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gonany

Steroids containing the fundamental tetracyclic unit with no methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and with no side chain at C-17. The concept includes both saturated and unsaturated derivatives.
MSH

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superego

The component of the personality associated with ethics, standards, and self-criticism – the “conscience”. It is derived mainly from identification with parents and parent substitutes.
MSH

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Criglerův-Najjarův syndrom

A familial form of congenital hyperbilirubinemia transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait. It is characterized by icterus and brain damage caused by a glucuronyl transferase deficiency in the liver and faulty bilirubin conjugation.
MSH

A rare autosomal recessive inherited syndrome characterized by abnormalities in the metabolism of bilirubin. It results in the development of jaundice. It may cause brain damage in infancy.
NCI

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rtuť – otrava

acute or chronic disease produced by exposure to mercury or toxic mercury compounds.
CSP

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piperazine

saturated 6-membered ring structure with 2 nitrogen atoms.
CSP

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hlezenní kloub

The joint that is formed by the inferior articular and malleolar articular surfaces of the TIBIA; the malleolar articular surface of the FIBULA; and the medial malleolar, lateral malleolar, and superior surfaces of the TALUS.
MSH

A gliding joint between the distal ends of the tibia and fibula and the proximal end of the talus. (NCI)
NCI

A gliding joint between the distal ends of the tibia and fibula and the proximal end of the talus.
NCI

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granulom

A relatively small nodular inflammatory lesion containing grouped mononuclear phagocytes, caused by infectious and noninfectious agents.
MSH

relatively small nodular inflammatory lesion containing grouped mononuclear phagocytes, caused by infectious and noninfectious agents.
CSP

small lump caused by inflammation
CHV

An inflammatory reaction usually caused by infectious organisms, foreign bodies, or cholesterol deposits. It is characterized by the presence of epithelioid histiocytes and chronic inflammation. Often times giant cells are present. Necrosis is sometimes observed.
NCI

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chirurgické oddělení nemocnice

Hospital department which administers all departmental functions and the provision of surgical diagnostic and therapeutic services.
MSH

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Cruveilhierův-Baumgartenův syndrom

Liver cirrhosis with intrahepatic portal obstruction, HYPERTENSION, and patent UMBILICAL VEINS.
MSH

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metabolic aspects

Used with organs, cells and subcellular fractions, organisms, and diseases for biochemical changes and metabolism. It is used also with drugs and chemicals for catabolic changes (breakdown of complex molecules into simpler ones). For anabolic processes (conversion of small molecules into large), BIOSYNTHESIS is used. For enzymology, pharmacokinetics, and secretion use the specific subheadings.
MSH

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GIBERT EN PITIRIASIS ARROSATUA

A mild exanthematous inflammation of unknown etiology. It is characterized by the presence of salmon-colored maculopapular lesions. The most striking feature is the arrangement of the lesions such that the long axis is parallel to the lines of cleavage. The eruptions are usually generalized, affecting chiefly the trunk, and the course is often self-limiting.
MSH

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anthralin

An anthracene derivative that disrupts MITOCHONDRIA function and structure and is used for the treatment of DERMATOSES, especially PSORIASIS. It may cause FOLLICULITIS.
MSH

A natural anthraquinone derivative, anti-psoriatic and anti-inflammatory Anthralin (dithranol) controls skin growth by reducing DNA synthesis and mitotic activity in the hyperplastic epidermis, restoring a normal rate of cell proliferation and keratinization. Used topically in the treatment of psoriasis, dermatoses, and alopecia areata, it is also used in biomedical research due to its effect on EGFR autophosphorylation. (NCI04)
NCI

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skupinová struktura

The informal or formal organization of a group of people based on a network of personal relationships which is influenced by the size and composition, etc., of the group.
MSH

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přežití

Continuance of life or existence especially under adverse conditions; includes methods and philosophy of survival.
MSH

In cancer, survivorship covers the physical, psychosocial, and economic issues of cancer, from diagnosis until the end of life. It focuses on the health and life of a person with cancer beyond the diagnosis and treatment phases. Survivorship includes issues related to the ability to get health care and follow-up treatment, late effects of treatment, second cancers, and quality of life. Family members, friends, and caregivers are also part of the survivorship experience.
NCI

Continuance of life or existence especially under adverse conditions; includes methods and philosophy of survival.
NCI

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kurkumin

A yellow-orange dye obtained from tumeric, the powdered root of CURCUMA longa. It is used in the preparation of curcuma paper and the detection of boron. Curcumin appears to possess a spectrum of pharmacological properties, due primarily to its inhibitory effects on metabolic enzymes.
MSH

A yellow pigment of the spice turmeric that is being studied in cancer prevention.
NCI

A phytopolylphenol pigment isolated from the plant Curcuma longa, commonly known as tumeric, with a variety of pharmacologic properties. Curcumin blocks the formation of reactive-oxygen species, possesses anti-inflammatory properties as a result of inhibition of cyclooxygenases (COX) and other enzymes involved in inflammation; and disrupts cell signal transduction by various mechanisms including inhibition of protein kinase C. These effects may play a role in the agent`s observed antineoplastic properties, which include inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and suppression of chemically induced carcinogenesis and tumor growth in animal models of cancer. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=43115&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=43115&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C401″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A phytopolylphenol pigment isolated from the plant Curcuma longa, commonly known as turmeric, with a variety of pharmacologic properties. Curcumin blocks the formation of reactive-oxygen species, possesses anti-inflammatory properties as a result of inhibition of cyclooxygenases (COX) and other enzymes involved in inflammation; and disrupts cell signal transduction by various mechanisms including inhibition of protein kinase C. These effects may play a role in the agent`s observed antineoplastic properties, which include inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and suppression of chemically induced carcinogenesis and tumor growth in animal models of cancer. (NCI04)
NCI

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methakryláty

Acrylic acids or acrylates which are substituted in the C-2 position with a methyl group.
MSH

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viry rostlin

Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
MSH

viruses that replicate in and may produce diseases of higher plants; see RTs for specific organisms.
CSP

Viruses that replicate in and may produce diseases of higher plants.
NCI

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antinukleární protilátky

Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren`s syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.
MSH

autoimmune, pathological antibodies against histones, DNA, nuclear RNA, or other components of the cell nucleus.
CSP

An autoimmune antibody that is directed against structures within the nucleus of the cell.
NCI

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guanylcyklasa

An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of GTP to 3`,5`-cyclic GMP and pyrophosphate. It also acts on ITP and dGTP. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.6.1.2.
MSH

Guanylate cyclase (GC) is an enzyme that converts GTP to the second messenger cyclic GMP (cGMP). There are two forms: plasma membrane GCs that are receptors for hormones, and intracellular soluble GCs that are activated by the gaseous second messenger nitric oxide (NO). EC 4.6.1.2
NCI

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sympatický nervový systém

The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body`s response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
MSH

portion of the autonomic nervous system that receives its fibers of connection with the central nervous system through the thoracolumbar outflow of visceral efferent fibers; sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs; the sympathetic nervous system mediates the body`s response to stressful situations, i.e, the fight or flight reactions, and often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
CSP

The part of the nervous system that increases heart rate, blood pressure, breathing rate, and pupil size. It also causes blood vessels to narrow and decreases digestive juices.
NCI

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cyklohexanoly

Monohydroxy derivatives of cyclohexanes that contain the general formula R-C6H11O. They have a camphorlike odor and are used in making soaps, insecticides, germicides, dry cleaning, and plasticizers.
MSH

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methohexital

An intravenous anesthetic with a short duration of action that may be used for induction of anesthesia.
MSH

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faktor aktivující trombocyty

A phospholipid derivative formed by PLATELETS; BASOPHILS; NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES. It is a potent platelet aggregating agent and inducer of systemic anaphylactic symptoms, including HYPOTENSION; THROMBOCYTOPENIA; NEUTROPENIA; and BRONCHOCONSTRICTION.
MSH

produced in response to specific stimuli by a variety of cell types, including neutrophils, basophils, platelets, and endothelial cells; several molecular species of platelet activating factor have been identified which vary in the length of the O-alkyl side chain; an important mediator of bronchoconstriction.
CSP

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antigen-protilátka komplex

The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
MSH

product of an antigen antibody reaction; may also contain complement.
CSP

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Haemonchus

A genus of parasitic nematode worms which infest the duodenum and stomach of domestic and wild herbivores, which ingest it with the grasses (POACEAE) they eat. Infestation of man is accidental.
MSH

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T-lymfocyty

lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity, formed when lymphocytes circulate through the thymus gland and differentiate to thymocytes; when exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
CSP

Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified – cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
MSH

A type of immune cell that can attack foreign cells, cancer cells, and cells infected with a virus. T lymphocytes can also help control immune responses. A T lymphocyte is a type of white blood cell.
NCI

A thymocyte-derived lymphocyte of immunological importance that is long-lived (months to years) and is responsible for cell-mediated immunity. T lymphocyte cells form rosettes with sheep erythrocytes and, in the presence of transforming agents (mitogens), differentiate and divide. These cells have the characteristic T3 surface marker and may be further divided into subsets according to function, such as helper, cytotoxic, etc.
NCI

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cystafos

Proposed as an adjuvant to cancer chemotherapy; may have radiation protective properties.
MSH

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methylhistidiny

Histidine substituted in any position with one or more methyl groups.
MSH

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Pleuronectus

Genus of Pleuronectidae including plaice and English sole.
MSH

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antimetabolity

Drugs that are chemically similar to naturally occurring metabolites, but differ enough to interfere with normal metabolic pathways. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)
MSH

drug that is chemically similar to a naturally occurring metabolite, but differs enough to interfere with normal metabolic pathways.
CSP

A drug that is very similar to natural chemicals in a normal biochemical reaction in cells but different enough to interfere with the normal division and functions of cells.
NCI

An antineoplastic agent with a structural similarity to a natural substance that can replace that substance in a normal biochemical pathway and interfere with the normal metabolic processes of cells.
NCI

An antimetabolite with an unknown or unspecified mechanism of action.
NCI

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