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glosektomie

Partial or total surgical excision of the tongue. (Dorland, 28th ed)
MSH

Surgery involving partial or complete excision of the tongue.
NCI

Surgical removal of all or part of the tongue.
NCI

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prolaps

The protrusion of an organ or part of an organ into a natural or artificial orifice.
MSH

abnormal lowering of an organ or a part
CHV

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chrupavka

A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.
MSH

nonvascular form of connective tissue composed of chondrocytes embedded in a matrix of type II collagen and chondroitin sulfate; divided into three types: hyaline cartilage, fibrocartilage, and yellow or elastic white fibrocartilage.
CSP

A tough, flexible tissue that lines joints and gives structure to the nose, ears, larynx, and other parts of the body.
NCI

Regular connective tissue, which consists of chondrocytes and related cells, the intercellular matrix of which is chondrified. Examples: hyaline cartilage, fibrocartilage, elastic cartilage.
FMA

A type of connective tissue composed of chondrocytes and an extracellular matrix, composed of collagen, elastin, and ground substance. There are three types of cartilage; namely elastic, hyaline, and fibrocartilage.
NCI

A tough, elastic, fibrous connective tissue found in various parts of the body, such as the joints, outer ear, and larynx.
CHV

Regular connective tissue, which consists of chondrocytes and related cells, the intercellular matrix of which is chondrified. Examples: hyaline cartilage, fibrocartilage, elastic cartilage.
UWDA

A type of connective tissue composed of chondrocytes and an extracellular matrix, composed of collagen, elastin, and ground substance. There are three types of cartilage; namely elastic, hyaline, and fibrocartilage.
NCI

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lékařská počítačová informatika

Precise procedural mathematical and logical operations utilized in the study of medical information pertaining to health care.
MSH

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potrat neúplný

Premature loss of PREGNANCY in which not all the products of CONCEPTION have been expelled.
MSH

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glukosinoláty

Substituted thioglucosides. They are found in rapeseed (Brassica campestris) products and related cruciferae. They are metabolized to a variety of toxic products which are most likely the cause of hepatocytic necrosis in animals and humans.
MSH

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Propidium Iodide

A fluorescent nucleic acid dye which binds only to double-stranded nucleic acids. It has a molecular weight of 668.4, an absorbance maximum of 535nm, and an emission maximum of 617 nm. It is commonly used to determine the DNA content of a cell or to discriminate viable from non-viable cells.
NCI

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sumci

Common name of the order Siluriformes. This order contains many families and over 2,000 species, including venomous species. Heteropneustes and Plotosus genera have dangerous stings and are aggressive. Most species are passive stingers.
MSH

snout contains 1-4 pairs barbels, small eyes, flattened head, adipose fin; streamlined body shape, either without scales or is covered by heavy, bony plates.
CSP

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meduloblastom

A malignant neoplasm that may be classified either as a glioma or as a primitive neuroectodermal tumor of childhood (see NEUROECTODERMAL TUMOR, PRIMITIVE). The tumor occurs most frequently in the first decade of life with the most typical location being the cerebellar vermis. Histologic features include a high degree of cellularity, frequent mitotic figures, and a tendency for the cells to organize into sheets or form rosettes. Medulloblastoma have a high propensity to spread throughout the craniospinal intradural axis. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2060-1)
MSH

malignant cerebellar neoplasm composed of undifferentiated neuroepithelial cells that may be classified either as a glioma or as a primitive neuroectodermal tumor of childhood; tumor occurs most frequently in the first decade of life with the most typical location being the cerebellar vermis.
CSP

A malignant brain tumor that begins in the lower part of the brain and that can spread to the spine or to other parts of the body. Medulloblastomas are a type of primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET).
NCI

A malignant, invasive embryonal neoplasm arising from the cerebellum. It occurs predominantly in children and has the tendency to metastasize via the cerebrospinal fluid pathways. Signs and symptoms include truncal ataxia, disturbed gait, lethargy, headache, and vomiting. There are four histologic variants: anaplastic medulloblastoma, desmoplastic/nodular medulloblastoma, large cell medulloblastoma, and medulloblastoma with extensive nodularity.
NCI

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úrazy – dispozice

Tendency toward involvement in accidents. Implies certain personality characteristics which predispose to accidents.
MSH

tendency toward involvement in accidents; implies certain personality or other characteristics which predispose to accidents.
CSP

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nitroglycerin

A volatile vasodilator which relieves ANGINA PECTORIS by stimulating GUANYLATE CYCLASE and lowering cytosolic calcium. It is also sometimes used for TOCOLYSIS and explosives.
MSH

volatile vasodilator which relieves angina pectoris by stimulating guanylate cyclase and lowering cytosolic calcium; an explosive compound rendered safe when compounded in tablets with mannitol.
CSP

In medicine, a substance used as a drug to treat certain heart conditions and to widen the openings in blood vessels. Nitroglycerin is being studied as a way to help chemotherapy work better by making tumor cells more sensitive to the drugs. It is a type of vasodilator.
NCI

An organic nitrate with vasodilator activity. Nitroglycerin is converted into nitric oxide (NO) in smooth muscle and activates guanylyl cyclase, thereby increasing cGMP concentration, and resulting in smooth muscle relaxation. Dilatation of the veins results in decreased venous return to the heart, thereby decreasing left ventricular volume (reduced preload) and decreasing myocardial oxygen requirements. Arteriolar relaxation reduces arteriolar resistance (reduced afterload), thereby decreasing myocardial oxygen demands. In addition, nitroglycerine causes coronary artery dilatation, thereby improving myocardial blood distribution.
NCI

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prostaglandinové endoperoxidy syntetické

Synthetic compounds that are analogs of the naturally occurring prostaglandin endoperoxides and that mimic their pharmacologic and physiologic activities. They are usually more stable than the naturally occurring compounds.
MSH

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proteinkinasa CDC28, S cerevisiae

A protein kinase encoded by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC28 gene and required for progression from the G1 PHASE to the S PHASE in the CELL CYCLE.
MSH

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Melkerssonův-Rosenthalův syndrom

An idiopathic syndrome characterized by one or more of the following; recurrent orofacial swelling, relapsing facial paralysis, and fissured tongue (lingua plicata). The onset is usually in childhood and relapses are common. Cheilitis granulomatosa is a monosymptomatic variant of this condition. (Dermatol Clin 1996 Apr;14(2):371-9; Magalini & Magalini, Dictionary of Medical Syndromes, 4th ed, p531)
MSH

A rare syndrome characterized by recurrent facial nerve paralysis, edema of the lips and face, and furrowed tongue.
NCI

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kyseliny octové

Acetic acid and its derivatives which may be formed by substitution reactions. Mono- and di-substituted, as well as halogenated compounds have been synthesized.
MSH

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glykoproteiny

Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
MSH

ubiquitous family of proteins with covalently attached oligosaccharide side chains which impart unique properties of solubility, size, antigenicity, ligand affinity, cellular targetting, and stability.
CSP

A protein that has sugar molecules attached to it.
NCI

A conjugated protein having a carbohydrate component.
NCI

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ochranné látky

Synthetic or natural substances which are given to prevent a disease or disorder or are used in the process of treating a disease or injury due to a poisonous agent.
MSH

A class of agents used in prophylactic or curative therapy to attenuate the negative side effects of toxins or drugs. Protective agents belong to various chemical classes, acting through various pharmacological mechanisms. They may neutralize exogenous poisons, coat mucosa for protection against physical or chemical damage, offer antioxidant protection against free radicals or ionizing radiation, or induce endogenous detoxifying enzymes. (NCI04)
NCI

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buňky – agregace

The phenomenon by which dissociated cells intermixed in vitro tend to group themselves with cells of their own type.
MSH

phenomenon by which dissociated cells intermixed in vitro tend to group themselves with cells of their own type; also in vivo massing of cells.
CSP

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meningitida hemofilová

BACTERIAL INFECTIONS of the nervous system caused by HAEMOPHILUS organisms, and marked by prominent inflammation of the meninges. HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE TYPE B is the most common causative organism. The condition primarily affects children under 6 years of age but may occur in adults. Clinical manifestations include fever; nuchal rigidity; PHOTOPHOBIA; SEIZURES; HEARING LOSS, SENSORINEURAL; COMA; and cerebrovascular thrombosis. The organism tends to enter the central nervous system following infections of adjacent structures, including the middle ear (see also OTITIS MEDIA), sinuses, and pharynx. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp396-7)
MSH

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acetylprokainamid

A major metabolite of PROCAINAMIDE. Its anti-arrhythmic action may cause cardiac toxicity in kidney failure.
MSH

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Golgiho aparát

A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
MSH

stack of flattened intracellular vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough endoplasmic reticulum and directing them to secretory vesicles, lysosomes or the cell membrane; the movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus.
CSP

A compound membranous cytoplasmic organelle of eukaryotic cells, consisting of flattened, ribosome-free vesicles arranged in a more or less regular stack. The Golgi apparatus differs from the endoplasmic reticulum in often having slightly thicker membranes, appearing in sections as a characteristic shallow semicircle so that the convex side (cis or entry face) abuts the endoplasmic reticulum, secretory vesicles emerging from the concave side (trans or exit face). In vertebrate cells there is usually one such organelle, while in invertebrates and plants, where they are known usually as dictyosomes, there may be several scattered in the cytoplasm. The Golgi apparatus processes proteins produced on the ribosomes of the rough endoplasmic reticulum; such processing includes modification of the core oligosaccharides of glycoproteins, and the sorting and packaging of proteins for transport to a variety of cellular locations. Three different regions of the Golgi are now recognized both in terms of structure and function: cis, in the vicinity of the cis face, trans, in the vicinity of the trans face, and medial, lying between the cis and trans regions. [ISBN:0198506732 “Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology”]
GO

A stack of flattened vesicles located between the nucleus and the secretory pole or surface of a cell. Functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough endoplasmic reticulum and directing them to secretory vesicles, lysosomes, or the cell membrane. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or golgi apparatus and fuse with the golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane.
NCI

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prothionamid

Antitubercular agent similar in action and side effects to ETHIONAMIDE. It is used mostly in combination with other agents.
MSH

A thioamide derivative with antitubercular activity. Protionamide forms a covalent adduct with bacterial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), PTH-NAD, which competitively inhibits 2-trans-enoyl-ACP reductase (inhA), an enzyme essential for mycolic acid synthesis. This results in increased cell wall permeability and decreased resistance against cell injury eventually leading to cell lysis. Mycolic acids, long-chain fatty acids, are essential mycobacterial cell wall components and play a key role in resistance to cell injury and mycobacterial virulence.
NCI

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celobiosa

A disaccharide consisting of two glucose units in beta (1-4) glycosidic linkage. Obtained from the partial hydrolysis of cellulose.
MSH

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mefenytoin

An anticonvulsant effective in tonic-clonic epilepsy (EPILEPSY, TONIC-CLONIC). It may cause blood dyscrasias.
MSH

A heterocyclic organic compound with anticonvulsant property. Although the mechanism of action is not well established, mephenytoin potentially promotes sodium efflux from neurons in motor cortex, and stabilizes the threshold against hyperexcitability caused by excessive stimulation. Thus this agent reduces the membrane sodium gradient and prevents cortical seizure signal spreading. It may cause blood dyscrasias, therefore, this agent was only used after other less toxic anticonvulsants had failed.
NCI

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acne vulgaris

A chronic disorder of the pilosebaceous apparatus associated with an increase in sebum secretion. It is characterized by open comedones (blackheads), closed comedones (whiteheads), and pustular nodules. The cause is unknown, but heredity and age are predisposing factors.
MSH

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gramnegativní anaerobní baktérie

A large group of anaerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the Gram-staining method.
MSH

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pseudodna

presence of calcium salts, especially calcium pyrophosphate, in the cartilaginous structures of one or more joints, accompanied by attacks of goutlike symptoms.
CSP

An acute episode of pain, swelling, and redness, sometimes associated with fever. It is caused by the deposition of calcium pyrophosphate crystals in the joints.
NCI

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centrifugace zonální

Centrifugation using a rotating chamber of large capacity in which to separate cell organelles by density-gradient centrifugation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
MSH

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mezonefros

One of a pair of excretory organs (mesonephroi) which grows caudally to the first pair (PRONEPHROI) during development. Mesonephroi are the permanent kidneys in adult amphibians and fish. In higher vertebrates, proneprhoi and most of mesonephroi degenerate with the appearance of metanephroi. The remaining ducts become WOLFFIAN DUCTS.
MSH

The middle one of the three pairs of embryonic renal organs developed in most vertebrates; its duct system is retained in the male as the epididymis and ductus deferens.
NCI

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actinobacillosis

A disease characterized by suppurative and granulomatous lesions in the respiratory tract, upper alimentary tract, skin, kidneys, joints, and other tissues. Actinobacillus lignieresii infects cattle and sheep while A. equuli infects horses and pigs.
MSH

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