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fludrokortison

A synthetic mineralocorticoid with anti-inflammatory activity.
MSH

A synthetic corticosteroid. It is used to replace steroid hormones normally produced by the adrenal gland.
NCI

A synthetic corticosteroid with antiinflammatory and antiallergic properties. Fludrocortisone is a mineralocorticoid receptor and glucocorticoid receptor agonist that binds to cytoplasmic receptors, translocates to the nucleus and subsequently initiates the transcription of glucocorticoid-responsive genes such as lipocortins to inhibit phospholipase A2. This prevents the release of arachidonic acid, a precursor to prostaglandins and leukotrienes, both important mediators in the pro-inflammatory response mechanism. In addition, this agent exerts its mineralocorticoid effect on the distal tubules and collecting ducts of the kidney by inducing permease, an enzyme that regulates Na+ permeability in cells, thereby enhancing Na+ reabsorption and water retention as well as increasing K+, H+ excretion.
NCI

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receptory muskarinové

One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Muscarinic receptors were originally defined by their preference for MUSCARINE over NICOTINE. There are several subtypes (usually M1, M2, M3….) that are characterized by their cellular actions, pharmacology, and molecular biology.
MSH

G protein coupled surface receptor that mediates acetylcholine action on smooth and cardiac muscle and in CNS; may be linked to a potassium channel (membrane polarization) or second messenger systems.
CSP

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karotická endarterektomie

The excision of the thickened, atheromatous tunica intima of a carotid artery.
MSH

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leupeptiny

A group of acylated oligopeptides produced by Actinomycetes that function as protease inhibitors. They have been known to inhibit to varying degrees trypsin, plasmin, KALLIKREINS, papain and the cathepsins.
MSH

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kostní svalek

The bony deposit formed between and around the broken ends of BONE FRACTURES during normal healing.
MSH

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4-aminobutyráttransaminasa

An enzyme that converts brain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID) into succinate semialdehyde, which can be converted to succinic acid and enter the citric acid cycle. It also acts on beta-alanine. EC 2.6.1.19.
MSH

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fluorometrie

An analytical method for detecting and measuring FLUORESCENCE in compounds or targets such as cells, proteins, or nucleotides, or targets previously labeled with FLUORESCENCE AGENTS.
MSH

the measurement of fluorescence.
CSP

An analytical method that utilizes ultraviolet light to excite the sample and detects the fluorescence emitted during the return of the sample to its ground state.
NCI

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Proktalgie

Pain in the rectal area.
NCI

A disorder characterized by a sensation of marked discomfort in the rectal region.
NCI

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endoplazmatické retikulum

A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
MSH

system of cisternae in the cytoplasm of many cells; in places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope; rough endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes and are involved in protein synthesis and transport; smooth endoplasmic reticulum is involved in steroid synthesis.
CSP

The irregular network of unit membranes, visible only by electron microscopy, that occurs in the cytoplasm of many eukaryotic cells. The membranes form a complex meshwork of tubular channels, which are often expanded into slitlike cavities called cisternae. The ER takes two forms, rough (or granular), with ribosomes adhering to the outer surface, and smooth (with no ribosomes attached). [ISBN:0198506732 “Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology”]
GO

a part of the cell structure
CHV

The endoplasmic reticulum is a network of tubular membranes within the cytoplasm of the cell, occurring either with a smooth surface (smooth endoplasmic reticulum) or studded with ribosomes (rough endoplasmic reticulum), involved in the transport of materials. (Infoplease Dictionary)
NCI

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Blíže neurčený lichen

skin disease caused by lichen fungus
CHV

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kandidóza

Infection with a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. It is usually a superficial infection of the moist areas of the body and is generally caused by CANDIDA ALBICANS. (Dorland, 27th ed)
MSH

infection with a fungus of the genus Candida; usually a superficial infection of the moist areas of the body and is generally caused by Candida albicans; includes chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, cutaneous candidiasis, oral candidiasis (thrush), and monilial vaginitis.
CSP

A condition in which Candida albicans, a type of yeast, grows out of control in moist skin areas of the body. It is usually a result of a weakened immune system, but can be a side effect of chemotherapy or treatment with antibiotics. Thrush usually affects the mouth (oral thrush); however, rarely, it spreads throughout the entire body.
NCI

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amoterapie

Treatment by application of hot sand.
MSH

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následné studie

Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
MSH

Study in which persons exposed to risk or given a designated preventive or therapeutic regimen are observed over a period or at intervals to determine the outcome of the exposure or regimen. (On-line Medical Dictionary)
NCI

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Refsumova nemoc

An autosomal recessive familial disorder that usually presents in childhood with POLYNEUROPATHY; SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; ICHTHYOSIS; ATAXIA; RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; and CARDIOMYOPATHIES. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1991, Ch37, p58-9; Rev Med Interne 1996;17(5):391-8) This condition can be caused by mutation in the genes encoding peroxisomal phytanoyl-CoA hydroxylase or proteins associated peroxisomal membrane, leading to impaired catabolism of PHYTANIC ACID in PEROXISOMES.
MSH

autosomal recessive disorder of lipid metabolism in which deficiency of phytanic acid alpha-hydroxylase results in accumulation of phytanic acid; manifested chiefly by chronic polyneuritis, retinitis pigmentosa, cerebellar ataxia and elevation of protein in cerebrospinal fluid.
CSP

A rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by abnormalities in the breakdown of phytanic acid and impaired growth of myelin sheaths. Signs and symptoms include neurologic damage, cerebellar degeneration, and neuropathy.
NCI

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koronavirus krocanů

A species of CORONAVIRUS causing enteritis in turkeys and pullets.
MSH

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nervus lingualis

A sensory branch of the MANDIBULAR NERVE, which is part of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The lingual nerve carries general afferent fibers from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, the floor of the mouth, and the mandibular gingivae.
MSH

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kapsida

The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
MSH

protein shell which surrounds the virus nucleic acid; has icosahedral, helical, or complex symmetry.
CSP

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amsakrin

Aminoacridine derivative that is a potent intercalating antineoplastic agent. It is effective in the treatment of acute leukemias and malignant lymphomas, but has poor activity in the treatment of solid tumors. It is frequently used in combination with other antineoplastic agents in chemotherapy protocols. It produces consistent but acceptable myelosuppression and cardiotoxic effects.
MSH

An aminoacridine derivative with potent antineoplastic properties. Although its mechanism of action is incompletely defined, amsacrine may intercalate into DNA and inhibit topoisomerase II, resulting in DNA double-strand breaks. This agent`s cytotoxicity is maximal during the S phase of the cell cycle when topoisomerase levels are greatest. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39142&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39142&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C240″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

An aminoacridine derivative with potential antineoplastic activity. Although its mechanism of action is incompletely defined, amsacrine may intercalate into DNA and inhibit topoisomerase II, resulting in DNA double-strand breaks, arrest of the S/G2 phase of the cell cycle, and cell death. This agent`s cytotoxicity is maximal during the S phase of the cell cycle when topoisomerase levels are greatest. In addition, amsacrine may induce transcription of tumor promoter p53 protein and block p53 ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation, resulting in p53-dependent tumor cell apoptosis.
NCI

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noha – dermatózy

Skin diseases of the foot, general or unspecified.
MSH

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relativní biologická účinnost

The ratio of radiation dosages required to produce identical change based on a formula comparing other types of radiation with that of gamma or roentgen rays.
MSH

ratio of radiation dosages required to produce identical change based on a formula comparing other types of radiation with that of gamma or roentgen rays.
CSP

A factor assigned to a type of ionizing radiation in converting absorbed dose measured in grays to a biologically equivalent dose measured in sieverts. In formula form, (equivalent dose) = (quality factor) x (absorbed dose). (Dr. Joseph A. Thie)
NCI

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enzymy – aktivace

Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
MSH

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lipolýza

The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.
MSH

decomposition or splitting up of fats or lipids.
CSP

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of lipids, compounds soluble in an organic solvent but not, or sparingly, in an aqueous solvent. [GOC:go_curators]
GO

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uhlík – isotopy

Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
MSH

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anafylaxe

An acute hypersensitivity reaction due to exposure to a previously encountered ANTIGEN. The reaction may include rapidly progressing URTICARIA, respiratory distress, vascular collapse, systemic SHOCK, and death.
MSH

a manifestation of immediate hypersensitivity in which exposure of a sensitized individual to a specific antigen or hapten results in urticaria, pruritis and angioedema, followed by vascular collapse and shock often accompanied by life threatening respiratory distress.
CSP

An acute inflammatory reaction resulting from the release of histamine and histamine-like substances from mast cells, causing a hypersensitivity immune response. Clinically, it presents with breathing difficulty, dizziness, hypotension, cyanosis and loss of consciousness, and may lead to death.
NCI

OBSOLETE. Extreme immunological sensitivity of the body or tissues to the reintroduction of an antigen. It is a form of anamnestic reaction and is accompanied by pathological changes in tissues or organs due to the release of pharmacologically active substances. [ISBN:0198506732 “Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology”]
GO

A disorder characterized by an acute inflammatory reaction resulting from the release of histamine and histamine-like substances from mast cells, causing a hypersensitivity immune response. Clinically, it presents with breathing difficulty, dizziness, hypotension, cyanosis and loss of consciousness and may lead to death.
NCI

An acute inflammatory reaction resulting from the release of histamine and histamine-like substances from mast cells, causing a hypersensitivity immune response. Clinically, it presents with breathing difficulty, dizziness, hypotension, cyanosis and loss of consciousness, and may lead to death.
NCI

A severe and sometimes life-threatening immune system reaction to an antigen that a person has been previously exposed to. The reaction may include itchy skin, edema, collapsed blood vessels, fainting, difficulty in breathing, and death.
NCI

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formazany

Colored azo compounds formed by the reduction of tetrazolium salts. Employing this reaction, oxidoreductase activity can be determined quantitatively in tissue sections by allowing the enzymes to act on their specific substrates in the presence of tetrazolium salts.
MSH

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repetitivní sekvence nukleových kyselin

Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
MSH

sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies.
CSP

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kyselina lithocholová

A bile acid formed from chenodeoxycholate by bacterial action, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as cholagogue and choleretic.
MSH

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karcinom

A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for “cancer.” (From Dorland, 27th ed)
MSH

malignant new growth arising from epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases.
CSP

Cancer that begins in the skin or in tissues that line or cover internal organs.
NCI

type of cancer
CHV

A malignant tumor arising from epithelial cells. Carcinomas that arise from glandular epithelium are called adenocarcinomas, those that arise from squamous epithelium are called squamous cell carcinomas, and those that arise from transitional epithelium are called transitional cell carcinomas. Morphologically, the malignant epithelial cells may display abnormal mitotic figures, anaplasia, and necrosis. Carcinomas are graded by the degree of cellular differentiation as well, moderately, or poorly differentiated. Carcinomas invade the surrounding tissues and tend to metastasize to other anatomic sites. Lung carcinoma, skin carcinoma, breast carcinoma, colon carcinoma, and prostate carcinoma are the most frequently seen carcinomas.
NCI

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syndrom fragilního X

A condition characterized genotypically by mutation of the distal end of the long arm of the X chromosome (at gene loci FRAXA or FRAXE) and phenotypically by cognitive impairment, hyperactivity, SEIZURES, language delay, and enlargement of the ears, head, and testes. INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY occurs in nearly all males and roughly 50% of females with the full mutation of FRAXA. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p226)
MSH

X-linked recessive disorder characterized by mental retardation and large head, jaw, ears, and testes; premutation alleles in unaffected carriers give rise to significantly amplified repeats in affected progeny.
CSP

Fragile X syndrome is the most common form of inherited mental retardation. A problem with a specific gene causes the disease. Normally, the gene makes a protein you need for brain development. But the mutation causes a person to make little or none of the protein, which results in the symptoms of Fragile X.

People with only a small change in the gene might not show any signs of Fragile X. People with bigger changes can have severe symptoms. These might include

  • Intelligence problems, ranging from learning disabilities to severe mental retardation
  • Social and emotional problems, such as aggression in boys or shyness in girls
  • Speech and language problems, especially in boys

Fragile X has no cure. You can treat some symptoms with educational, behavioral or physical therapy, and with medicines. Getting treatment early for Fragile X can help.

NIH: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development


MEDLINEPLUS

A genetic syndrome caused by mutations in the FMR1 gene which is responsible for the expression of the fragile X mental retardation 1 protein. This protein participates in neural development. This syndrome is manifested with mental, emotional, behavioral, physical, and learning disabilities.
NCI

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dýchání umělé

Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).
MSH

any method of artifical breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs; artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have respiratory insufficiency to increase their intake of oxygen and excretion of carbon dioxide.
CSP

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