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acylkoenzym A

S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.
MSH

S-acyl coenzyme A; fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.
CSP

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chlormethiazol

A sedative and anticonvulsant often used in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal. Chlormethiazole has also been proposed as a neuroprotective agent. The mechanism of its therapeutic activity is not entirely clear, but it does potentiate GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptors response and it may also affect glycine receptors.
MSH

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histokompatibilita – antigeny třídy I

Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
MSH

large transmembrane, polymorphic glycoproteins noncovalently associated with nonpolymorphic beta 2-microglobulin; in humans, three structural genes on chromosome 6 code for the HLA-A, HLA-B and HLA-C antigens, and in mice three genes on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens; class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells, are recognized during graft rejection, restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus infected cells, and are associated with rheumatologic diseases and certain malignant disorders.
CSP

Found on virtually every cell, MHC (Major Histocompatibility, HLA) Class-I (Antigens) Proteins consist of noncovalently bound polymorphic 44-kDa MHC membrane glycoprotein and nonpolymorphic 12-kDa b2-microglobulin. The HLA antigens are encoded by closely linked multiallelic genes of the HLA (MHC) complex, a region containing several genetic loci (HLA-A, -B, -C, -DP, -DQ, -DR, -MB, -MT, and -Te).
NCI

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psychofyziologie

The study of the physiological basis of human and animal behavior.
MSH

branch of psychology which experimentally investigates the physiological basis of behavior, including anatomical structures, psychological processes, and mental functions.
CSP

The branch of psychology concerned with the physiological basis of behavior.
NCI

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myoepiteliální nádor

A usually benign tumor made up predominantly of myoepithelial cells.
MSH

A benign or malignant epithelial neoplasm characterized by the presence of cells that show myoepithelial differentiation. Based on its morphologic features, it is classified as benign or malignant. A representative example of benign myoepithelioma is benign salivary gland myoepithelioma. Representative examples of malignant myoepithelioma or myoepithelial carcinoma are malignant breast myoepithelioma and salivary gland myoepithelial carcinoma.
NCI

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adenosindifosfátglukosa

Serves as the glycosyl donor for formation of bacterial glycogen, amylose in green algae, and amylopectin in higher plants.
MSH

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chlorzoxazon

A centrally acting central muscle relaxant with sedative properties. It is claimed to inhibit muscle spasm by exerting an effect primarily at the level of the spinal cord and subcortical areas of the brain. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoea, 30th ed, p1202)
MSH

A benzoxazolone derivative with mild sedative and centrally-acting muscle relaxant activities. Although its exact mechanism of action is unknown, chlorzoxazone (CZ) appears to act at the spinal cord and subcortical levels of the brain to inhibit multisynaptic reflex arcs involved in producing and maintaining muscle spasms. This agent is extensively hydroxylated by cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) to 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone (HCZ),11,12 which is subsequently glucuronidated and eliminated renally. Highly selective for CYP2E1, CZ may be used as a selective probe for phenotyping CYP2E1 in humans; the ratio of HCZ-to-CZ plasma concentrations obtained 2 to 4 hours after oral administration of CZ may be used as a phenotypic measure of CYP2E1 enzymatic activity.
NCI

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HIV-1

The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
MSH

type species of Lentivirus and the etiologic agent of AIDS; characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4 lymphocyte.
CSP

The type species of lentivirus and the etiologic agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte. (from MeSH)
NCI

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veřejné zubní lékařství

A dental specialty concerned with the prevention of disease and the maintenance of oral health through promoting organized dental health programs at a community, state, or federal level.
MSH

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Myxobacterales

order of rod shaped, gram negative fruiting gliding bacteria found in soil, water and humus.
CSP

An order of rod-shaped, gram-negative fruiting gliding bacteria found in SOIL; WATER; and HUMUS.
MSH

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adjuvancia imunologická

Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund`s adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
MSH

A drug that stimulates the immune system to respond to disease.
NCI

a drug that stimulates the immune system
CHV

A substance that increases the ability of the immune system to fight infection and disease.
NCI

Substances that stimulate the immune system.
NCI

Adjuvants are mostly pharmacological agents of drug or biological origin used to modify the antigenicity of immunization components, i.e., to stimulate, potentiate, or depress the immune response or to inhibit or enhance specific subclasses of immunocytes. Adjuvants augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. Classical agents (Freund`s adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum) contain bacterial antigens. Some adjuvants are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. Since adjuvants enhance the body`s immune response, they can be considered a type of immune modulator.
NCI

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cholestáza

Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).
MSH

intrahepatic impairment of bile flow; usually due to liver cell damage, but may be due to obstruction of intrahepatic bile ducts.
CSP

stoppage or suppression of bile by intrahepatic or extrahepatic causes.
CSP

Impairment of the bile flow caused by obstruction within the liver, or outside the liver in the bile duct system.
NCI

Any condition in which the release of bile from the liver is blocked. The blockage can occur in the liver (intrahepatic cholestasis) or in the bile ducts (extrahepatic cholestasis).
NCI

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záliby

Leisure activities engaged in for pleasure.
MSH

An area of interest or recreational activity that someone pursues outside their occupational duties.
NCI

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plicní surfaktanty

Substances and drugs that lower the SURFACE TENSION of the mucoid layer lining the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
MSH

phospholipids secreted by the great alveolar cells into alveoli and respiratory air passages which contributes to the elastic property of pulmonary tissue.
CSP

Secretion produced by Type 2 pulmonary alveolar cell.
FMA

Pulmonary surfactant lines the lung epithelium and lowers surface tension to prevent collapse at end-expiration. Deficiency of pulmonary surfactant results in respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in premature infants. Lung surfactant is synthesized in alveolar type II cells, stored in lamellar bodies and secreted via exocytosis. (NCI)
NCI

Secretion produced by Type 2 pulmonary alveolar cell.
UWDA

Pulmonary surfactant lines the lung epithelium and lowers surface tension to prevent collapse at end-expiration. Deficiency of pulmonary surfactant results in respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in premature infants. Lung surfactant is synthesized in alveolar type II cells, stored in lamellar bodies and secreted via exocytosis.
NCI

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nafronyl

A drug used in the management of peripheral and cerebral vascular disorders. It is claimed to enhance cellular oxidative capacity and to be a spasmolytic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1310) It may also be an antagonist at 5HT-2 serotonin receptors.
MSH

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nadledviny – nemoci

Pathological processes of the ADRENAL GLANDS.
MSH

pathologic condition or abnormal functioning of either or both of the paired glands situated in the retroperitoneal tissues at the superior pole of the kidneys or adrenal glands.
CSP

Your adrenal, or suprarenal, glands are located on the top of each kidney. These glands produce hormones that you can`t live without, including sex hormones and cortisol, which helps you respond to stress and has many other functions.

Adrenal disorders can cause your adrenal glands to make too much or not enough hormones. With Cushing`s syndrome, there`s too much cortisol, while with Addison`s disease, there is too little. Some people are born unable to make enough cortisol. Tumors can also cause disorders in your adrenal glands. Bleeding and infection can cause an adrenal gland problem that can be fatal without quick treatment.

Treatment depends on which problem you have. Surgery or medicines can treat many adrenal gland disorders.


MEDLINEPLUS

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chondroitinsulfáty

Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.
MSH

A form contains glucuronic acid, B and C forms contain L-iduronic acid; all are sulfated on their galactosamine residues, B and C differing by the position of sulfation.
CSP

The major glycosaminoglycan (a type of sugar molecule) in cartilage.
NCI

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hordeolum

Purulent infection of one of the sebaceous glands of Zeis along the eyelid margin (external) or of the meibomian gland on the conjunctival side of the eyelid (internal).
MSH

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puromycinaminonukleosid

PUROMYCIN derivative that lacks the methoxyphenylalanyl group on the amine of the sugar ring. It is an antibiotic with antineoplastic properties and can cause nephrosis.
MSH

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narcismus

A psychoanalytic term meaning self-love.
MSH

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aerobik

exercise designed to improve an individual`s cardiovascular condition.
CSP

Physical activity that increases the heart rate and the body`s use of oxygen. It helps improve a person`s physical fitness.
NCI

Sustained exercise that places an increased oxygen demand on the cardiovascular system and promotes an increased efficiency of the body`s use of oxygen.
NCI

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chromafinní systém

The cells of the body which stain with chromium salts. They occur along the sympathetic nerves, in the adrenal gland, and in various other organs.
MSH

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hospitalizace

The confinement of a patient in a hospital.
MSH

The condition of being treated as a patient in a hospital.
NCI

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pyrazinamid

A pyrazine that is used therapeutically as an antitubercular agent.
MSH

antibacterial derived from nicotinic acid, used as a tuberculostatic.
CSP

A synthetic pyrazinoic acid amide derivative with bactericidal property. Pyrazinamide is particularly active against slowly multiplying intracellular bacilli (unaffected by other drugs) by an unknown mechanism of action. Its bactericidal action is dependent upon the presence of bacterial pyrazinamidase, which removes the amide group to produce active pyrazinoic acid. Pyrazinamide is an important component of multidrug therapy for tuberculosis. (NCI04)
NCI

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natriuretické hormony

Endogenous chemicals that regulate the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in the body, such as the NATRIURETIC PEPTIDES.
MSH

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agar

A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.
MSH

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chromozomální poruchy

clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material, either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment.
CSP

Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)
MSH

A disorder that results from a chromosomal abnormality.
NCI

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návštěvy pacientů doma

Visits to the patient`s home by professional personnel for the purpose of diagnosis and/or treatment.
MSH

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pyrofosfatasy

A group of enzymes within the class EC 3.6.1.- that catalyze the hydrolysis of diphosphate bonds, chiefly in nucleoside di- and triphosphates. They may liberate either a mono- or diphosphate. EC 3.6.1.-.
MSH

nonEC; catalyses the hydrolysis of diphosphate bonds, chiefly in nucleoside di- and triphosphates.
CSP

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negativismus

State of mind or behavior characterized by extreme skepticism and persistent opposition or resistance to outside suggestions or advice. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
MSH

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