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pseudodna

presence of calcium salts, especially calcium pyrophosphate, in the cartilaginous structures of one or more joints, accompanied by attacks of goutlike symptoms.
CSP

An acute episode of pain, swelling, and redness, sometimes associated with fever. It is caused by the deposition of calcium pyrophosphate crystals in the joints.
NCI

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glosektomie

Partial or total surgical excision of the tongue. (Dorland, 28th ed)
MSH

Surgery involving partial or complete excision of the tongue.
NCI

Surgical removal of all or part of the tongue.
NCI

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Belgische haas

A strain of Oryctolagus cuniculus originating in Flanders, Belgium and perfected by English breeders.
MSH

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actinobacillosis

A disease characterized by suppurative and granulomatous lesions in the respiratory tract, upper alimentary tract, skin, kidneys, joints, and other tissues. Actinobacillus lignieresii infects cattle and sheep while A. equuli infects horses and pigs.
MSH

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lékařská počítačová informatika

Precise procedural mathematical and logical operations utilized in the study of medical information pertaining to health care.
MSH

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dimethinden

A histamine H1 antagonist. It is used in hypersensitivity reactions, in rhinitis, for pruritus, and in some common cold remedies.
MSH

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psychoanalýza

The separation or resolution of the psyche into its constituent elements. The term has two separate meanings: 1. a procedure devised by Sigmund Freud, for investigating mental processes by means of free association, dream interpretation and interpretation of resistance and transference manifestations; and 2. a theory of psychology developed by Freud from his clinical experience with hysterical patients. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996).
MSH

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glukosinoláty

Substituted thioglucosides. They are found in rapeseed (Brassica campestris) products and related cruciferae. They are metabolized to a variety of toxic products which are most likely the cause of hepatocytic necrosis in animals and humans.
MSH

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benzethonium

Bactericidal cationic quaternary ammonium surfactant used as a topical anti-infective agent. It is an ingredient in medicaments, deodorants, mouthwashes, etc., and is used to disinfect apparatus, etc., in the food processing and pharmaceutical industries, in surgery, and also as a preservative. The compound is toxic orally as a result of neuromuscular blockade.
MSH

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acylkoenzym A

S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.
MSH

S-acyl coenzyme A; fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.
CSP

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meduloblastom

A malignant neoplasm that may be classified either as a glioma or as a primitive neuroectodermal tumor of childhood (see NEUROECTODERMAL TUMOR, PRIMITIVE). The tumor occurs most frequently in the first decade of life with the most typical location being the cerebellar vermis. Histologic features include a high degree of cellularity, frequent mitotic figures, and a tendency for the cells to organize into sheets or form rosettes. Medulloblastoma have a high propensity to spread throughout the craniospinal intradural axis. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2060-1)
MSH

malignant cerebellar neoplasm composed of undifferentiated neuroepithelial cells that may be classified either as a glioma or as a primitive neuroectodermal tumor of childhood; tumor occurs most frequently in the first decade of life with the most typical location being the cerebellar vermis.
CSP

A malignant brain tumor that begins in the lower part of the brain and that can spread to the spine or to other parts of the body. Medulloblastomas are a type of primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET).
NCI

A malignant, invasive embryonal neoplasm arising from the cerebellum. It occurs predominantly in children and has the tendency to metastasize via the cerebrospinal fluid pathways. Signs and symptoms include truncal ataxia, disturbed gait, lethargy, headache, and vomiting. There are four histologic variants: anaplastic medulloblastoma, desmoplastic/nodular medulloblastoma, large cell medulloblastoma, and medulloblastoma with extensive nodularity.
NCI

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dipeptidy

Peptides composed of two amino acid units.
MSH

peptide that yields two molecules of amino acid on hydrolysis.
CSP

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psychofyziologie

The study of the physiological basis of human and animal behavior.
MSH

branch of psychology which experimentally investigates the physiological basis of behavior, including anatomical structures, psychological processes, and mental functions.
CSP

The branch of psychology concerned with the physiological basis of behavior.
NCI

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nitroglycerin

A volatile vasodilator which relieves ANGINA PECTORIS by stimulating GUANYLATE CYCLASE and lowering cytosolic calcium. It is also sometimes used for TOCOLYSIS and explosives.
MSH

volatile vasodilator which relieves angina pectoris by stimulating guanylate cyclase and lowering cytosolic calcium; an explosive compound rendered safe when compounded in tablets with mannitol.
CSP

In medicine, a substance used as a drug to treat certain heart conditions and to widen the openings in blood vessels. Nitroglycerin is being studied as a way to help chemotherapy work better by making tumor cells more sensitive to the drugs. It is a type of vasodilator.
NCI

An organic nitrate with vasodilator activity. Nitroglycerin is converted into nitric oxide (NO) in smooth muscle and activates guanylyl cyclase, thereby increasing cGMP concentration, and resulting in smooth muscle relaxation. Dilatation of the veins results in decreased venous return to the heart, thereby decreasing left ventricular volume (reduced preload) and decreasing myocardial oxygen requirements. Arteriolar relaxation reduces arteriolar resistance (reduced afterload), thereby decreasing myocardial oxygen demands. In addition, nitroglycerine causes coronary artery dilatation, thereby improving myocardial blood distribution.
NCI

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befeniové sloučeniny

Analogs or derivatives of bephenium (N,N-dimethyl-N-(2-phenoxyethyl)benzenemethanaminium).
MSH

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adenosindifosfátglukosa

Serves as the glycosyl donor for formation of bacterial glycogen, amylose in green algae, and amylopectin in higher plants.
MSH

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Melkerssonův-Rosenthalův syndrom

An idiopathic syndrome characterized by one or more of the following; recurrent orofacial swelling, relapsing facial paralysis, and fissured tongue (lingua plicata). The onset is usually in childhood and relapses are common. Cheilitis granulomatosa is a monosymptomatic variant of this condition. (Dermatol Clin 1996 Apr;14(2):371-9; Magalini & Magalini, Dictionary of Medical Syndromes, 4th ed, p531)
MSH

A rare syndrome characterized by recurrent facial nerve paralysis, edema of the lips and face, and furrowed tongue.
NCI

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disartikulace

Amputation or separation at a joint. (Dorland, 28th ed)
MSH

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veřejné zubní lékařství

A dental specialty concerned with the prevention of disease and the maintenance of oral health through promoting organized dental health programs at a community, state, or federal level.
MSH

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glykoproteiny

Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
MSH

ubiquitous family of proteins with covalently attached oligosaccharide side chains which impart unique properties of solubility, size, antigenicity, ligand affinity, cellular targetting, and stability.
CSP

A protein that has sugar molecules attached to it.
NCI

A conjugated protein having a carbohydrate component.
NCI

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betain

A naturally occurring compound that has been of interest for its role in osmoregulation. As a drug, betaine hydrochloride has been used as a source of hydrochloric acid in the treatment of hypochlorhydria. Betaine has also been used in the treatment of liver disorders, for hyperkalemia, for homocystinuria, and for gastrointestinal disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1341)
MSH

class of trimethyl derivatives of amino acids or the internal salts of quaternary ammonium bases.
CSP

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adjuvancia imunologická

Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund`s adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
MSH

A drug that stimulates the immune system to respond to disease.
NCI

a drug that stimulates the immune system
CHV

A substance that increases the ability of the immune system to fight infection and disease.
NCI

Substances that stimulate the immune system.
NCI

Adjuvants are mostly pharmacological agents of drug or biological origin used to modify the antigenicity of immunization components, i.e., to stimulate, potentiate, or depress the immune response or to inhibit or enhance specific subclasses of immunocytes. Adjuvants augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. Classical agents (Freund`s adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum) contain bacterial antigens. Some adjuvants are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. Since adjuvants enhance the body`s immune response, they can be considered a type of immune modulator.
NCI

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meningitida hemofilová

BACTERIAL INFECTIONS of the nervous system caused by HAEMOPHILUS organisms, and marked by prominent inflammation of the meninges. HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE TYPE B is the most common causative organism. The condition primarily affects children under 6 years of age but may occur in adults. Clinical manifestations include fever; nuchal rigidity; PHOTOPHOBIA; SEIZURES; HEARING LOSS, SENSORINEURAL; COMA; and cerebrovascular thrombosis. The organism tends to enter the central nervous system following infections of adjacent structures, including the middle ear (see also OTITIS MEDIA), sinuses, and pharynx. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp396-7)
MSH

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vzdálenost – percepce

The act of knowing or the recognition of a distance by recollective thought, or by means of a sensory process which is under the influence of set and of prior experience.
MSH

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plicní surfaktanty

Substances and drugs that lower the SURFACE TENSION of the mucoid layer lining the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
MSH

phospholipids secreted by the great alveolar cells into alveoli and respiratory air passages which contributes to the elastic property of pulmonary tissue.
CSP

Secretion produced by Type 2 pulmonary alveolar cell.
FMA

Pulmonary surfactant lines the lung epithelium and lowers surface tension to prevent collapse at end-expiration. Deficiency of pulmonary surfactant results in respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in premature infants. Lung surfactant is synthesized in alveolar type II cells, stored in lamellar bodies and secreted via exocytosis. (NCI)
NCI

Secretion produced by Type 2 pulmonary alveolar cell.
UWDA

Pulmonary surfactant lines the lung epithelium and lowers surface tension to prevent collapse at end-expiration. Deficiency of pulmonary surfactant results in respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in premature infants. Lung surfactant is synthesized in alveolar type II cells, stored in lamellar bodies and secreted via exocytosis.
NCI

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Golgiho aparát

A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
MSH

stack of flattened intracellular vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough endoplasmic reticulum and directing them to secretory vesicles, lysosomes or the cell membrane; the movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus.
CSP

A compound membranous cytoplasmic organelle of eukaryotic cells, consisting of flattened, ribosome-free vesicles arranged in a more or less regular stack. The Golgi apparatus differs from the endoplasmic reticulum in often having slightly thicker membranes, appearing in sections as a characteristic shallow semicircle so that the convex side (cis or entry face) abuts the endoplasmic reticulum, secretory vesicles emerging from the concave side (trans or exit face). In vertebrate cells there is usually one such organelle, while in invertebrates and plants, where they are known usually as dictyosomes, there may be several scattered in the cytoplasm. The Golgi apparatus processes proteins produced on the ribosomes of the rough endoplasmic reticulum; such processing includes modification of the core oligosaccharides of glycoproteins, and the sorting and packaging of proteins for transport to a variety of cellular locations. Three different regions of the Golgi are now recognized both in terms of structure and function: cis, in the vicinity of the cis face, trans, in the vicinity of the trans face, and medial, lying between the cis and trans regions. [ISBN:0198506732 “Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology”]
GO

A stack of flattened vesicles located between the nucleus and the secretory pole or surface of a cell. Functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough endoplasmic reticulum and directing them to secretory vesicles, lysosomes, or the cell membrane. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or golgi apparatus and fuse with the golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane.
NCI

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žlučové pigmenty

Linear TETRAPYRROLES that give a characteristic color to BILE including: BILIRUBIN; BILIVERDIN; and bilicyanin.
MSH

pigments that give a characteristic color to bile including: bilirubin, biliverdine, and bilicyanin.
CSP

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nadledviny – nemoci

Pathological processes of the ADRENAL GLANDS.
MSH

pathologic condition or abnormal functioning of either or both of the paired glands situated in the retroperitoneal tissues at the superior pole of the kidneys or adrenal glands.
CSP

Your adrenal, or suprarenal, glands are located on the top of each kidney. These glands produce hormones that you can`t live without, including sex hormones and cortisol, which helps you respond to stress and has many other functions.

Adrenal disorders can cause your adrenal glands to make too much or not enough hormones. With Cushing`s syndrome, there`s too much cortisol, while with Addison`s disease, there is too little. Some people are born unable to make enough cortisol. Tumors can also cause disorders in your adrenal glands. Bleeding and infection can cause an adrenal gland problem that can be fatal without quick treatment.

Treatment depends on which problem you have. Surgery or medicines can treat many adrenal gland disorders.


MEDLINEPLUS

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mefenytoin

An anticonvulsant effective in tonic-clonic epilepsy (EPILEPSY, TONIC-CLONIC). It may cause blood dyscrasias.
MSH

A heterocyclic organic compound with anticonvulsant property. Although the mechanism of action is not well established, mephenytoin potentially promotes sodium efflux from neurons in motor cortex, and stabilizes the threshold against hyperexcitability caused by excessive stimulation. Thus this agent reduces the membrane sodium gradient and prevents cortical seizure signal spreading. It may cause blood dyscrasias, therefore, this agent was only used after other less toxic anticonvulsants had failed.
NCI

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DNA-(cytosin-5-)methyltransferasa

An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE to the 5-position of CYTOSINE residues in DNA.
MSH

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