablets with mannitol.
CSP

In medicine, a substance used as a drug to treat certain heart conditions and to widen the openings in blood vessels. Nitroglycerin is being studied as a way to help chemotherapy work better by making tumor cells more sensitive to the drugs. It is a type of vasodilator.
NCI

An organic nitrate with vasodilator activity. Nitroglycerin is converted into nitric oxide (NO) in smooth muscle and activates guanylyl cyclase, thereby increasing cGMP concentration, and resulting in smooth muscle relaxation. Dilatation of the veins results in decreased venous return to the heart, thereby decreasing left ventricular volume (reduced preload) and decreasing myocardial oxygen requirements. Arteriolar relaxation reduces arteriolar resistance (reduced afterload), thereby decreasing myocardial oxygen demands. In addition, nitroglycerine causes coronary artery dilatation, thereby improving myocardial blood distribution.
NCI

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rutamycin

A macrolide antibiotic of the oligomycin group, obtained from Streptomyces rutgersensis. It is used in cytochemistry as a tool to inhibit various ATPases and to uncouple oxidative phosphorylation from electron transport and also clinically as an antifungal agent.
MSH

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zubní náhrady částečné pevné

A partial denture attached to prepared natural teeth, roots, or implants by cementation.
MSH

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Melkerssonův-Rosenthalův syndrom

An idiopathic syndrome characterized by one or more of the following; recurrent orofacial swelling, relapsing facial paralysis, and fissured tongue (lingua plicata). The onset is usually in childhood and relapses are common. Cheilitis granulomatosa is a monosymptomatic variant of this condition. (Dermatol Clin 1996 Apr;14(2):371-9; Magalini & Magalini, Dictionary of Medical Syndromes, 4th ed, p531)
MSH

A rare syndrome characterized by recurrent facial nerve paralysis, edema of the lips and face, and furrowed tongue.
NCI

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poměr šancí

The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
MSH

A measure of the odds of an event happening in one group compared to the odds of the same event happening in another group. In cancer research, odds ratios are most often used in case-control (backward looking) studies to find out if being exposed to a certain substance or other factor increases the risk of cancer. For example, researchers may study a group of individuals with cancer (cases) and another group without cancer (controls) to see how many people in each group were exposed to a certain substance or factor. They calculate the odds of exposure in both groups and then compare the odds. An odds ratio of one means that both groups had the same odds of exposure and, therefore, the exposure probably does not increase the risk of cancer. An odds ratio of greater than one means that the exposure may increase the risk of cancer, and an odds ratio of less than one means that the exposure may reduce the risk of cancer.
NCI

The ratio of the odds of an event occurring in one group to the odds of it occurring in another group, or to a sample-based estimate of that ratio.
NCI

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atomizéry

A medicinal nonventilatory nebulizer (atomizer) is a device that is intended to spray liquid medication in aerosol form into the air that a patient will breathe.
SPN

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glykoproteiny

Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
MSH

ubiquitous family of proteins with covalently attached oligosaccharide side chains which impart unique properties of solubility, size, antigenicity, ligand affinity, cellular targetting, and stability.
CSP

A protein that has sugar molecules attached to it.
NCI

A conjugated protein having a carbohydrate component.
NCI

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salicylate

o-hydroxybenzoate.
CSP

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deoxyuracilnukleotidy

Uracil nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
MSH

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meningitida hemofilová

BACTERIAL INFECTIONS of the nervous system caused by HAEMOPHILUS organisms, and marked by prominent inflammation of the meninges. HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE TYPE B is the most common causative organism. The condition primarily affects children under 6 years of age but may occur in adults. Clinical manifestations include fever; nuchal rigidity; PHOTOPHOBIA; SEIZURES; HEARING LOSS, SENSORINEURAL; COMA; and cerebrovascular thrombosis. The organism tends to enter the central nervous system following infections of adjacent structures, including the middle ear (see also OTITIS MEDIA), sinuses, and pharynx. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp396-7)
MSH

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čichové dráhy

Set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex. It includes the OLFACTORY NERVE; OLFACTORY BULB; olfactory tract, olfactory tubercle, anterior perforated substance, and olfactory cortex. The term rhinencephalon is restricted to structures in the CNS receiving fibers from the olfactory bulb.
MSH

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sluch – poruchy centrální

Disorders of hearing or auditory perception due to pathological processes of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. These include CENTRAL HEARING LOSS and AUDITORY PERCEPTUAL DISORDERS.
MSH

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Golgiho aparát

A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
MSH

stack of flattened intracellular vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough endoplasmic reticulum and directing them to secretory vesicles, lysosomes or the cell membrane; the movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus.
CSP

A compound membranous cytoplasmic organelle of eukaryotic cells, consisting of flattened, ribosome-free vesicles arranged in a more or less regular stack. The Golgi apparatus differs from the endoplasmic reticulum in often having slightly thicker membranes, appearing in sections as a characteristic shallow semicircle so that the convex side (cis or entry face) abuts the endoplasmic reticulum, secretory vesicles emerging from the concave side (trans or exit face). In vertebrate cells there is usually one such organelle, while in invertebrates and plants, where they are known usually as dictyosomes, there may be several scattered in the cytoplasm. The Golgi apparatus processes proteins produced on the ribosomes of the rough endoplasmic reticulum; such processing includes modification of the core oligosaccharides of glycoproteins, and the sorting and packaging of proteins for transport to a variety of cellular locations. Three different regions of the Golgi are now recognized both in terms of structure and function: cis, in the vicinity of the cis face, trans, in the vicinity of the trans face, and medial, lying between the cis and trans regions. [ISBN:0198506732 “Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology”]
GO

A stack of flattened vesicles located between the nucleus and the secretory pole or surface of a cell. Functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough endoplasmic reticulum and directing them to secretory vesicles, lysosomes, or the cell membrane. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or golgi apparatus and fuse with the golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane.
NCI

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salpingitida

Inflammation of the uterine salpinx, the trumpet-shaped FALLOPIAN TUBES, usually caused by ascending infections of organisms from the lower reproductive tract. Salpingitis can lead to tubal scarring, hydrosalpinx, tubal occlusion, INFERTILITY, and ectopic pregnancy (PREGNANCY, ECTOPIC)
MSH

inflammation of the fallopian tubes.
CSP

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dermotoxiny

Specific substances elaborated by plants, microorganisms or animals that cause damage to the skin; they may be proteins or other specific factors or substances; constituents of spider, jellyfish or other venoms cause dermonecrosis and certain bacteria synthesize dermolytic agents.
MSH

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mefenytoin

An anticonvulsant effective in tonic-clonic epilepsy (EPILEPSY, TONIC-CLONIC). It may cause blood dyscrasias.
MSH

A heterocyclic organic compound with anticonvulsant property. Although the mechanism of action is not well established, mephenytoin potentially promotes sodium efflux from neurons in motor cortex, and stabilizes the threshold against hyperexcitability caused by excessive stimulation. Thus this agent reduces the membrane sodium gradient and prevents cortical seizure signal spreading. It may cause blood dyscrasias, therefore, this agent was only used after other less toxic anticonvulsants had failed.
NCI

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viry onkogenní

Viruses that produce tumors.
MSH

viruses that produce tumors; see RTs for specific organisms.
CSP

A virus capable of transforming a cell to a malignant phenotype. (BioTech Life Science Dictionary)
NCI

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autonomní vlákna postgangliová

nerve fibers which project from cell bodies of autonomic ganglia to synapses on target organs.
CSP

Nerve fibers which project from cell bodies of autonomic ganglia to synapses on target organs. (MeSH)
NCI

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gramnegativní anaerobní baktérie

A large group of anaerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the Gram-staining method.
MSH

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sarin

An organophosphorus ester compound that produces potent and irreversible inhibition of cholinesterase. It is toxic to the nervous system and is a chemical warfare agent.
MSH

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dextroamfetamin

The d-form of AMPHETAMINE. It is a central nervous system stimulant and a sympathomimetic. It has also been used in the treatment of narcolepsy and of attention deficit disorders and hyperactivity in children. Dextroamphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulating release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. It is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic.
MSH

d-form of amphetamine; it is a central nervous system stimulant and a sympathomimetic; it has also been used in the treatment of narcolepsy and of attention deficit disorders and hyperactivity in children; dextroamphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulating release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase; it is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic.
CSP

A synthetic substance related to natural sympathomimetic amines and the synthetic agent amphetamine. In the central nervous system (CNS), dextroamphetamine induces the release of dopamine within the mesocorticolimbic system, a major component of the brain reward system, resulting in measurable behavioral changes such as euphoria. As a CNS stimulant, this agent may increase blood pressure and reduce appetite. Similar to other amphetamines, dextroamphetamine has a high potential for abuse, dependence, and addiction if used in large doses over extended periods of time. (NCI04)
NCI

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mezonefros

One of a pair of excretory organs (mesonephroi) which grows caudally to the first pair (PRONEPHROI) during development. Mesonephroi are the permanent kidneys in adult amphibians and fish. In higher vertebrates, proneprhoi and most of mesonephroi degenerate with the appearance of metanephroi. The remaining ducts become WOLFFIAN DUCTS.
MSH

The middle one of the three pairs of embryonic renal organs developed in most vertebrates; its duct system is retained in the male as the epididymis and ductus deferens.
NCI

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opisthorchiáza

Infection with flukes of the genus Opisthorchis.
MSH

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azakosterol

Diaza derivative of cholesterol which acts as a hypocholesteremic agent by blocking delta-24-reductase, which causes the accumulation of desmosterol.
MSH

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Grenada

An island of the West Indies. Its capital is St. George`s. It was discovered in 1498 by Columbus who called it Concepcion. It was held at different times by the French and the British during the 18th century. The British suppressed a native uprising in 1795. It was an associate state of Great Britain 1967-74 but became an independent nation within the British Commonwealth in 1974. The original name referred to the Feast of the Immaculate Conception but it was later renamed for the Spanish kingdom of Granada. (From Webster`s New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p467 & Room, Brewer`s Dictionary of Names, 1992, p219)
MSH

An island between the Caribbean Sea and Atlantic Ocean, north of Trinidad and Tobago. (NCI)
NCI

An island between the Caribbean Sea and Atlantic Ocean, north of Trinidad and Tobago. (CIA World Factbook 2002)
NCI

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ESKIZOFRENIA, EDOZEIN MOTA

A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
MSH

class of psychoses with disturbance mainly of cognition (content and form of thought, perception, sense of self versus external world, volition) and psychomotor function, rather than affect.
CSP

Schizophrenia is a severe, lifelong brain disorder. People who have it may hear voices, see things that aren`t there or believe that others are reading or controlling their minds. In men, symptoms usually start in the late teens and early 20s. They include hallucinations, or seeing things, and delusions such as hearing voices. For women, they start in the mid-20s to early 30s. Other symptoms include

  • Unusual thoughts or perceptions
  • Disorders of movement
  • Difficulty speaking and expressing emotion
  • Problems with attention, memory and organization

No one is sure what causes schizophrenia, but your genetic makeup and brain chemistry probably play a role. Medicines can relieve many of the symptoms, but it can take several tries before you find the right drug. You can reduce relapses by staying on your medicine for as long as your doctor recommends. With treatment, many people improve enough to lead satisfying lives.

NIH: National Institute of Mental Health


MEDLINEPLUS

A group of severe mental disorders in which a person has trouble telling the difference between real and unreal experiences, thinking logically, having normal emotional responses to others, and behaving normally in social situations. Symptoms include seeing, hearing, feeling things that are not there, having false ideas about what is taking place or who one is, nonsense speech, unusual behavior, lack of emotion, and social withdrawal.
NCI

A major psychotic disorder characterized by abnormalities in the perception or expression of reality. It affects the cognitive and psychomotor functions. Common clinical signs and symptoms include delusions, hallucinations, disorganized thinking, and retreat from reality.
NCI

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diagnóza stomatologická

Examination of the mouth and teeth toward the identification and diagnosis of intraoral disease or manifestation of non-oral conditions.
MSH

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Metaproterenol Sulfate

The sulfate salt form of metaproterenol, a short-acting and selective sympathomimetic beta-receptor agonist with bronchodilator activity. Metaproterenol sulfate binds beta-2 adrenergic receptors in bronchial smooth muscle and stimulates intracellular adenyl cyclase, thereby increasing the production of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Increased cAMP levels cause relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle, improve mucocliary clearance and reduce inflammatory cell mediator release, especially from mast cells.
NCI

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orbita – fraktury

Fractures of the bones in the orbit, which include parts of the frontal, ethmoidal, lacrimal, and sphenoid bones and the maxilla and zygoma.
MSH

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Babesia microti

A species of protozoa infecting humans via the intermediate tick vector IXODES scapularis. The other hosts are the mouse PEROMYSCUS leucopus and meadow vole MICROTUS pennsylvanicus, which are fed on by the tick. Other primates can be experimentally infected with Babesia microti.
MSH

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