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kontrolní skupiny

Groups that serve as a standard for comparison in experimental studies. They are similar in relevant characteristics to the experimental group but do not receive the experimental intervention.
MSH

In a clinical trial, the group that does not receive the new treatment being studied. This group is compared to the group that receives the new treatment, to see if the new treatment works.
NCI

A group used as a standard of comparison in a control experiment.
NCI

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fosfoenolpyruvátkarboxylasa

An enzyme with high affinity for carbon dioxide. It catalyzes irreversibly the formation of oxaloacetate from phosphoenolpyruvate and carbon dioxide. This fixation of carbon dioxide in several bacteria and some plants is the first step in the biosynthesis of glucose. EC 4.1.1.31.
MSH

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Grenada

An island of the West Indies. Its capital is St. George`s. It was discovered in 1498 by Columbus who called it Concepcion. It was held at different times by the French and the British during the 18th century. The British suppressed a native uprising in 1795. It was an associate state of Great Britain 1967-74 but became an independent nation within the British Commonwealth in 1974. The original name referred to the Feast of the Immaculate Conception but it was later renamed for the Spanish kingdom of Granada. (From Webster`s New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p467 & Room, Brewer`s Dictionary of Names, 1992, p219)
MSH

An island between the Caribbean Sea and Atlantic Ocean, north of Trinidad and Tobago. (NCI)
NCI

An island between the Caribbean Sea and Atlantic Ocean, north of Trinidad and Tobago. (CIA World Factbook 2002)
NCI

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podjazyková slinná žláza – nádory

Neoplasms of the sublingual glands.
MSH

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Metaproterenol Sulfate

The sulfate salt form of metaproterenol, a short-acting and selective sympathomimetic beta-receptor agonist with bronchodilator activity. Metaproterenol sulfate binds beta-2 adrenergic receptors in bronchial smooth muscle and stimulates intracellular adenyl cyclase, thereby increasing the production of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Increased cAMP levels cause relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle, improve mucocliary clearance and reduce inflammatory cell mediator release, especially from mast cells.
NCI

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rohovka – nemoci

Diseases of the cornea.
MSH

pathological process affecting the transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye.
CSP

Your cornea is the outermost layer of your eye. It is clear and shaped like a dome. The cornea helps to shield the rest of the eye from germs, dust, and other harmful matter. It also helps your eye to focus. If you wear contact lenses, they float on top of your corneas.

Problems with the cornea include

  • Refractive errors
  • Allergies
  • Infections
  • Injuries
  • Dystrophies – conditions in which parts of the cornea lose clarity due to a buildup of cloudy material

Treatments of corneal disorders include medicines, corneal transplantation and corneal laser surgery.

NIH National Eye Institute


MEDLINEPLUS

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fosfor – radioisotopy

Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.
MSH

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guaninnukleotidy

phosphate ester of a guanine nucleoside, particularly the 5`-phosphate of guanine in N-glycosidic linkage with ribose or deoxyribose as occurs in nucleic acid.
CSP

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androsteny

Unsaturated derivatives of the steroid androstane containing at least one double bond at any site in any of the rings.
MSH

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sacharosa

A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
MSH

nonreducing disaccharide, composed of glucose and fructose linked via their anomeric carbons.
CSP

A disaccharide consisting of glucose and fructose. The linkage is alpha with respect to the glucose and beta with respect to the fructose.
NCI

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methicilin

One of the PENICILLINS which is resistant to PENICILLINASE but susceptible to a penicillin-binding protein. It is inactivated by gastric acid so administered by injection.
MSH

semisynthetic penicillin used as an antibacterial in resistant staphylococcal infections.
CSP

A semisynthetic, narrow spectrum beta-lactamase-resistant penicillin antibiotic with bactericidal and beta-lactamase resistant activity. Methicillin binds to specific penicillin-binding proteins (BPBs) on the bacterial cell wall, thereby preventing the cross-linkage of peptidoglycans, which are critical components of the bacterial cell wall. This leads to an interruption of the bacterial cell wall and causes bacterial lysis.
NCI

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kortison

A naturally occurring glucocorticoid. It has been used in replacement therapy for adrenal insufficiency and as an anti-inflammatory agent. Cortisone itself is inactive. It is converted in the liver to the active metabolite HYDROCORTISONE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p726)
MSH

naturally occurring glucocorticoid used in replacement therapy for adrenal insufficiency and as an anti-inflammatory agent; cortisone itself is inactive and is converted in the liver to the active metabolite cortisol.
CSP

A natural steroid hormone produced in the adrenal gland. It can also be made in the laboratory. Cortisone reduces swelling and can suppress immune responses.
NCI

A steroid hormone synthesized and secreted by the adrenal gland and necessary for life. It is involved with maintaining cardiovascular function, blood glucose balance, regulating the inflammatory response and metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates, and fat.
NCI

A corticosteroid with potent glucocorticoid activity. Therapeutic cortisone is the inactive precursor molecule of the active hormone cortisol, which is the hydroxylation product of cortisone by 11-beta-steroid dehydrogenase. Cortisol increases blood pressure and blood sugar levels, and suppresses the immune system, therefore cortisone is used to treat allergies or inflammation.
NCI

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fykokyanin

The metal-free blue phycobilin pigment in a conjugated chromoprotein of blue-green algae. It functions as light-absorbing substance together with chlorophylls.
MSH

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Gypsite

An pulverulent variety of gypsum.
MSH

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anestézie inhalační

Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.
MSH

state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.
CSP

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sulfátadenylyltransferasa

An enzyme that catalyzes the activation of sulfate ions by ATP to form adenosine-5`-phosphosulfate and pyrophosphate. This reaction constitutes the first enzymatic step in sulfate utilization following the uptake of sulfate. EC 2.7.7.4.
MSH

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methylcholanthren

A carcinogen that is often used in experimental cancer studies.
MSH

highly carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon synthesized by pyrolytic degradation of cholic acid, deoxycholic acid, or cholesterol; a procarcinogen that requires metabolic activation to exert a mutagenic effect.
CSP

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Professional counsellor

A provider who is trained and educated in the performance of behavior health services through interpersonal communications and analysis. Training and education at the specialty level usually requires a master`s degree and clinical experience and supervision for licensure or certification. Sources: Abridged from definitions provided by the National Board of Certified Counselors and the American Association of Pastoral Counselors.


HL7V3.0

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physiopathological

Used with organs and diseases for disordered function in disease states.
MSH

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halucinace

Subjectively experienced sensations in the absence of an appropriate stimulus, but which are regarded by the individual as real. They may be of organic origin or associated with MENTAL DISORDERS.
MSH

subjectively experienced sensations in the absence of an appropriate stimulus, but which are regarded by the individual as real; may be of organic origin, drug induced, or associated with a mental disorder.
CSP

A disorder characterized by a false sensory perception in the absence of an external stimulus.
NCI

a false sensory perception in the absence of an external stimulus
CHV

A sight, sound, smell, taste, or touch that a person believes to be real but is not real. Hallucinations can be caused by nervous system disease, certain drugs, or mental disorders.
NCI

A false sensory perception in the absence of an external stimulus, as distinct from an illusion which is a misperception of an external stimulus.
NCI

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Angiostrongylus

A genus of parasitic nematodes of the superfamily METASTRONGYLOIDEA. Two species, ANGIOSTRONGYLUS CANTONENSIS and A. vasorum, infest the lungs of rats and dogs, respectively. A. cantonensis is transmissible to man where it causes frequently fatal infection of the central nervous system.
MSH

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estery kyseliny sírové

Organic esters of sulfuric acid.
MSH

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methysergid

An ergot derivative that is a congener of LYSERGIC ACID DIETHYLAMIDE. It antagonizes the effects of serotonin in blood vessels and gastrointestinal smooth muscle, but has few of the properties of other ergot alkaloids. Methysergide is used prophylactically in migraine and other vascular headaches and to antagonize serotonin in the carcinoid syndrome.
MSH

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kreatinkinasa – forma MM

An isoenzyme of creatine kinase found in the MUSCLE.
MSH

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pilotní projekty

Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
MSH

The initial study examining a new method or treatment.
NCI

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tvrdost – testy

A test to determine the relative hardness of a metal, mineral, or other material according to one of several scales, such as Brinell, Mohs, Rockwell, Vickers, or Shore. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
MSH

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zvířata divoká

Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
MSH

animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use; prefer indexing specific animal, treed elsewhere, when possible.
CSP

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supratentoriální nádory

Primary and metastatic (secondary) tumors of the brain located above the tentorium cerebelli, a fold of dura mater separating the CEREBELLUM and BRAIN STEM from the cerebral hemispheres and DIENCEPHALON (i.e., THALAMUS and HYPOTHALAMUS and related structures). In adults, primary neoplasms tend to arise in the supratentorial compartment, whereas in children they occur more frequently in the infratentorial space. Clinical manifestations vary with the location of the lesion, but SEIZURES; APHASIA; HEMIANOPSIA; hemiparesis; and sensory deficits are relatively common features. Metastatic supratentorial neoplasms are frequently multiple at the time of presentation.
MSH

A benign or malignant neoplasm that occurs within the intracranial cavity above the tentorium cerebelli.
NCI

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micely

Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.
MSH

aggregate of lipids in which the polar head groups face outward and the hydrophobic tails face inward.
CSP

A tiny particle made of substances that are soluble in water and that come together to form a ball-like shape. These particles can carry other substances inside them. In medicine, micelles are made in the laboratory and are used to carry drugs to body tissues and cells.
NCI

A multimolecular colloid particle, usually formed by amphipathic molecules in solution with the polar group toward the solution and the hydrophobic group toward the interior.
NCI

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chřestýší jedy

Venoms from snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae or pit vipers, found mostly in the Americas. They include the rattlesnake, cottonmouth, fer-de-lance, bushmaster, and American copperhead. Their venoms contain nontoxic proteins, cardio-, hemo-, cyto-, and neurotoxins, and many enzymes, especially phospholipases A. Many of the toxins have been characterized.
MSH

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