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chromozómy lidské, pár 4

A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
MSH

The designation for each member of the fourth largest human autosomal chromosome pair. Chromosome 4 spans more than 186 million base pairs and represents between 6 and 6.5% of the total DNA in normal diploid cells.
NCI

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adenosindifosfátglukosa

Serves as the glycosyl donor for formation of bacterial glycogen, amylose in green algae, and amylopectin in higher plants.
MSH

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Kentucky

A state in the north central United States. Its capital is Frankfort.
NCI

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veřejné zubní lékařství

A dental specialty concerned with the prevention of disease and the maintenance of oral health through promoting organized dental health programs at a community, state, or federal level.
MSH

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exotropie

A form of ocular misalignment where the visual axes diverge inappropriately. For example, medial rectus muscle weakness may produce this condition as the affected eye will deviate laterally upon attempted forward gaze. An exotropia occurs due to the relatively unopposed force exerted on the eye by the lateral rectus muscle, which pulls the eye in an outward direction.
MSH

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chinovník

A genus of rubiaceous South American trees that yields the toxic CINCHONA ALKALOIDS from their bark; QUININE; QUINIDINE; chinconine, cinchonidine and others are used to treat malaria and cardiac arrhythmias.
MSH

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adjuvancia imunologická

Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund`s adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
MSH

A drug that stimulates the immune system to respond to disease.
NCI

a drug that stimulates the immune system
CHV

A substance that increases the ability of the immune system to fight infection and disease.
NCI

Substances that stimulate the immune system.
NCI

Adjuvants are mostly pharmacological agents of drug or biological origin used to modify the antigenicity of immunization components, i.e., to stimulate, potentiate, or depress the immune response or to inhibit or enhance specific subclasses of immunocytes. Adjuvants augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. Classical agents (Freund`s adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum) contain bacterial antigens. Some adjuvants are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. Since adjuvants enhance the body`s immune response, they can be considered a type of immune modulator.
NCI

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kyseliny ketoglutarové

A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)
MSH

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plicní surfaktanty

Substances and drugs that lower the SURFACE TENSION of the mucoid layer lining the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
MSH

phospholipids secreted by the great alveolar cells into alveoli and respiratory air passages which contributes to the elastic property of pulmonary tissue.
CSP

Secretion produced by Type 2 pulmonary alveolar cell.
FMA

Pulmonary surfactant lines the lung epithelium and lowers surface tension to prevent collapse at end-expiration. Deficiency of pulmonary surfactant results in respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in premature infants. Lung surfactant is synthesized in alveolar type II cells, stored in lamellar bodies and secreted via exocytosis. (NCI)
NCI

Secretion produced by Type 2 pulmonary alveolar cell.
UWDA

Pulmonary surfactant lines the lung epithelium and lowers surface tension to prevent collapse at end-expiration. Deficiency of pulmonary surfactant results in respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in premature infants. Lung surfactant is synthesized in alveolar type II cells, stored in lamellar bodies and secreted via exocytosis.
NCI

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oční banky

Centers for storing various parts of the eye for future use.
MSH

An eye bank procures and distributes eyes for transplant, education and research. To promote patient safety, donated eyes and donor medial histories are evaluated based on strict Eye Bank Association of America Medical Standards


HL7V3.0

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Cladosporium

A mitosporic Loculoascomycetes fungal genus including some economically important plant parasites. Teleomorphs include Mycosphaerella and Venturia.
MSH

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nadledviny – nemoci

Pathological processes of the ADRENAL GLANDS.
MSH

pathologic condition or abnormal functioning of either or both of the paired glands situated in the retroperitoneal tissues at the superior pole of the kidneys or adrenal glands.
CSP

Your adrenal, or suprarenal, glands are located on the top of each kidney. These glands produce hormones that you can`t live without, including sex hormones and cortisol, which helps you respond to stress and has many other functions.

Adrenal disorders can cause your adrenal glands to make too much or not enough hormones. With Cushing`s syndrome, there`s too much cortisol, while with Addison`s disease, there is too little. Some people are born unable to make enough cortisol. Tumors can also cause disorders in your adrenal glands. Bleeding and infection can cause an adrenal gland problem that can be fatal without quick treatment.

Treatment depends on which problem you have. Surgery or medicines can treat many adrenal gland disorders.


MEDLINEPLUS

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polycystické ledviny – nemoci

hereditary diseases that are characterized by the progressive expansion of a large number of tightly packed cysts within the kidney; there is an autosomal recessive form appearing in childhood and a later appearing autosomal dominant form; a similar acquired disease sometimes accompanies end-stage renal disease.
CSP

A usually autosomal dominant and less frequently autosomal recessive genetic disorder characterized by the presence of numerous cysts in the kidneys leading to end-stage renal failure. The autosomal dominant trait is associated with abnormalities on the short arm of chromosome 16. Symptoms in patients with the autosomal dominant trait usually appear at middle age and include abdominal pain, hematuria, and high blood pressure. Patients may develop brain aneurysms and liver cysts. Patients with the autosomal recessive trait present with progressive renal failure early in life and symptoms resulting from hepatic fibrosis. The autosomal recessive trait is associated with abnormalities of chromosome 6. Polycystic kidney disease may also result as a side effect in patients on renal dialysis.
NCI

Hereditary diseases that are characterized by the progressive expansion of a large number of tightly packed CYSTS within the KIDNEYS. They include diseases with autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive inheritance.
MSH

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puromycinaminonukleosid

PUROMYCIN derivative that lacks the methoxyphenylalanyl group on the amine of the sugar ring. It is an antibiotic with antineoplastic properties and can cause nephrosis.
MSH

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nervus facialis

The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and salivary glands, and convey afferent information for taste from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and for touch from the external ear.
MSH

seventh cranial nerve; has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root, which together provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and salivary glands, and convey afferent information for taste from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and for touch from the external ear.
CSP

The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and salivary glands, and convey afferent information for taste from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and for touch from the external ear. (MeSH)
NCI

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kloacin

A bacteriocin produced by a plasmid that can occur in several bacterial strains. It is a basic protein of molecular weight 56,000 and exists in a complex with its immunity protein which protects the host bacterium from its effects.
MSH

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aerobik

exercise designed to improve an individual`s cardiovascular condition.
CSP

Physical activity that increases the heart rate and the body`s use of oxygen. It helps improve a person`s physical fitness.
NCI

Sustained exercise that places an increased oxygen demand on the cardiovascular system and promotes an increased efficiency of the body`s use of oxygen.
NCI

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znalostní báze

A database or other collection of knowledge expressed in a formal knowledge representation language.
NCI

Collections of facts, assumptions, beliefs, and heuristics that are used in combination with databases to achieve desired results, such as a diagnosis, an interpretation, or a solution to a problem (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed).
MSH

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pyrazinamid

A pyrazine that is used therapeutically as an antitubercular agent.
MSH

antibacterial derived from nicotinic acid, used as a tuberculostatic.
CSP

A synthetic pyrazinoic acid amide derivative with bactericidal property. Pyrazinamide is particularly active against slowly multiplying intracellular bacilli (unaffected by other drugs) by an unknown mechanism of action. Its bactericidal action is dependent upon the presence of bacterial pyrazinamidase, which removes the amide group to produce active pyrazinoic acid. Pyrazinamide is an important component of multidrug therapy for tuberculosis. (NCI04)
NCI

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fakulta

The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in an educational institution.
MSH

The body of teachers and administrators at a school.
NCI

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odívání

A covering designed to be worn on the body.
NCI

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agar

A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.
MSH

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porodní doba druhá

The period of OBSTETRIC LABOR that is from the complete dilatation of the CERVIX UTERI to the expulsion of the FETUS.
MSH

A stage during labor and childbirth when the cervix is effaced totally and remains dilated until the birth of the baby.
NCI

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pyrofosfatasy

A group of enzymes within the class EC 3.6.1.- that catalyze the hydrolysis of diphosphate bonds, chiefly in nucleoside di- and triphosphates. They may liberate either a mono- or diphosphate. EC 3.6.1.-.
MSH

nonEC; catalyses the hydrolysis of diphosphate bonds, chiefly in nucleoside di- and triphosphates.
CSP

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Fasciola

A genus of trematode liver flukes of the family Fasciolidae. Two species of this genus are F. hepatica and F. gigantica. The parasites are found in the liver and gallbladder and associated ducts in mammals and occasionally man. F. gigantica occurs rarely in man.
MSH

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nemoci kochley

Pathological processes of the snail-like structure (COCHLEA) of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) which can involve its nervous tissue, blood vessels, or fluid (ENDOLYMPH).
MSH

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vzduch

The mixture of gases present in the earth`s atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.
MSH

A mixture of gases making up the earth`s atmosphere, consisting mainly of nitrogen, oxygen, argon, and carbon dioxide.
NCI

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laktoferrin

An iron-binding protein that was originally characterized as a milk protein. It is widely distributed in secretory fluids and is found in the neutrophilic granules of LEUKOCYTES. The N-terminal part of lactoferrin possesses a serine protease which functions to inactivate the type III secretion system used by bacteria to export virulence proteins for host cell invasion.
MSH

iron binding protein found in the specific granules of neutrophils where it exerts an antimicrobial activity by withholding iron from ingested bacteria and fungi; occurs in many excretions and exudates.
CSP

Lactotransferrin (710 aa, ~78 kDa) is encoded by the human LTF gene. This protein is involved in the mediation of both proteolysis and iron transport.
NCI

A protein that is found in milk, tears, mucus, bile, and some white blood cells and is being studied in the treatment and prevention of cancer. It is involved in fighting against infection and inflammation and it acts as an antioxidant.
NCI

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kvalita zdravotní péče

The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.
MSH

activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program; the concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.
CSP

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GOROTZ INKONTINENTZIA

Failure of voluntary control of the anal sphincters, with involuntary passage of feces and flatus.
MSH

failure of control of the anal sphincters, with involuntary passage of feces and flatus; it may be either psychogenic or organic in origin.
CSP

Inability to control the escape of stool from the rectum.
NCI

A disorder characterized by inability to control the escape of stool from the rectum.
NCI

Bowel incontinence is the inability to control your bowels. When you feel the urge to have a bowel movement, you may not be able to hold it until you get to a toilet. More than 5.5 million Americans have bowel incontinence. It affects people of all ages – children and adults. It is more common in women and older adults, but it is not a normal part of aging.

Causes include

Treatments include changes in diet, medicines, bowel training, or surgery.

NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases


MEDLINEPLUS

Inability to hold stool in the rectum.
NCI

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