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dávky stimulující

A scheme which provides reimbursement for the health services rendered, generally by an institution, and which provides added financial rewards if certain conditions are met. Such a scheme is intended to promote and reward increased efficiency and cost containment, with better care, or at least without adverse effect on the quality of the care rendered.
MSH

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agentury pro zdravotnické systémy

Health planning and resources development agencies which function in each health service area of the United States (PL 93-641).
MSH

a department of government concerned with administering those agencies and offices having programs pertaining to health and health services.
CSP

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dipeptidy

Peptides composed of two amino acid units.
MSH

peptide that yields two molecules of amino acid on hydrolysis.
CSP

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management bolesti

absence of sensibility to pain; relief of pain without the loss of consciousness.
CSP

Pain relief.
NCI

A form of therapy that employs a coordinated and interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those experiencing pain.
MSH

(i) the systematic study of clinical and basic science and its application for the reduction of pain and suffering; (ii) the blending of tools, techniques and principles taken from the discrete healing art disciplines and reformulated as a holistic application for the reduction of pain and suffering; and (iii) a newly emerging discipline emphasizing an interdisciplinary approach with a goal of reduction of pain and suffering. (AAPM)
NCI

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midodrin

An ethanolamine derivative that is an adrenergic alpha-1 agonist. It is used as a vasoconstrictor agent in the treatment of HYPOTENSION.
MSH

A direct-acting prodrug and sympathomimetic agent with antihypotensive properties. Midodrine is converted to its active metabolite, desglymidodrine by deglycination reaction. Desglymidodrine selectively binds to and activates alpha-1-adrenergic receptors of the arteriolar and venous vasculature. This causes smooth muscle contraction and leads to an elevation of blood pressure. Desglymidodrine diffuses poorly across the blood-brain barrier, and is therefore not associated with effects on the central nervous system (CNS).
NCI

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befeniové sloučeniny

Analogs or derivatives of bephenium (N,N-dimethyl-N-(2-phenoxyethyl)benzenemethanaminium).
MSH

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venae renales

Short thick veins which return blood from the kidneys to the vena cava.
MSH

The veins which return blood from the kidneys to the vena cava.
NCI

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srdeční frekvence fetální

The heart rate of the FETUS. The normal range at term is between 120 and 160 beats per minute.
MSH

The number of fetal cardiac beats per minute.
NCI

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disartikulace

Amputation or separation at a joint. (Dorland, 28th ed)
MSH

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Andorra

A principality in the Pyrenees between France and Spain. Its capital is also called Andorra. (From Webster`s New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p50)
MSH

A country in Southwestern Europe, between France and Spain. (NCI)
NCI

A country in Southwestern Europe, between France and Spain. (CIA World Factbook 2002)
NCI

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Minocycline Hydrochloride

The hydrochloride salt of minocycline, a broad spectrum long-acting derivative of the antibiotic tetracycline, with antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities. Minocycline binds to the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit and interferes with the binding of tRNA to the ribosomal complex, thereby inhibiting protein translation in bacteria. In addition, minocycline inhibits the inflammatory enzyme 5-lipoxygenase (5LOX) and may impede T cell-microglia interactions; both activities may contribute to minocycline`s neuroprotective effects. 5LOX catalyzes the synthesis of inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes.
NCI

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betain

A naturally occurring compound that has been of interest for its role in osmoregulation. As a drug, betaine hydrochloride has been used as a source of hydrochloric acid in the treatment of hypochlorhydria. Betaine has also been used in the treatment of liver disorders, for hyperkalemia, for homocystinuria, and for gastrointestinal disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1341)
MSH

class of trimethyl derivatives of amino acids or the internal salts of quaternary ammonium bases.
CSP

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reserpin

An alkaloid found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina and R. vomitoria. Reserpine inhibits the uptake of norepinephrine into storage vesicles resulting in depletion of catecholamines and serotonin from central and peripheral axon terminals. It has been used as an antihypertensive and an antipsychotic as well as a research tool, but its adverse effects limit its clinical use.
MSH

alkaloid isolated from the root of Rauwolfia species, used as an antihypertensive and sedative.
CSP

An alkaloid, derived from the roots of Rauwolfia serpentine and vomitoria, and an adrenergic uptake inhibitor with antihypertensive effects. Reserpine is lipid soluble and can penetrate blood-brain barrier. This agent binds and inhibits catecholamine pump on the storage vesicles in central and peripheral adrenergic neurons, thereby inhibiting the uptake of norepinephrine, dopamine serotonin into presynaptic storage vesicles. This results in catecholamines and serotonin lingering in the cytoplasm where they are destroyed by intraneuronal monoamine oxidase, thereby causing the depletion of catecholamine and serotonin stores in central and peripheral nerve terminals. Depletion results in a lack of active transmitter discharge from nerve endings upon nerve depolarization, and consequently leads to a decreased heart rate and decreased arterial blood pressure as well as sedative effects.
NCI

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Hela buňky

first continuously cultured human malignant cell line, derived from a cervical carcinoma; used for virus cultivation and antitumor drug screening assays.
CSP

The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
MSH

HeLa cells were developed from cervix adenocarcinoma of a 31-year-old Black female. The cells are positive for keratin by immunoperoxidase staining. HeLa cells have been reported to contain human papilloma virus 18 (HPV-18) sequences. P53 expression was reported to be low, and normal levels of pRB (retinoblastoma suppressor) were found. Four typical HeLa marker chromosomes have been reported. M1 is a rearranged long arm and centromere of chromosome 1 and the long arm of chromosome 3. M2 is a combination of short arm of chromosome 3 and long arm of chromosome 5. M3 is an isochromosome of the short arm of chromosome 5. M4 consists of the long arm of chromosome 11 and an arm of chromosome 19. HeLa Marker Chromosomes: One copy of Ml, one copy of M2, four-five copies of M3, and two copies of M4 as revealed by G-banding patterns.
NCI

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vzdálenost – percepce

The act of knowing or the recognition of a distance by recollective thought, or by means of a sensory process which is under the influence of set and of prior experience.
MSH

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mitóza

A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
MSH

A cell cycle process comprising the steps by which a cell progresses through M phase, the part of the cell cycle comprising nuclear division. [GOC:dph, GOC:mah, ISBN:0815316194]
GO

A cell cycle process comprising the steps by which the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell divides; the process involves condensation of chromosomal DNA into a highly compacted form. Canonically, mitosis produces two daughter nuclei whose chromosome complement is identical to that of the mother cell. [GOC:dph, GOC:ma, GOC:mah, ISBN:0198547684]
GO

The last cell cycle stage during which the replicated daughter chromosomes separate in to separate nuclei; cytokinesis then occurs to produce separate daughter cells. It is divided into Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, and Telophase.
NCI

The process by which a single parent cell divides to make two new daughter cells. Each daughter cell receives a complete set of chromosomes from the parent cell. This process allows the body to grow and replace cells.
NCI

The usual process of somatic reproduction of cells consisting of a sequence of modifications of the nucleus that result in the formation of two daughter cells with exactly the same chromosome and DNA content as that of the original cell. It is the process by which the body grows and replaces cells and is divided into four phases. In Prophase, paired chromosomes form, nuclear membrane disappears, the achromatic spindle appears, and polar bodies form. In Metaphase, chromosomes are arranged in the equatorial plane of the central spindle to form the monaster and chromosomes separate into exactly similar halves. In Anaphase, the two groups of daughter chromosomes separate and move along the fibers of the central spindle, each toward one of the asters, forming the diaster. In Telophase, the daughter chromosomes resolve themselves into a reticulum, the daughter nuclei are formed, and the cytoplasm divides forming two complete daughter cells.
NCI

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žlučové pigmenty

Linear TETRAPYRROLES that give a characteristic color to BILE including: BILIRUBIN; BILIVERDIN; and bilicyanin.
MSH

pigments that give a characteristic color to bile including: bilirubin, biliverdine, and bilicyanin.
CSP

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dýchací systém – nádory

new abnormal tissue of the respiratory system that grows by excessive cellular division and proliferation more rapidly than normal and continues to grow after the stimuli that initiated the new growth cease; use when broadly discussing the tubular and cavernous organs and structures in which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
CSP

A benign or malignant, primary or metastatic neoplasm involving the respiratory tract.
NCI

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hematochezie

The passage of bright red blood from the rectum. The blood may or may not be mixed with formed stool in the form of blood, blood clots, bloody stool or diarrhea.
MSH

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DNA-(cytosin-5-)methyltransferasa

An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE to the 5-position of CYTOSINE residues in DNA.
MSH

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Moldavsko

A country in Eastern Europe, northeast of Romania. (NCI)
NCI

A country in Eastern Europe, northeast of Romania. (CIA World Factbook 2002)
NCI

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biogenní polyaminy

Biogenic amines having more than one amine group. These are long-chain aliphatic compounds that contain multiple amino and/or imino groups. Because of the linear arrangement of positive charge on these molecules, polyamines bind electrostatically to ribosomes, DNA, and RNA.
MSH

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retina – pigmentový epitel

epithelium in the retina, ciliary body, and iris containing pigment granules.
CSP

The single layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA, situated closely to the tips (outer segments) of the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. These epithelial cells perform essential functions for the photoreceptor cells, such as in nutrient transport, phagocytosis of the shed photoreceptor membranes, and ensuring retinal attachment.
MSH

A continuous, insulating monolayer of cuboidal/columnar epithelium which extends from the margins of the optic nerve head to the ora serrata where it is continuous with the pigment epithelium of the pars plana. This cell layer has many physical, optical, metabolic/biochemical and transport functions which play a critical role in the normal visual process, including acting as a selective filter to determine what nutrients reach the retina from the choroid.
NCI

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hemochromatóza

WHAT: Hemochromatosis: Hemochromatosis: a disorder of iron metabolism characterized by excess deposition of iron in the tissues, especially the liver. It is characterized by pigmentation of the skin, hepatic cirrhosis, decreased carbohydrate tolerance, cardiomyopathy and endocrinopathy (especially hypogonadism). Mainly seen in men over the age of 40 years. It has an associated arthropathy distinguished by involvement of the metacarpophalangeal joints (particularly the second and third), wrists, knees, shoulders, and hips. There is often an associated chondrocalcinosis.
AIR

A disorder due to the deposition of hemosiderin in the parenchymal cells, causing tissue damage and dysfunction of the liver, pancreas, heart, and pituitary. Full development of the disease in women is restricted by menstruation, pregnancy, and lower dietary intake of iron. Acquired hemochromatosis may be the result of blood transfusions, excessive dietary iron, or secondary to other disease. Idiopathic or genetic hemochromatosis is an autosomal recessive disorder of metabolism associated with a gene tightly linked to the A locus of the HLA complex on chromosome 6. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
MSH

condition in which there is a deviation or interruption in the storage of iron in the body.
CSP

Hemochromatosis is an inherited disease in which too much iron builds up in your body. It is one of the most common genetic diseases in the United States.

Iron is a mineral found in many foods. Your body normally absorbs about 10 percent of the iron in the food you eat. If you have hemochromatosis, you absorb more iron than you need. Your body has no natural way to get rid of the extra iron. It stores it in body tissues, especially the liver, heart and pancreas. The extra iron can damage your organs. Without treatment, it can cause your organs to fail.

The most common treatment is to remove some blood, just like when you donate blood. This is called therapeutic phlebotomy. Medicines may also help remove the extra iron. Your doctor might suggest some changes in your diet.

NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute


MEDLINEPLUS

An inherited metabolic disorder characterized by iron accumulation in the tissues.
NCI

A condition in which the body takes up and stores more iron than it needs. The extra iron is stored in the liver, heart, and pancreas, which may cause liver disease, heart problems, organ failure, and cancer. It may also cause bronze skin, diabetes, pain in the joints and abdomen, tiredness, and impotence. Hemochromatosis may be inherited, or it may be caused by blood transfusions.
NCI

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DNA jednovláknová

A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.
MSH

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opice

Any haplorhine primate not belonging to the family Tarsiidae, Hylobatidae, Pongidae, or Hominidae; this does not correspond to any taxon. This group is divided into Old World monkeys (Cercopithecidae) and New World monkeys (Callitrichidae and Cebidae). Many types are used as an experimental model for human disease and drug testing.
NCI

A non-taxonomic, non-specific term for the smaller longer-tailed PRIMATES.
MSH

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biopsie punkční

Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.
MSH

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Rh Factors

A family of 45 different antigens on the surface of red cells that are controlled by 2 closely linked genes on chromosome 1.
NCI

protein substance present in the red blood cells of most people
CHV

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hemolyticko-uremický syndrom

A syndrome that is associated with microvascular diseases of the KIDNEY, such as RENAL CORTICAL NECROSIS. It is characterized by hemolytic anemia (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC); THROMBOCYTOPENIA; and ACUTE RENAL FAILURE.
MSH

A form of thrombotic microangiopathy with renal failure, hemolytic anemia, and severe thrombocytopenia.
NCI

A disorder characterized by a form of thrombotic microangiopathy with renal failure, hemolytic anemia, and severe thrombocytopenia.
NCI

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dothiepin

A tricyclic antidepressant with some tranquilizing action.
MSH

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