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steroid-21-hydroxylasa

An adrenal microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 21-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP21 gene, converts progesterones to precursors of adrenal steroid hormones (CORTICOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE). Defects in CYP21 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).
MSH

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enalapril

One of the ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS that is used to treat hypertension.
MSH

1-carboxy-3-phenylpropyl-L-alanyl- L-proline (as 1`-ethyl ester, maleate 1:1), is an ACE inhibitor used as an antihypertensive.
CSP

A dicarbocyl-containing peptide and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor with antihypertensive activity. As a prodrug, enalapril is converted by de-esterification into its active form enalaprilat. Enalaprilat competitively binds to and inhibits ACE, thereby blocking the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II. This prevents the potent vasoconstrictive actions of angiotensin II and results in vasodilation. Enalapril also decreases angiotensin II-induced aldosterone secretion by the adrenal cortex, which leads to an increase in sodium excretion and subsequently increases water outflow.
NCI

An antihypertensive agent that can also be used to slow or prevent the progression of heart disease in people with childhood cancer treated with drugs that may be harmful to the heart.
NCI

a drug used to treat hypertension
CHV

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nádory nervové tkáně

Neoplasms composed of nerve tissue. This concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the nervous system or its component nerves.
MSH

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fenoxybenzamin

An alpha-adrenergic antagonist with long duration of action. It has been used to treat hypertension and as a peripheral vasodilator.
MSH

A synthetic, dibenzamine alpha adrenergic antagonist with antihypertensive and vasodilatory properties. Phenoxybenzamine non-selectively and irreversibly blocks the postsynaptic alpha-adrenergic receptor in smooth muscle, thereby preventing vasoconstriction, relieving vasospasms, and decreasing peripheral resistance. Reflex tachycardia may occur and may be enhanced by blockade of alpha-2 receptors which enhances norepinephrine release. Phenoxybenzamine is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen.
NCI

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vápníkové kanály

Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
MSH

voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions.
CSP

An ion channel with selective permeability to calcium.
NCI

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vodíkové ionty – koncentrace

The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
MSH

Quantity of dimension one used to express on a scale from 0 to 14 the amount-of-substance concentration of hydrogen ion of dilute aqueous solution, calculated as the logarithm of the reciprocal of hydrogen-ion concentration in gram atoms per liter.
NCI

The log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
MSH

A measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a fluid on a scale of 0 to 14.
NCI

pH(1 mol/l)


HL7V3.0

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stomatologické nemoci

General or unspecified diseases of the stomatognathic system, comprising the mouth, teeth, jaws, and pharynx.
MSH

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karotická endarterektomie

The excision of the thickened, atheromatous tunica intima of a carotid artery.
MSH

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nervová zakončení

Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.
MSH

sensory receptors for afferent fibers, neuroeffectors for efferent fibers.
CSP

Terminal inflated portion of the axon, containing the specialized apparatus necessary to release neurotransmitters. The axon terminus is considered to be the whole region of thickening and the terminal button is a specialized region of it. [GOC:dph, GOC:jl]
GO

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filadelfský chromozóm

An aberrant form of human CHROMOSOME 22 characterized by translocation of the distal end of chromosome 9 from 9q34, to the long arm of chromosome 22 at 22q11. It is present in the bone marrow cells of 80 to 90 per cent of patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, MYELOGENOUS, CHRONIC, BCR-ABL POSITIVE).
MSH

An abnormality of chromosome 22 in which part of chromosome 9 is transferred to it. Bone marrow cells that contain the Philadelphia chromosome are often found in chronic myelogenous leukemia.
NCI

A translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22. It is the hallmark for chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML).
NCI

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kostní svalek

The bony deposit formed between and around the broken ends of BONE FRACTURES during normal healing.
MSH

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hydroxylamin

organic compounds that contain the -NH2OH radical.
CSP

A colorless inorganic compound (HONH2) used in organic synthesis and as a reducing agent, due to its ability to donate nitric oxide.
MSH

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stres mechanický

A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
MSH

physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion.
CSP

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endoplazmatické retikulum

A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
MSH

system of cisternae in the cytoplasm of many cells; in places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope; rough endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes and are involved in protein synthesis and transport; smooth endoplasmic reticulum is involved in steroid synthesis.
CSP

The irregular network of unit membranes, visible only by electron microscopy, that occurs in the cytoplasm of many eukaryotic cells. The membranes form a complex meshwork of tubular channels, which are often expanded into slitlike cavities called cisternae. The ER takes two forms, rough (or granular), with ribosomes adhering to the outer surface, and smooth (with no ribosomes attached). [ISBN:0198506732 “Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology”]
GO

a part of the cell structure
CHV

The endoplasmic reticulum is a network of tubular membranes within the cytoplasm of the cell, occurring either with a smooth surface (smooth endoplasmic reticulum) or studded with ribosomes (rough endoplasmic reticulum), involved in the transport of materials. (Infoplease Dictionary)
NCI

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neurilemom

A neoplasm that arises from SCHWANN CELLS of the cranial, peripheral, and autonomic nerves. Clinically, these tumors may present as a cranial neuropathy, abdominal or soft tissue mass, intracranial lesion, or with spinal cord compression. Histologically, these tumors are encapsulated, highly vascular, and composed of a homogenous pattern of biphasic fusiform-shaped cells that may have a palisaded appearance. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp964-5)
MSH

A tumor of the peripheral nervous system that arises in the nerve sheath (protective covering). It is almost always benign, but rare malignant schwannomas have been reported.
NCI

a benign tumor that originates from the nervous system
CHV

A benign, usually encapsulated slow growing tumor of the peripheral nervous system composed of well differentiated Schwann cells. It recurs infrequently and only rare cases associated with malignant transformation have been reported.
NCI

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fosfátacetyltransferasa

An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of acetylphosphate from acetyl-CoA and inorganic phosphate. Acetylphosphate serves as a high-energy phosphate compound. EC 2.3.1.8.
MSH

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kandidóza

Infection with a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. It is usually a superficial infection of the moist areas of the body and is generally caused by CANDIDA ALBICANS. (Dorland, 27th ed)
MSH

infection with a fungus of the genus Candida; usually a superficial infection of the moist areas of the body and is generally caused by Candida albicans; includes chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, cutaneous candidiasis, oral candidiasis (thrush), and monilial vaginitis.
CSP

A condition in which Candida albicans, a type of yeast, grows out of control in moist skin areas of the body. It is usually a result of a weakened immune system, but can be a side effect of chemotherapy or treatment with antibiotics. Thrush usually affects the mouth (oral thrush); however, rarely, it spreads throughout the entire body.
NCI

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hyperkalcémie

Abnormally high level of calcium in the blood.
MSH

abnormally high level of calcium in the blood; manifestations include fatigability, muscle weakness, depression, anorexia, nausea, and constipation.
CSP

Higher than normal levels of calcium in the blood. Some types of cancer increase the risk of hypercalcemia.
NCI

A disorder characterized by laboratory test results that indicate an elevation in the concentration of calcium in blood.
NCI

high level of calcium in the blood
CHV

Abnormally high concentration of calcium in the peripheral blood.
NCI

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Sturgeův-Weberův syndrom

A non-inherited congenital condition with vascular and neurological abnormalities. It is characterized by facial vascular nevi (PORT-WINE STAIN), and capillary angiomatosis of intracranial membranes (MENINGES; CHOROID). Neurological features include EPILEPSY; cognitive deficits; GLAUCOMA; and visual defects.
MSH

A rare, congenital disorder that affects the brain, skin, and eyes. Abnormal blood vessel growth occurs in the trigeminal nerve in the face and the meninges (covering) of the brain. This abnormal growth causes red or purple skin discoloration (sometimes called a port wine stain), usually on one side of the face, and can also cause seizures, learning disabilities, and glaucoma.
NCI

A congenital disorder characterized by the presence of a port-wine nevus birthmark on one or both sides of the face. Additional clinical manifestations may include seizures, leptomenigeal angiomas, glaucoma, progressive hemiparesis and cognitive deficits.
NCI

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koronavirus krocanů

A species of CORONAVIRUS causing enteritis in turkeys and pullets.
MSH

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neuromyelitis optica

A syndrome characterized by acute OPTIC NEURITIS in combination with acute MYELITIS, TRANSVERSE. Demyelinating and/or necrotizing lesions form in one or both optic nerves and in the spinal cord. The onset of optic neuritis and myelitis may be simultaneous or separated by several months. (J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1996 Apr;60(4):382-387)
MSH

An autoimmune inflammatory syndrome characterized by optic neuritis and myelitis. Signs and symptoms include loss of vision, weakness and paralysis of the extremities, and loss of sensation.
NCI

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fosfolipasy

A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates. EC 3.1.-.
MSH

Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a phospholipid molecule by the addition of water, thereby causing hydrolysis. The classification is based on the specificity of the bond cleaved. Hydrolytic activity initiates signaling cascades in the cell.
NCI

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kapsida

The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
MSH

protein shell which surrounds the virus nucleic acid; has icosahedral, helical, or complex symmetry.
CSP

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hyperfágie

ingestion of a greater than optimal quantity of food.
CSP

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abstinenční syndrom

Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.
MSH

Substance withdrawal syndrome – a substance-specific organic brain syndrome that follows the discontinuation of administration or use, or reduction in intake of an addictive substance, e.g. opioids, barbiturates and alcohol; amphetamines or similarly acting sympathomimetics; cocaine; nicotine; sedatives, hypnotics, or anxiolytics. Syndrome manifests with diverse, often painful physical and psychological symptoms, which include but not limited to intense drug craving, anxiety, depression, insomnia, nausea, perspiration, body aches, tremors, hallucinations, and convulsions.
NCI

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enzymy – aktivace

Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
MSH

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neutrony

Electrically neutral elementary particles found in all atomic nuclei except light hydrogen; the mass is equal to that of the proton and electron combined and they are unstable when isolated from the nucleus, undergoing beta decay. Slow, thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons refer to the energy levels with which the neutrons are ejected from heavier nuclei during their decay.
MSH

An elementary particle with 0 charge and a mass about equal to that of a proton.
NCI

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fosvel

An organothiophosphate insecticide.
MSH

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uhlík – isotopy

Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
MSH

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hypobetalipoproteinémie

Conditions with abnormally low levels of BETA-LIPOPROTEINS (low density lipoproteins or LDL) in the blood. It is defined as LDL values equal to or less than the 5th percentile for the population. They include the autosomal dominant form involving mutation of the APOLIPOPROTEINS B gene, and the autosomal recessive form involving mutation of the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein. All are characterized by low LDL and dietary fat malabsorption.
MSH

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