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karotická endarterektomie

The excision of the thickened, atheromatous tunica intima of a carotid artery.
MSH

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tandemové repetitivní sekvence

Copies of DNA sequences which lie adjacent to each other in the same orientation (direct tandem repeats) or in the opposite direction to each other (INVERTED TANDEM REPEATS).
MSH

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kostní svalek

The bony deposit formed between and around the broken ends of BONE FRACTURES during normal healing.
MSH

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lawrencium

Lawrencium. A radioactive actinide discovered in 1961. It has the atomic symbol Lr, atomic number 103, and atomic weight of 257. There are two isotopes with mass number 257 or 258, and mass number 256.
MSH

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podofylin

Caustic extract from the roots of Podophyllum peltatum and P. emodi. It contains PODOPHYLLOTOXIN and its congeners and is very irritating to mucous membranes and skin. Podophyllin is a violent purgative that may cause CNS damage and teratogenesis. It is used as a paint for warts, skin neoplasms, and senile keratoses.
MSH

caustic extract from the roots of Podophyllum species; it contains podophyllotoxin and its congeners and is very irritating to mucous membranes and skin; it is a violent purgative that may cause CNS damage and teratogenesis; used as a paint for warts, skin neoplasms, and senile keratoses.
CSP

A resin extracted from the root of the plant Podophyllum sp. Berberidaceae (mandrake), which contains numerous compounds, among which podophyllotoxin is the principal active component. Podophyllin arrests mitosis in metaphase. Podophyllotoxin offers advantages over podophyllin in terms of purity, stability and lack of systemic toxicity. (NCI04)
NCI

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fétus – makrozomie

A condition of fetal overgrowth leading to a large-for-gestational-age FETUS. It is defined as BIRTH WEIGHT greater than 4,000 grams or above the 90th percentile for population and sex-specific growth curves. It is commonly seen in GESTATIONAL DIABETES; PROLONGED PREGNANCY; and pregnancies complicated by pre-existing diabetes mellitus.
MSH

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endoplazmatické retikulum

A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
MSH

system of cisternae in the cytoplasm of many cells; in places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope; rough endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes and are involved in protein synthesis and transport; smooth endoplasmic reticulum is involved in steroid synthesis.
CSP

The irregular network of unit membranes, visible only by electron microscopy, that occurs in the cytoplasm of many eukaryotic cells. The membranes form a complex meshwork of tubular channels, which are often expanded into slitlike cavities called cisternae. The ER takes two forms, rough (or granular), with ribosomes adhering to the outer surface, and smooth (with no ribosomes attached). [ISBN:0198506732 “Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology”]
GO

a part of the cell structure
CHV

The endoplasmic reticulum is a network of tubular membranes within the cytoplasm of the cell, occurring either with a smooth surface (smooth endoplasmic reticulum) or studded with ribosomes (rough endoplasmic reticulum), involved in the transport of materials. (Infoplease Dictionary)
NCI

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učební pomůcky

Instructional materials used in teaching.
MSH

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kandidóza

Infection with a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. It is usually a superficial infection of the moist areas of the body and is generally caused by CANDIDA ALBICANS. (Dorland, 27th ed)
MSH

infection with a fungus of the genus Candida; usually a superficial infection of the moist areas of the body and is generally caused by Candida albicans; includes chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, cutaneous candidiasis, oral candidiasis (thrush), and monilial vaginitis.
CSP

A condition in which Candida albicans, a type of yeast, grows out of control in moist skin areas of the body. It is usually a result of a weakened immune system, but can be a side effect of chemotherapy or treatment with antibiotics. Thrush usually affects the mouth (oral thrush); however, rarely, it spreads throughout the entire body.
NCI

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legionářská nemoc

An acute, sometimes fatal, pneumonia-like bacterial infection characterized by high fever, malaise, muscle aches, respiratory disorders and headache. It is named for an outbreak at the 1976 Philadelphia convention of the American Legion.
MSH

Legionnaires` disease is a type of pneumonia caused by bacteria. You usually get it by breathing in mist from water that contains the bacteria. The mist may come from hot tubs, showers or air-conditioning units for large buildings. The bacteria don`t spread from person to person.

Symptoms of Legionnaires` disease include fever, chills, a cough and sometimes muscle aches and headaches. Other types of pneumonia have similar symptoms. You will probably need a chest x-ray to diagnose the pneumonia. Lab tests can detect the specific bacteria that cause Legionnaires` disease.

The bacteria are more likely to make you sick if you

  • Are older than 65
  • Smoke
  • Have a lung disease
  • Have a weak immune system

Legionnaires` disease is serious and can be life-threatening. However, most people recover with antibiotic treatment.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention


MEDLINEPLUS

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poly C

A group of cytosine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each cytosine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
MSH

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fibrocystická nemoc prsu

A common condition marked by benign (not cancer) changes in breast tissue. These changes may include irregular lumps or cysts, breast discomfort, sensitive nipples, and itching. These symptoms may change throughout the menstrual cycle and usually stop after menopause.
NCI

A common and benign breast disease characterized by varying degree of fibrocystic changes in the breast tissue. There are three major patterns of morphological changes, including FIBROSIS, formation of CYSTS, and proliferation of glandular tissue (adenosis). The fibrocystic breast has a dense irregular, lumpy, bumpy consistency.
MSH

Fibrosis associated with cyst formation in the breast parenchyma. — 2003
NCI

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koronavirus krocanů

A species of CORONAVIRUS causing enteritis in turkeys and pullets.
MSH

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střídmost

Abstinence from alcohol.
MSH

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kapsida

The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
MSH

protein shell which surrounds the virus nucleic acid; has icosahedral, helical, or complex symmetry.
CSP

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implantace nitrooční čočky

Insertion of an artificial lens to replace the natural CRYSTALLINE LENS after CATARACT EXTRACTION or to supplement the natural lens which is left in place.
MSH

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kyselina polyglutamová

A peptide that is a homopolymer of glutamic acid.
MSH

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finanční podpora

The provision of monetary resources including money or capital and credit; obtaining or furnishing money or capital for a purchase or enterprise and the funds so obtained. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed.)
MSH

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enzymy – aktivace

Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
MSH

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péče o umírající

Medical and nursing care of patients in the terminal stage of an illness.
MSH

treatment of patients who are suffering from fatal, incurable illnesses; terminal patient care deals heavily with issues such as pain management and addressing the emotional and psychological needs of patient and family.
CSP

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uhlík – isotopy

Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
MSH

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leucin

An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
MSH

essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
CSP

Amino acid with side chain -CH2CH(CH3)2.
NCI

One of nine essential amino acids in humans (provided by food), Leucine is important for protein synthesis and many metabolic functions. Leucine contributes to regulation of blood-sugar levels; growth and repair of muscle and bone tissue; growth hormone production; and wound healing. Leucine also prevents breakdown of muscle proteins after trauma or severe stress and may be beneficial for individuals with phenylketonuria. Leucine is available in many foods and deficiency is rare. (NCI04)
NCI

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polyradikuloneuropatie

Diseases characterized by injury or dysfunction involving multiple peripheral nerves and nerve roots. The process may primarily affect myelin or nerve axons. Two of the more common demyelinating forms are acute inflammatory polyradiculopathy (GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME) and POLYRADICULONEUROPATHY, CHRONIC INFLAMMATORY DEMYELINATING. Polyradiculoneuritis refers to inflammation of multiple peripheral nerves and spinal nerve roots.
MSH

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hasicí látky

Materials applied to fabrics, bedding, furniture, plastics, etc. to retard their burning; many may leach out and cause allergies or other harm.
MSH

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tetradekanoylforbolacetát

A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
MSH

A substance being studied in the treatment of leukemias and lymphomas. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Tetradecanoylphorbol acetate affects many cell actions and may cause tumor cells to die. It is a type of phorbol ester.
NCI

A phorbol ester with potential antineoplastic effects. Tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA) induces maturation and differentiation of hematopoietic cell lines, including leukemic cells. This agent may induce gene expression and protein kinase C (PKC) activity. In addition to potential antineoplastic effects, TPA may exhibit tumor promoting activity. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=43661&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=43661&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C866″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A phorbol ester with potential antineoplastic effects. Tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA) induces maturation and differentiation of hematopoietic cell lines, including leukemic cells. This agent may induce gene expression and protein kinase C (PKC) activity. In addition to potential antineoplastic effects, TPA may exhibit tumor promoting activity. (NCI04)
NCI

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karcinom

A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for “cancer.” (From Dorland, 27th ed)
MSH

malignant new growth arising from epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases.
CSP

Cancer that begins in the skin or in tissues that line or cover internal organs.
NCI

type of cancer
CHV

A malignant tumor arising from epithelial cells. Carcinomas that arise from glandular epithelium are called adenocarcinomas, those that arise from squamous epithelium are called squamous cell carcinomas, and those that arise from transitional epithelium are called transitional cell carcinomas. Morphologically, the malignant epithelial cells may display abnormal mitotic figures, anaplasia, and necrosis. Carcinomas are graded by the degree of cellular differentiation as well, moderately, or poorly differentiated. Carcinomas invade the surrounding tissues and tend to metastasize to other anatomic sites. Lung carcinoma, skin carcinoma, breast carcinoma, colon carcinoma, and prostate carcinoma are the most frequently seen carcinomas.
NCI

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leukémie pre-B-buněčná

A leukemia/lymphoma found predominately in children and adolescents and characterized by a high number of lymphoblasts and solid tumor lesions. Frequent sites involve LYMPH NODES, skin, and bones. It most commonly presents as leukemia.
MSH

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populace – surveillance

Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
MSH

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fludrokortison

A synthetic mineralocorticoid with anti-inflammatory activity.
MSH

A synthetic corticosteroid. It is used to replace steroid hormones normally produced by the adrenal gland.
NCI

A synthetic corticosteroid with antiinflammatory and antiallergic properties. Fludrocortisone is a mineralocorticoid receptor and glucocorticoid receptor agonist that binds to cytoplasmic receptors, translocates to the nucleus and subsequently initiates the transcription of glucocorticoid-responsive genes such as lipocortins to inhibit phospholipase A2. This prevents the release of arachidonic acid, a precursor to prostaglandins and leukotrienes, both important mediators in the pro-inflammatory response mechanism. In addition, this agent exerts its mineralocorticoid effect on the distal tubules and collecting ducts of the kidney by inducing permease, an enzyme that regulates Na+ permeability in cells, thereby enhancing Na+ reabsorption and water retention as well as increasing K+, H+ excretion.
NCI

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thalium – radioisotopy

Unstable isotopes of thallium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Tl atoms with atomic weights 198-202, 204, and 206-210 are thallium radioisotopes.
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