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discus nervi optici

The portion of the optic nerve seen in the fundus with the ophthalmoscope. It is formed by the meeting of all the retinal ganglion cell axons as they enter the optic nerve.
MSH

intraocular portion of the optic nerve formed by fibers converging from retina and appearing as a pink to white disk.
CSP

A portion of the retina at which the axons of the ganglion cells exit the eyeball to form the optic nerve. No light-sensitive photoreceptors are contained within this portion of the retina.
NCI

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chromatografie plynová

Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
MSH

technique for separating gas mixtures in which the gas is passed through a long column containing a fixed absorbent phase that separates the gas mixture into its component parts.
CSP

A chromatographic technique in which the stationary phase is solid while the mobile phase is gaseous samples. The gaseous samples are separated based on their different adsorption ability to the solid phase.
NCI

Chromatography, Gas


HL7V3.0

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žárlivost

An irrational reaction compounded of grief, loss of self-esteem, enmity against the rival and self criticism.
MSH

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Schizosaccharomyces

A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.
MSH

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Etiology aspects

Used with diseases for causative agents including microorganisms and includes environmental and social factors and personal habits as contributing factors. It includes pathogenesis.
MSH

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transplantace orgánů

Transference of an organ between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.
MSH

A surgical procedure in which tissue or an organ is transferred from one area of a person`s body to another area, or from one person (the donor) to another person (the recipient).
NCI

You may need an organ transplant if one of your own organs has failed. This can happen because of illness or injury. When you have an organ transplant, doctors remove an organ from another person and place it in your body.

The organs that can be transplanted include

People who need an organ transplant often have to wait a long time for one. Doctors must match donors to recipients to reduce the risk of transplant rejection. This is when the recipient`s body turns against the new organ, causing it to fail. People who have transplants must take drugs the rest of their lives to help keep their bodies from rejecting the new organ.


MEDLINEPLUS

The transfer of an organ (or part of one) from one body to another, for the purpose of replacing the recipient`s damaged or failing organ with a working one from the donor. Donors can be living, or cadaveric (dead).
NCI

Transference of a tissue or organ within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
NCI

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chromozómy lidské, 16-18

The short, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group E in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 16, 17, and 18.
MSH

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kyselina kainová

(2S-(2 alpha,3 beta,4 beta))-2-Carboxy-4-(1-methylethenyl)-3-pyrrolidineacetic acid. Ascaricide obtained from the red alga Digenea simplex. It is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist at some types of excitatory amino acid receptors and has been used to discriminate among receptor types. Like many excitatory amino acid agonists it can cause neurotoxicity and has been used experimentally for that purpose.
MSH

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sklerodermie systémová

A chronic multi-system disorder of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. It is characterized by SCLEROSIS in the SKIN, the LUNGS, the HEART, the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, the KIDNEYS, and the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM. Other important features include diseased small BLOOD VESSELS and AUTOANTIBODIES. The disorder is named for its most prominent feature (hard skin), and classified into subsets by the extent of skin thickening: LIMITED SCLERODERMA and DIFFUSE SCLERODERMA.
MSH

systemic disorder of the connective tissue; manifested by hardening and thickening of the skin, by abnormalities involving the microvasculature and larger vessels, and by fibrotic degenerative changes in various body organs including the heart, lungs, kidneys, and gastrointestinal tract.
CSP

A chronic disorder, possibly autoimmune, marked by excessive production of collagen which results in hardening and thickening of body tissues. The two types of systemic scleroderma, limited cutaneous and diffuse cutaneous are classified with focus on the extent of affected skin. A relationship exists between the extent of skin area affected and degree of internal organ/system involvement. Systemic scleroderma can manifest itself in pulmonary fibrosis, Raynaud`s syndrome, digestive system telangiectasias, renal hypertension and/or pulmonary hypertension.
NCI

a rare, chronic disease characterized by excessive deposits of collagen in the skin or other organs
CHV

A disease that is marked by hardening and thickening of skin, connective tissue that surrounds other tissues and organs, and blood vessels.
NCI

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Excision Repair

Excision Repair mechanisms remove and replace damaged nucleotides from DNA molecules with new nucleotide subunits, e.g., Base Excision Repair, Nucleotide Excision Repair, or SOS Function.
NCI

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ornithindekarboxylasa

A pyridoxal-phosphate protein, believed to be the rate-limiting compound in the biosynthesis of polyamines. It catalyzes the decarboxylation of ornithine to form putrescine, which is then linked to a propylamine moiety of decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine to form spermidine. EC 4.1.1.17.
MSH

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chrysarobin

An extract of Goa powder; a complex mixture of reduction products of chrysophanic acid, emodin, and emodin monomethyl ether; used locally in ringworm, psoriasis, and eczema.
NCI

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keratokonjunktivitida suchá

Drying and inflammation of the conjunctiva as a result of insufficient lacrimal secretion. When found in association with XEROSTOMIA and polyarthritis, it is called SJOGREN`S SYNDROME.
MSH

WHAT: Keratoconjunctivitis sicca.
AIR

drying and inflammation of the conjunctiva as a result of insufficient lacrimal secretion.
CSP

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mazové žlázy

Small, sacculated organs found within the DERMIS. Each gland has a single duct that emerges from a cluster of oval alveoli. Each alveolus consists of a transparent BASEMENT MEMBRANE enclosing epithelial cells. The ducts from most sebaceous glands open into a HAIR FOLLICLE, but some open on the general surface of the SKIN. Sebaceous glands secrete SEBUM.
MSH

small, sacculated organs found within the dermis which secrete sebum; ducts from most sebaceous glands open into a hair follicle but some open on the general surface of the skin.
CSP

Small glands located within the epidermis, and associated with the hair follicle, that produce and secrete an oily substance that lubricates the skin and hair.
NCI

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extracelulární tekutina

The fluid of the body that is outside of CELLS. It is the external environment for the cells.
MSH

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osmium

Osmium. A very hard, gray, toxic, and nearly infusible metal element, atomic number 76, atomic weight 190.2, symbol Os. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
MSH

very hard, gray, toxic and nearly infusible metal; atomic number 76, symbol Os.
CSP

An element with atomic symbol Os, atomic number 76, and atomic weight 190.23.
NCI

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cirkulární dichroismus

A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
MSH

planar polarization converts to eliptic polarization when plane polarized light travels through an optically active medium.
CSP

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ledviny – kameny

Stones in the KIDNEY, usually formed in the urine-collecting area of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS). Their sizes vary and most contains CALCIUM OXALATE.
MSH

A kidney stone is a solid piece of material that forms in the kidney from substances in the urine. It may be as small as a grain of sand or as large as a pearl. Most kidney stones pass out of the body without help from a doctor. But sometimes a stone will not go away. It may get stuck in the urinary tract, block the flow of urine and cause great pain.

The following may be signs of kidney stones that need a doctor`s help:

  • Extreme pain in your back or side that will not go away
  • Blood in your urine
  • Fever and chills
  • Vomiting
  • Urine that smells bad or looks cloudy
  • A burning feeling when you urinate

NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases


MEDLINEPLUS

A disorder characterized by the formation of crystals in the pelvis of the kidney.
NCI

Crystals in the pelvis of the kidney.
NCI

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jednotky samopéče

Rooms in health care facilities for patients who require a minimal level of care.
MSH

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oční infekce virové

Infections of the eye caused by minute intracellular agents. These infections may lead to severe inflammation in various parts of the eye – conjunctiva, iris, eyelids, etc. Several viruses have been identified as the causative agents. Among these are Herpesvirus, Adenovirus, Poxvirus, and Myxovirus.
MSH

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osteomyelitida

inflammation of the bone marrow and adjacent bone caused by a pyogenic organism; it may remain localized or may spread through the bone to involve the marrow, cortex, cancellous tissue, and periosteum.
CSP

Inflammation of the bone caused by an infection, which may spread to the bone marrow and tissues near the bone. Osteomyelitis can cause severe pain in the infected bone. If it is not treated, it can kill bone tissue.
NCI

An acute or chronic inflammation of the bone and its structures due to infection with pyogenic bacteria.
NCI

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rozštěp rtu

Congenital defect in the upper lip where the maxillary prominence fails to merge with the merged medial nasal prominences. It is thought to be caused by faulty migration of the mesoderm in the head region.
MSH

congenital defect in the upper lip where the maxillary prominence fails to merge with the merged medial nasal prominences; thought to be caused by faulty migration of the mesoderm in the head region.
CSP

A congenital abnormality consisting of one or more clefts (splits) in the upper lip, which may be accompanied by a cleft palate; it is the result of the failure of the embryonic parts of the lip to fuse.
NCI

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kinetika

The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
MSH

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septikémie

systemic disease associated with presence and persistance of pathogenic microorganisms or their toxins in the blood.
CSP

Systemic disease associated with the presence of pathogenic microorganisms or their toxins in the blood.
MSH

Sepsis is a life-threatening illness. Your body`s response to a bacterial infection usually causes it. Your immune system goes into overdrive, overwhelming normal processes in your blood. The result is that small blood clots form, blocking blood flow to vital organs. This can lead to organ failure. Babies, old people and those with weakened immune systems are most likely to get sepsis. But even healthy people can become deathly ill from it. A quick diagnosis can be crucial, because one third of people who get sepsis die from it.

Sepsis is usually treated in a hospital intensive care unit (ICU). IV antibiotics and fluids may be given to try to knock out the infection and to keep blood pressure from dropping too low. Patients may also need respirators to help them breathe.


MEDLINEPLUS

A disorder characterized by the presence of pathogenic microorganisms in the blood stream that cause a rapidly progressing systemic reaction that may lead to shock.
NCI

Disease caused by the spread of bacteria and their toxins in the bloodstream.
NCI

The presence of pathogenic microorganisms in the blood stream causing a rapidly progressing systemic reaction that may lead to shock. Symptoms include fever, chills, tachycardia, and increased respiratory rate. It is a medical emergency that requires urgent medical attention.
NCI

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faktor IXa

Activated form of factor IX. This activation can take place via the intrinsic pathway by the action of factor XIa and calcium, or via the extrinsic pathway by the action of factor VIIa, thromboplastin, and calcium. Factor IXa serves to activate factor X to Xa by cleaving the arginyl-leucine peptide bond in factor X.
MSH

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pacienti ambulantní

Persons who receive ambulatory care at an outpatient department or clinic without room and board being provided.
MSH

A patient who visits a health care facility for diagnosis or treatment without spending the night. Sometimes called a day patient.
NCI

A patient who comes to a healthcare facility for diagnosis or treatment but is not admitted for an overnight stay.
NCI

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klonidin

An imidazoline sympatholytic agent that stimulates ALPHA-2 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS and central IMIDAZOLINE RECEPTORS. It is commonly used in the management of HYPERTENSION.
MSH

alpha-2 adrenergic agonist that crosses the blood-brain barrier; acts centrally by reducing sympathetic tone, resulting in a fall in diastolic and systolic blood pressure and a reduction in heart rate; also acts peripherally.
CSP

a hypertension treatment drug
CHV

The active ingredient in a drug used to treat high blood pressure. It is also being studied in the treatment of certain types of cancer pain. It blocks the release of chemicals from nerve endings that make blood vessels constrict (get narrower). Clonidine is a type of antihypertensive agent and a type of alpha-adrenergic agonist.
NCI

An imidazoline derivate and centrally-acting alpha-adrenergic agonist, with antihypertensive activity. Clonidine binds to and stimulates central alpha-2 adrenergic receptors, thereby reducing the amount of norepinephrine (NE) release and thus decreasing sympathetic outflow to the heart, kidneys, and peripheral vasculature. The reduction in sympathetic outflow leads to decreased peripheral vascular resistance, decreased blood pressure, and decreased heart rate. In addition, clonidine binds to imidazoline receptor subtype 1 (I1), which may also contribute to a reduction in blood pressure.
NCI

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krypton

A noble gas that is found in the atmosphere. It has the atomic symbol Kr, atomic number 36, atomic weight 83.80, and has been used in electric bulbs.
MSH

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sérový baktericidní test

Method of measuring the bactericidal activity contained in a patient`s serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy. It is used to monitor the therapy in BACTERIAL ENDOCARDITIS; OSTEOMYELITIS and other serious bacterial infections. As commonly performed, the test is a variation of the broth dilution test. This test needs to be distinguished from testing of the naturally occurring BLOOD BACTERICIDAL ACTIVITY.
MSH

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falešně negativní reakce

Negative test results in subjects who possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of diseased persons as healthy when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
MSH

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