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dýchání – mechanika

The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
MSH

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larynx

A tubular organ of VOICE production. It is located in the anterior neck, superior to the TRACHEA and inferior to the tongue and HYOID BONE.
MSH

Heterogeneous cluster that connects the pharynx to the tracheobronchial tree. Examples: There is only one larynx.
UWDA

irregularly shaped, musculocartilaginous tubular structure, lined with mucous membrane, located at the top of the trachea and below the root of the tongue and the hyoid bone; the essential sphincter guarding the entrance into the trachea and functioning secondarily as the organ of voice.
CSP

Having to do with the larynx.
NCI

Heterogeneous cluster that connects the pharynx to the tracheobronchial tree. Examples: There is only one larynx.
FMA

The cartilaginous structure of the respiratory tract between the pharynx and the trachea. It contains elastic vocal cords required for sound production. (NCI)
NCI

The area of the throat containing the vocal cords and used for breathing, swallowing, and talking.
NCI

The cartilaginous structure of the respiratory tract between the pharynx and the trachea. It contains elastic vocal cords required for sound production.
NCI

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ferrokyanidy

Inorganic salts of the hypothetical acid ferrocyanic acid (H4Fe(CN)6).
MSH

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zachování přírodních zdrojů

The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.
MSH

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arteria retinalis

Central retinal artery and its branches. It arises from the ophthalmic artery, pierces the optic nerve and runs through its center, enters the eye through the porus opticus and branches to supply the retina.
MSH

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učení

Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
MSH

process by which knowledge, skills, or behaviors are acquired by instruction, study, or experience.
CSP

Any process in an organism in which a relatively long-lasting adaptive behavioral change occurs as the result of experience. [ISBN:0582227089, ISBN:0721662544 “Dorland`s Illustrated Medical Dictionary”]
GO

The act, process, or experience of gaining knowledge or skill.
NCI

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fétus – životaschopnost

The potential of the FETUS to survive outside the UTERUS after birth, natural or induced. Fetal viability depends largely on the FETAL ORGAN MATURITY, and environmental conditions.
MSH

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antikoncepční látky orální kombinované

Fixed drug combinations administered orally for contraceptive purposes.
MSH

A pill used to prevent pregnancy. It contains hormones that block the release of eggs from the ovaries. Most birth control pills include estrogen and progestin.
NCI

Orally administered synthetic sex hormones with contraceptive activity. The oral contraceptive preparation contains a combination of an estrogen, such as ethinyl estradiol, and a progestagen, such as levonorgestrel or norethidrone. The oral contraceptive prevents pregnancy by preventing ovulation and by inducing endometrial and cervical changes undesirable for fertilization and implantation.
NCI

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retrospektivní studie

Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
MSH

A study in which known outcomes are examined in hindsight using existing records.
NCI

A study that compares two groups of people: those with the disease or condition under study (cases) and a very similar group of people who do not have the disease or condition (controls). Researchers study the medical and lifestyle histories of the people in each group to learn what factors may be associated with the disease or condition. For example, one group may have been exposed to a particular substance that the other was not.
NCI

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zákonodárství farmaceutické

Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of pharmacy, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.
MSH

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fibrosarkom

A sarcoma derived from deep fibrous tissue, characterized by bundles of immature proliferating fibroblasts with variable collagen formation, which tends to invade locally and metastasize by the bloodstream. (Stedman, 25th ed)
MSH

sarcoma derived from deep fibrous tissue, characterized by bundles of immature proliferating fibroblasts with variable collagen formation, which tends to invade locally and metastasize by the bloodstream.
CSP

A malignant mesenchymal tumor showing fibroblastic differentiation affecting soft tissues and bone.
NCI

A malignant mesenchymal tumor affecting soft tissues and bone. It is classified as adult or infantile. Infantile fibrosarcomas generally have a much more favorable prognosis than adult fibrosarcomas.
NCI

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koproporfyrinogeny

Porphyrinogens which are intermediates in the heme biosynthesis. They have four methyl and four propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings. Coproporphyrinogens I and III are formed in the presence of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase from the corresponding uroporphyrinogen. They can yield coproporphyrins by autooxidation or protoporphyrin by oxidative decarboxylation.
MSH

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rinitida

Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA, the mucous membrane lining the NASAL CAVITIES.
MSH

inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose.
CSP

an inflammation of the nasal mucous membrane
CHV

An inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the nose, usually associated with nasal discharge.
NCI

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Leontopithecus

The genus of lion tamarins in the subfamily CALLITRICHINAE. The common name refers to the mane on the shoulders.
MSH

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Finsko

A country in Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Sweden and Russia. (NCI)
NCI

Description:Realm code for use of Finland


HL7V3.0

A country in Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Sweden and Russia. (CIA World Factbook 2002)
NCI

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ohledači mrtvol a lékařští vyšetřovatelé

Physicians appointed to investigate all cases of sudden or violent death.
MSH

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ribavirin

A nucleoside antimetabolite antiviral agent that blocks nucleic acid synthesis and is used against both RNA and DNA viruses.
MSH

1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamid e; antiretroviral agent with potential efficacy against AIDS.
CSP

A drug used to treat respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in the lungs.
NCI

A synthetic nucleoside analogue of ribofuranosyl with antiviral activity. Ribavirin incorporates into viral nucleic acid, inhibits viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) synthesis, induces viral genome mutations, and inhibits normal viral replication. Ribavirin shows activity against a variety of RNA viruses, especially hepatitis C virus. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=40325&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=40325&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C807″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A synthetic nucleoside analogue of ribofuranosyl with antiviral activity. Ribavirin incorporates into viral nucleic acid, inhibits viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) synthesis, induces viral genome mutations, and inhibits normal viral replication. Ribavirin shows activity against a variety of RNA viruses, especially hepatitis C virus. (NCI04)
NCI

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srpkovitá anémie

A disease characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia, episodic painful crises, and pathologic involvement of many organs. It is the clinical expression of homozygosity for hemoglobin S.
MSH

disease characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia, episodic painful crises, and pathologic involvement of many organs; the clinical expression of homozygosity for hemoglobin S.
CSP

Sickle cell anemia is a disease in which your body produces abnormally shaped red blood cells. The cells are shaped like a crescent or sickle. They don`t last as long as normal, round red blood cells, which leads to anemia. The sickle cells also get stuck in blood vessels, blocking blood flow. This can cause pain and organ damage.

A genetic problem causes sickle cell anemia. People with the disease are born with two sickle cell genes, one from each parent. If you only have one sickle cell gene, it`s called sickle cell trait. About 1 in 12 African Americans has sickle cell trait. A blood test can show if you have the trait or anemia. Most states test newborn babies as part of their newborn screening programs.


MEDLINEPLUS

An inherited disease in which the red blood cells have an abnormal crescent shape, block small blood vessels, and do not last as long as normal red blood cells. Sickle cell anemia is caused by a mutation (change) in one of the genes for hemoglobin (the substance inside red blood cells that binds to oxygen and carries it from the lungs to the tissues). It is most common in people of West and Central African descent.
NCI

A blood disorder characterized by the appearance of sickle-shaped red blood cells and anemia.
NCI

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leukémie P388

An experimental lymphocytic leukemia originally induced in DBA/2 mice by painting with methylcholanthrene.
MSH

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flavony

A group of 4-keto-FLAVONOIDS.
MSH

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cosyntropin

A synthetic peptide that is identical to the 24-amino acid segment at the N-terminal of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. ACTH (1-24), a segment similar in all species, contains the biological activity that stimulates production of CORTICOSTEROIDS in the ADRENAL CORTEX.
MSH

A synthetically-derived subunit of the endogenous peptide pituitary hormone adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Consisting of the first 24 amino acids from the amino terminal of ACTH, Cortrosyn is usually prepared for injection and intended for diagnostic and not therapeutic use. Similar to endogenous ACTH, this agent stimulates the adrenal secretion of specific adrenal steroids that can be measured in the plasma. (NCI04)
NCI

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Orientia tsutsugamushi

A gram-negative, rod-shaped to coccoid bacterium. It is the etiologic agent of SCRUB TYPHUS in humans and is transmitted by mites from rodent reservoirs.
MSH

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Angiogenesis Factor

group of agents that induce or stimulate the physiologic angiogenesis process.
CSP

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test inhibice adherence leukocytů

Test for cell-mediated antitumor immunity and related serum blocking factors based on the finding that leukocytes from cancer patients, but not from controls, when mixed in vitro with antigenic extracts of tumors of the same histological type, undergo a diminution in their normal adherence to glass surfaces. Sera from tumor-bearing patients block the LAI reaction of their own leukocytes or those of other patients with the same type of tumor.
MSH

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nukleární rodina

A family composed of spouses and their children.
MSH

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fluocinonid

A topical glucocorticoid used in the treatment of ECZEMA.
MSH

A synthetic glucocorticoid and derivative of fluocinolone acetonide with anti-inflammatory and antipruritic activities. Fluocinonide binds the glucocorticoid receptor, followed by translocation of the ligand-receptor complex to the nucleus and transcription activation of genes containing glucocorticoid-responsive elements. Lipocortin-1 is one factor induced by fluocinonide that interacts and inhibits cytosolic phospholipase 2 alpha, thereby preventing phospholipase translocation to the perinuclear membrane and subsequent release and conversion of arachidonic acid to inflammatory prostaglandins. In addition, MAPK phosphatase 1 is induced, thereby preventing the triggering of the MAPK cascade resulting in pro-inflammatory effects via Jun N-terminal kinase and c-Jun. Finally, fluocinonide binds to and inhibits nuclear factor kappa-B directly, resulting in inhibition of cyclooxygenase 2 transcription and subsequent prostaglandin synthesis.
NCI

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kraniofaciální dysostóza

Autosomal dominant CRANIOSYNOSTOSIS with shallow ORBITS; EXOPHTHALMOS; and maxillary hypoplasia.
MSH

autosomal dominant disorder characterized by acrocephaly, exophthalmos, hypertelorism, strabismus, parrot-beaked nose, and hypoplastic maxilla with relative mandibular prognathism.
CSP

A syndrome inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern. It is characterized by early fusion of the bones of the skull and face. Patients have a distinctive facial appearance which includes low-set ears, brachycephaly, hypertelorism, exophthalmos, and mandibular prognathism.
NCI

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RNA-polymerasa II

A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.
MSH

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zvířata – identifikační systémy

Procedures for recognizing individual animals and certain identifiable characteristics pertaining to them; includes computerized methods, ear tags, etc.
MSH

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nádor z Leydigových buněk

Gonadal interstitial or stromal cell neoplasm composed of only LEYDIG CELLS. These tumors may produce one or more of the steroid hormones such as ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS; and CORTICOSTEROIDS. Clinical symptoms include testicular swelling, GYNECOMASTIA, sexual precocity in children, or virilization (VIRILISM) in females.
MSH

A sex cord-stromal tumor occurring in the testis and rarely in the ovary. It is predominantly or completely composed of Leydig cells which may contain crystals of Reinke. In males it usually presents as a painless testicular enlargement and it may be associated with gynecomastia and decreased libido. The majority of the cases have a benign clinical course. Approximately 10% of the cases have a malignant clinical course and metastasize. In females it may be associated with androgenic manifestations and it follows a benign clinical course.
NCI

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