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nukleotidasy

A class of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of a nucleotide and water to a nucleoside and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.-.
MSH

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kritické období (psychologie)

A specific stage in animal and human development during which certain types of behavior normally are shaped and molded for life.
MSH

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Ludwigova angína

Severe cellulitis of the submaxillary space with secondary involvement of the sublingual and submental space. It usually results from infection in the lower molar area or from a penetrating injury to the mouth floor. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
MSH

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RNA transferová Gln

A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying glutamine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
MSH

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Anoplura

An order of insects comprising the sucking lice, which are blood-sucking ectoparasites of mammals. Recognized families include: Echinphthiriidae, Haematopinidae, and Pediculidae. The latter contains the medically important genera affecting humans: PEDICULUS and PHTHIRUS.
MSH

A taxonomic order of wingless insects that are obligate ectoparasites of birds and mammals. Lice attach tightly to hair, fur, and feathers of the host organism and feed on blood, skin, and sebaceous secretions.
NCI

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Fusarium

mitosporic Hypocreales fungal genus, various species of which are important parasitic pathogens of plants and a variety of vertebrates.
CSP

A mitosporic Hypocreales fungal genus, various species of which are important parasitic pathogens of plants and a variety of vertebrates. Teleomorphs include GIBBERELLA.
MSH

A genus of filamentous fungi in the phylum Ascomycota that is widely distributed in soil and in association with plants.
NCI

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ošetřovatelský proces

The sum total of nursing activities which includes assessment (identifying needs), intervention (ministering to needs), and evaluation (validating the effectiveness of the help given).
MSH

sum total of nursing activities which includes assessment (identifying needs), intervention (ministering to needs), and evaluation (validating the effectiveness of the help given).
CSP

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kryptokokóza

infection with a fungus of the species Cryptococcus neoformans.
CSP

An acute or chronic, localized or disseminated infection by Cryptococcus neoformans. Sites of involvement include the lungs, central nervous system and meninges, skin, and visceral organs.–2004
NCI

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luteom

An ovarian neoplasm composed of LUTEAL CELLS derived from luteinized GRANULOSA CELLS and THECA CELLS. Luteomas respond to GONADOTROPINS, and vary in their hormone production (PROGESTERONE; ESTROGENS; or ANDROGENS). During PREGNANCY, a transient type of luteoma may develop due to an exaggerated LUTEINIZATION of the OVARY.
MSH

A benign ovarian stromal tumor in which more than 90% of the tumor cells resemble steroid hormone-secreting cells. Crystals of Reinke are not present. It occurs in post-menopausal women and it is usually associated with estrogenic effects.
NCI

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Romanův-Wardův syndrom

A form of long QT syndrome that is without congenital deafness. It is caused by mutation of the KCNQ1 gene which encodes a protein in the VOLTAGE-GATED POTASSIUM CHANNEL.
MSH

An autosomal dominant form of long QT syndrome caused by mutations in the KCNE1, KCNE2, KCNH2, KCNQ1, SCN5A, and ANK2 genes. It is manifested with arrhythmias.
NCI

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antropologie kulturní

It is the study of social phenomena which characterize the learned, shared, and transmitted social activities of particular ethnic groups with focus on the causes, consequences, and complexities of human social and cultural variability.
MSH

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galaktosylceramidasa

An enzyme that hydrolyzes galactose from ceramide monohexosides. Deficiency of this enzyme may cause globoid cell leukodystrophy (LEUKODYSTROPHY, GLOBOID CELL). EC 3.2.1.46.
MSH

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obezita

A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
MSH

excessively high accumulation of body fat or adipose tissue in relation to lean body mass; the amount of body fat (or adiposity) includes concern for both the distribution of fat throughout the body and the size of the adipose tissue deposits; individuals are usually at high clinical risk because of excess amount of body fat (BMI greater than 30).
CSP

Obesity means having too much body fat. It is different from being overweight, which means weighing too much. The weight may come from muscle, bone, fat and/or body water. Both terms mean that a person`s weight is greater than what`s considered healthy for his or her height.

Obesity occurs over time when you eat more calories than you use. The balance between calories-in and calories-out differs for each person. Factors that might tip the balance include your genetic makeup, overeating, eating high-fat foods and not being physically active.

Being obese increases your risk of diabetes, heart disease, stroke, arthritis and some cancers. If you are obese, losing even 5 to 10 percent of your weight can delay or prevent some of these diseases.

NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases


MEDLINEPLUS

A disorder characterized by having a high amount of body fat.
NCI

A condition marked by an abnormally high, unhealthy amount of body fat.
NCI

Having a high amount of body fat (body mass index [BMI] of 30 or more).
NCI

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kyanamid

A cyanide compound which has been used as a fertilizer, defoliant and in many manufacturing processes. It often occurs as the calcium salt, sometimes also referred to as cyanamide. The citrated calcium salt is used in the treatment of alcoholism.
MSH

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lymfocytární choriomeningitida

A form of meningitis caused by LYMPHOCYTIC CHORIOMENINGITIS VIRUS. MICE and other rodents serve as the natural hosts, and infection in humans usually occurs through inhalation or ingestion of infectious particles. Clinical manifestations include an influenza-like syndrome followed by stiff neck, alterations of mentation, ATAXIA, and incontinence. Maternal infections may result in fetal malformations and injury, including neonatal HYDROCEPHALUS, aqueductal stenosis, CHORIORETINITIS, and MICROCEPHALY. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp1-3)
MSH

benign viral infection of meninges and central nervous system producing an infiltration of lymphocytes in the choroid plexus.
CSP

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Rubinsteinův-Taybiův syndrom

A chromosomal disorder characterized by MENTAL RETARDATION, broad thumbs, webbing of fingers and toes, beaked nose, short upper lip, pouting lower lip, agenesis of corpus callosum, large foramen magnum, keloid formation, pulmonary stenosis, vertebral anomalies, chest wall anomalies, sleep apnea, and megacolon. The disease has an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance and is associated with deletions of the short arm of chromosome 16 (16p13.3).
MSH

A rare genetic syndrome mapped to chromosome 16p13.3 and associated with mutations in the CREBBP gene. It is characterized by mental and growth retardation, distinctive facial features (prominent nose, low-set ears, microcephaly, and small mouth), and broad thumbs and great toes. Patients are at an increased risk of developing benign and malignant neoplasms, including nervous system neoplasms and malignant lymphoproliferative disorders.
NCI

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protilátky – afinita

A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of “avidity,” which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
MSH

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gamma-Tubulin

Ubiquitous or widely expressed 51-kDa conserved Gamma-Tubulins (Tubulin Family) constitute a major essential component of microtubule organizing centers such as spindle poles or centrosomes that are likely involved in minus-end nucleation of microtubule assembly. (NCI)
NCI

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Octodon

A genus of diurnal rats in the family Octodonidae, found in South America. The species Octodon degus is frequently used for research.
MSH

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cyklofosfamid

Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
MSH

precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent; used in the treatment of lymphomas, leukemias and other cancers, and as an immunosupressive agent to prevent transplant rejection; its side effect, alopecia, has been used for defleecing sheep; may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
CSP

A drug that is used to treat many types of cancer and is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. It is also used to treat some types of kidney disease in children. Cyclophosphamide attaches to DNA in cells and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of alkylating agent.
NCI

A synthetic alkylating agent chemically related to the nitrogen mustards with antineoplastic and immunosuppressive activities. In the liver, cyclophosphamide is converted to the active metabolites aldophosphamide and phosphoramide mustard, which bind to DNA, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and initiating cell death. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39748&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39748&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C405″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A synthetic alkylating agent chemically related to the nitrogen mustards with antineoplastic and immunosuppressive activities. In the liver, cyclophosphamide is converted to the active metabolites aldophosphamide and phosphoramide mustard, which bind to DNA, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and initiating cell death.
NCI

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lysin-tRNA-ligasa

An enzyme that activates lysine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.6.
MSH

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bezpečnost

Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.
MSH

The state of being certain that adverse effects will not be caused by some agent under defined conditions.
NCI

Relative freedom from harm. In clinical trials, this refers to an absence of harmful side effects resulting from use of the product and may be assessed by laboratory testing of biological samples, special tests and procedures, psychiatric evaluation, and/or physical examination of subjects.
NCI

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antigeny diferenciační

Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
MSH

antigens normally only seen at particular phases of differentiation of a cell type.
CSP

Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation. (MeSH)
NCI

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žaludek – vyprazdňování

The evacuation of food from the stomach into the duodenum.
MSH

evacuation of food from the stomach into the duodenum.
CSP

The process in which the liquid and liquid-suspended solid contents of the stomach exit through the pylorus into the duodenum. [GOC:cy, ISBN:9781416032458]
GO

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oleje prchavé

Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.
MSH

The scented liquid taken from certain plants using steam or pressure. Essential oils contain the natural chemicals that give the plant its “essence” (specific odor and flavor). Essential oils are used in perfumes, food flavorings, medicine, and aromatherapy.
NCI

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kaspasy

A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.
MSH

The caspases are a family of proteases responsible for carrying out the cell death process. In a living cell, these proteases are kept inactive by proteins on the mitochondrial cell surface from the BcL-2 family. When a cell is exposed to cell death signals such as ischemia, chemotherapy or radiation, BcL-2 function is blocked and caspase activators initiate the cell death cascade.
NCI

Caspases are a family of intracellular cysteine proteinases involved in inflammation and apoptosis. These enzymes appear to be involved in the initial signaling events, as well as the downstream proteolytic cleavages, that result in apoptotic cell death. They are specific for aspartic acid at the P1 position and are divided into two classes based on the lengths of their N-terminal pro-domains. Caspases-1, -2, -4, -5, -8, and -10 have long pro-domains; caspases-3, -6, -7, and -9 have short pro-domains. (from Science 1998. 281:1312 and Br Med Bull 1997. 53:478)
NCI

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magnety

Objects that produce a magnetic field.
MSH

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Salmonella arizonae

Gram-negative rods widely distributed in LIZARDS and SNAKES, and implicated in enteric, bone (BONE DISEASES), and joint infections (JOINT DISEASES) in humans.
MSH

A subspecies of aerobic, Gram negative, rod shaped bacteria assigned to the phylum Proteobacteria and the species Salmonella enterica. S. enterica subsp. arizonae is an inhabitant of the gut of reptiles and is pathogenic in humans, although is rarely isolated from clinical specimens.
NCI

Any bacterial organism that can be assigned to the species Salmonella enterica subspecies arizonae.
NCI

a kind of bacteria found it in some reptiles that causes bone and joint diseases in human
CHV

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antitumorózní látky

Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
MSH

agent that inhibits or prevents the development or proliferation of neoplasms.
CSP

A drug used to treat cancer.
NCI

NOTE: Includes hormones (AN500) which are exclusively used as antineoplastics (e.g.,tamoxifen). Excludes other hormones (HS000).
NDFRT

A substance that inhibits the maturation, growth or spread of tumor cells.
NCI

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ventrikulografie radionuklidová rovnovážná

Radionuclide ventriculography where scintigraphic data is acquired during repeated cardiac cycles at specific times in the cycle, using an electrocardiographic synchronizer or gating device. Analysis of right ventricular function is difficult with this technique; that is best evaluated by first-pass ventriculography (VENTRICULOGRAPHY, FIRST-PASS).
MSH

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