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algoritmy

A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
MSH

A defined procedure for solving a problem. Applied to a problem-solving procedure implemented in software to be executed by a computer.
NCI

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Interferon Alfa-2b

A non-glycosylated recombinant interferon with antiviral and antineoplastic activities. Alfa interferons bind to specific cell-surface receptors, resulting in the transcription and translation of genes whose protein products mediate antiviral, antiproliferative, anticancer, and immune-modulating effects. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=462279&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=462279&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C1953″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A non-glycosylated recombinant interferon alpha, subtype 2b, used as an antiviral and antineoplastic agent. Alpha interferons bind to specific cell-surface receptors, resulting in the transcription and translation of genes whose protein products mediate antiviral, antiproliferative, anticancer, and immune-modulating effects. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=448847&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=448847&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C1953″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A drug used to treat some infections caused by viruses and several types of cancer. These include hairy cell leukemia, melanoma, and follicular lymphoma. It is a form of interferon alfa (a substance normally made by cells of the immune system) that is made in the laboratory. It is a type of biological response modifier.
NCI

A non-glycosylated recombinant interferon with antiviral and antineoplastic activities. Alfa interferons bind to specific cell-surface receptors, resulting in the transcription and translation of genes whose protein products mediate antiviral, antiproliferative, anticancer, and immune-modulating effects.
NCI

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rentgendiagnostika – dvourozměrná projekce

A method of producing a high-quality scan by digitizing and subtracting the images produced by high- and low-energy x-rays.
MSH

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epilepsie tonicko-klonická

A generalized seizure disorder characterized by recurrent major motor seizures. The initial brief tonic phase is marked by trunk flexion followed by diffuse extension of the trunk and extremities. The clonic phase features rhythmic flexor contractions of the trunk and limbs, pupillary dilation, elevations of blood pressure and pulse, urinary incontinence, and tongue biting. This is followed by a profound state of depressed consciousness (post-ictal state) which gradually improves over minutes to hours. The disorder may be cryptogenic, familial, or symptomatic (caused by an identified disease process). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p329)
MSH

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elektroencefalografie

Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
MSH

recording of electric currents developed in the brain, by means of electrodes applied to the scalp or the brain.
CSP

A recording of electrical activity in the brain. It is made by placing electrodes on the scalp (the skin covering the top of the head), and impulses are sent to a special machine. An EEG may be used to diagnose brain and sleep disorders.
NCI

The neurophysiologic exploration of the electrical activity of the brain by the application of electrodes to the scalp. The resulting traces are known as an electroencephalogram (EEG). This test is used to assess brain damage, epilepsy and other problems.
NCI

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Bufo arenarum

A species of the true toads, Bufonidae, found in South America.
MSH

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slitiny

A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions.
MSH

mixture of two or more metals or of one or more metals with certain metalloids that are mutually soluble in the molten condition; distinguished as binary, ternary, quaternary, etc., depending on the number of metals in the mixture.
CSP

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interneurony

Most generally any neurons which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose axons remain within a particular brain region as contrasted with projection neurons which have axons projecting to other brain regions.
MSH

generally neurons which are not motor or sensory; may also refer to neurons whose axons remain within a particular brain region as contrasted with projection neurons which have axons projecting to other brain regions.
CSP

A general term for any neurons which are not motor or sensory. Interneuron may also refer to neurons whose axons remain within a particular brain region as contrasted with projection neurons which have axons projecting to other brain regions. (from MeSH)
NCI

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vztek

Fury; violent, intense anger.
MSH

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herpesvirus 1 koní

A species of VARICELLOVIRUS causing abortion and respiratory disease in horses.
MSH

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elektrochirurgie

Division of tissues by a high-frequency current applied locally with a metal instrument or needle. (Stedman, 25th ed)
MSH

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vyhasnutí profesionální

An excessive stress reaction to one`s occupational or professional environment. It is manifested by feelings of emotional and physical exhaustion coupled with a sense of frustration and failure.
MSH

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talasémie alfa

A disorder characterized by reduced synthesis of the alpha chains of hemoglobin. The severity of this condition can vary from mild anemia to death, depending on the number of genes deleted.
MSH

A genetic hematologic disorder characterized by partial or complete absence of the alpha globin chains of the heme molecule.
NCI

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geny intracisternální A-částicové

Genes of IAP elements (a family of retrovirus-like genetic elements) which code for virus-like particles (IAPs) found regularly in rodent early embryos. (“Intracisternal” refers to the cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum.) Under certain circumstances, such as DNA hypomethylation they are transcribed. Their transcripts are found in a variety of neoplasms, including plasmacytomas, neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcomas, teratocarcinomas, and colon carcinomas.
MSH

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potkani – mutantní kmeny

Rats bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
MSH

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erythema induratum

A type of panniculitis characterized histologically by the presence of granulomas, vasculitis, and necrosis. It is traditionally considered to be the tuberculous counterpart of nodular vasculitis, but is now known to occur without tuberculous precedent. It is seen most commonly in adolescent and menopausal women, is initiated or exacerbated by cold weather, and typically presents as one or more recurrent erythrocyanotic nodules or plaques on the calves. The nodules may progress to form indurations, ulcerations, and scars.
MSH

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embryonální indukce

The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).
MSH

A process that stimulates and directs a morphogenetic influence on a population of cells. These populations are often differentiating cells or adjacent neighboring cells that are not fixed on a developmental path. Embryonic induction plays a regulatory role in the development and construction of embryos.
NCI

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DNA komplementární

Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
MSH

single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase; used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
CSP

Single-stranded DNA that is complementary to messenger RNA or DNA that has been synthesized from messenger RNA by reverse transcriptase.
NCI

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Ambenonium

A bisquaternary ammonium alcohol with parasympathomimetic activity. The positive charge of ambenonium allows it to act as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor by binding to the anionic site at the reactive center of acetylcholinesterase, preventing the breakdown of acetylcholine and producing an indirect cholinomimetic effect at both nicotinic and muscarinic receptors. Ambenonium also has direct agonist activity at nicotinic receptors, potentiating the cholinomimetic effect at the neuromuscular junction.
NCI

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jod – isotopy

Stable iodine atoms that have the same atomic number as the element iodine, but differ in atomic weight. I-127 is the only naturally occurring stable iodine isotope.
MSH

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receptory cholecystokininu

Cell surface proteins that bind cholecystokinin (CCK) with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholecystokinin receptors are activated by GASTRIN as well as by CCK-4; CCK-8; and CCK-33. Activation of these receptors evokes secretion of AMYLASE by pancreatic acinar cells, acid and PEPSIN by stomach mucosal cells, and contraction of the PYLORUS and GALLBLADDER. The role of the widespread CCK receptors in the central nervous system is not well understood.
MSH

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Escherichia coli

species of gram negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod shaped bacteria commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm blooded animals; usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce diarrhea and pyogenic infections.
CSP

A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
MSH

Any bacterial organism that can be assigned to the species Escherichia coli.
NCI

A common, gram negative gut bacterium that has been studied intensively by geneticists because of its small genome size, normal lack of pathogenicity, and ease of growth in the laboratory.
NCI

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enalapril

One of the ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS that is used to treat hypertension.
MSH

1-carboxy-3-phenylpropyl-L-alanyl- L-proline (as 1`-ethyl ester, maleate 1:1), is an ACE inhibitor used as an antihypertensive.
CSP

A dicarbocyl-containing peptide and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor with antihypertensive activity. As a prodrug, enalapril is converted by de-esterification into its active form enalaprilat. Enalaprilat competitively binds to and inhibits ACE, thereby blocking the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II. This prevents the potent vasoconstrictive actions of angiotensin II and results in vasodilation. Enalapril also decreases angiotensin II-induced aldosterone secretion by the adrenal cortex, which leads to an increase in sodium excretion and subsequently increases water outflow.
NCI

An antihypertensive agent that can also be used to slow or prevent the progression of heart disease in people with childhood cancer treated with drugs that may be harmful to the heart.
NCI

a drug used to treat hypertension
CHV

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vápníkové kanály

Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
MSH

voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions.
CSP

An ion channel with selective permeability to calcium.
NCI

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amidy

Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh`s Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
MSH

organic compound derived from ammonia by substituting an acyl radical for hydrogen, or from an acid by replacing the OH group by NH2.
CSP

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iprindol

A tricyclic antidepressant that has actions and uses similar to those of AMITRIPTYLINE, but has only weak antimuscarinic and sedative effects. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p257)
MSH

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receptory muskarinové

One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Muscarinic receptors were originally defined by their preference for MUSCARINE over NICOTINE. There are several subtypes (usually M1, M2, M3….) that are characterized by their cellular actions, pharmacology, and molecular biology.
MSH

G protein coupled surface receptor that mediates acetylcholine action on smooth and cardiac muscle and in CNS; may be linked to a potassium channel (membrane polarization) or second messenger systems.
CSP

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estetika stomatologická

Skills, techniques, standards, and principles used to improve the art and symmetry of the teeth and face to improve the appearance as well as the function of the teeth, mouth, and face. (From Boucher`s Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p108)
MSH

Who doesn`t want a perfect smile? While few people have one naturally, almost anyone can get one with the help of their dentist. In addition to orthodontic treatment, which can straighten your teeth, recent advances in dental materials and techniques offer near-perfect teeth that are almost as strong as the originals.

Things your dentist can do to improve your smile include

  • Bleaching to make teeth whiter
  • Repairing chips or rough spots with fillings that match your teeth
  • Filling cavities with tooth-colored materials
  • Reshaping teeth that don`t match the others
  • Closing gaps between teeth
  • Covering broken teeth with porcelain crowns


MEDLINEPLUS

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karotická endarterektomie

The excision of the thickened, atheromatous tunica intima of a carotid artery.
MSH

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kostní svalek

The bony deposit formed between and around the broken ends of BONE FRACTURES during normal healing.
MSH

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