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petechie

Pinpoint, unraised, round red spots under the skin caused by bleeding.
NCI

Pinpoint, flat, round red spots under the skin caused by bleeding
CHV

Purple or red pinpoint spots in the skin or mucous membranes caused by minor hemorrhage.
NCI

Pinhead size (3 mm) skin discolorization due to hemorrhage.
MSH

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erythema induratum

A type of panniculitis characterized histologically by the presence of granulomas, vasculitis, and necrosis. It is traditionally considered to be the tuberculous counterpart of nodular vasculitis, but is now known to occur without tuberculous precedent. It is seen most commonly in adolescent and menopausal women, is initiated or exacerbated by cold weather, and typically presents as one or more recurrent erythrocyanotic nodules or plaques on the calves. The nodules may progress to form indurations, ulcerations, and scars.
MSH

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embryonální indukce

The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).
MSH

A process that stimulates and directs a morphogenetic influence on a population of cells. These populations are often differentiating cells or adjacent neighboring cells that are not fixed on a developmental path. Embryonic induction plays a regulatory role in the development and construction of embryos.
NCI

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státní lékařství

A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.
MSH

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jod – isotopy

Stable iodine atoms that have the same atomic number as the element iodine, but differ in atomic weight. I-127 is the only naturally occurring stable iodine isotope.
MSH

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DNA komplementární

Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
MSH

single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase; used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
CSP

Single-stranded DNA that is complementary to messenger RNA or DNA that has been synthesized from messenger RNA by reverse transcriptase.
NCI

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farynx – nemoci

Pathological processes involving the PHARYNX.
MSH

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Escherichia coli

species of gram negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod shaped bacteria commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm blooded animals; usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce diarrhea and pyogenic infections.
CSP

A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
MSH

Any bacterial organism that can be assigned to the species Escherichia coli.
NCI

A common, gram negative gut bacterium that has been studied intensively by geneticists because of its small genome size, normal lack of pathogenicity, and ease of growth in the laboratory.
NCI

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enalapril

One of the ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS that is used to treat hypertension.
MSH

1-carboxy-3-phenylpropyl-L-alanyl- L-proline (as 1`-ethyl ester, maleate 1:1), is an ACE inhibitor used as an antihypertensive.
CSP

A dicarbocyl-containing peptide and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor with antihypertensive activity. As a prodrug, enalapril is converted by de-esterification into its active form enalaprilat. Enalaprilat competitively binds to and inhibits ACE, thereby blocking the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II. This prevents the potent vasoconstrictive actions of angiotensin II and results in vasodilation. Enalapril also decreases angiotensin II-induced aldosterone secretion by the adrenal cortex, which leads to an increase in sodium excretion and subsequently increases water outflow.
NCI

An antihypertensive agent that can also be used to slow or prevent the progression of heart disease in people with childhood cancer treated with drugs that may be harmful to the heart.
NCI

a drug used to treat hypertension
CHV

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steroid-21-hydroxylasa

An adrenal microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 21-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP21 gene, converts progesterones to precursors of adrenal steroid hormones (CORTICOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE). Defects in CYP21 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).
MSH

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iprindol

A tricyclic antidepressant that has actions and uses similar to those of AMITRIPTYLINE, but has only weak antimuscarinic and sedative effects. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p257)
MSH

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vápníkové kanály

Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
MSH

voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions.
CSP

An ion channel with selective permeability to calcium.
NCI

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fenoxybenzamin

An alpha-adrenergic antagonist with long duration of action. It has been used to treat hypertension and as a peripheral vasodilator.
MSH

A synthetic, dibenzamine alpha adrenergic antagonist with antihypertensive and vasodilatory properties. Phenoxybenzamine non-selectively and irreversibly blocks the postsynaptic alpha-adrenergic receptor in smooth muscle, thereby preventing vasoconstriction, relieving vasospasms, and decreasing peripheral resistance. Reflex tachycardia may occur and may be enhanced by blockade of alpha-2 receptors which enhances norepinephrine release. Phenoxybenzamine is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen.
NCI

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estetika stomatologická

Skills, techniques, standards, and principles used to improve the art and symmetry of the teeth and face to improve the appearance as well as the function of the teeth, mouth, and face. (From Boucher`s Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p108)
MSH

Who doesn`t want a perfect smile? While few people have one naturally, almost anyone can get one with the help of their dentist. In addition to orthodontic treatment, which can straighten your teeth, recent advances in dental materials and techniques offer near-perfect teeth that are almost as strong as the originals.

Things your dentist can do to improve your smile include

  • Bleaching to make teeth whiter
  • Repairing chips or rough spots with fillings that match your teeth
  • Filling cavities with tooth-colored materials
  • Reshaping teeth that don`t match the others
  • Closing gaps between teeth
  • Covering broken teeth with porcelain crowns


MEDLINEPLUS

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karotická endarterektomie

The excision of the thickened, atheromatous tunica intima of a carotid artery.
MSH

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stomatologické nemoci

General or unspecified diseases of the stomatognathic system, comprising the mouth, teeth, jaws, and pharynx.
MSH

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isoamylasa

An enzyme that hydrolyzes 1,6-alpha-glucosidic branch linkages in glycogen, amylopectin, and their beta-limit dextrins. It is distinguished from pullulanase (EC 3.2.1.41) by its inability to attack pullulan and by the feeble action of alpha-limit dextrins. It is distinguished from amylopectin 6-glucanohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.69) by its action on glycogen. With EC 3.2.1.69, it produces the activity called “debranching enzyme”. EC 3.2.1.68.
MSH

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kostní svalek

The bony deposit formed between and around the broken ends of BONE FRACTURES during normal healing.
MSH

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filadelfský chromozóm

An aberrant form of human CHROMOSOME 22 characterized by translocation of the distal end of chromosome 9 from 9q34, to the long arm of chromosome 22 at 22q11. It is present in the bone marrow cells of 80 to 90 per cent of patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, MYELOGENOUS, CHRONIC, BCR-ABL POSITIVE).
MSH

An abnormality of chromosome 22 in which part of chromosome 9 is transferred to it. Bone marrow cells that contain the Philadelphia chromosome are often found in chronic myelogenous leukemia.
NCI

A translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22. It is the hallmark for chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML).
NCI

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ethanolaminy

AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the ETHANOLAMINE; (-NH2CH2CHOH) group and its derivatives.
MSH

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endoplazmatické retikulum

A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
MSH

system of cisternae in the cytoplasm of many cells; in places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope; rough endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes and are involved in protein synthesis and transport; smooth endoplasmic reticulum is involved in steroid synthesis.
CSP

The irregular network of unit membranes, visible only by electron microscopy, that occurs in the cytoplasm of many eukaryotic cells. The membranes form a complex meshwork of tubular channels, which are often expanded into slitlike cavities called cisternae. The ER takes two forms, rough (or granular), with ribosomes adhering to the outer surface, and smooth (with no ribosomes attached). [ISBN:0198506732 “Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology”]
GO

a part of the cell structure
CHV

The endoplasmic reticulum is a network of tubular membranes within the cytoplasm of the cell, occurring either with a smooth surface (smooth endoplasmic reticulum) or studded with ribosomes (rough endoplasmic reticulum), involved in the transport of materials. (Infoplease Dictionary)
NCI

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stres mechanický

A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
MSH

physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion.
CSP

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Isospora

A genus of protozoan parasites found in the intestines of birds, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals, including man. The oocysts produce two sporocysts, each with four sporozoites. Many species are parasitic in wild and domestic animals.
MSH

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kandidóza

Infection with a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. It is usually a superficial infection of the moist areas of the body and is generally caused by CANDIDA ALBICANS. (Dorland, 27th ed)
MSH

infection with a fungus of the genus Candida; usually a superficial infection of the moist areas of the body and is generally caused by Candida albicans; includes chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, cutaneous candidiasis, oral candidiasis (thrush), and monilial vaginitis.
CSP

A condition in which Candida albicans, a type of yeast, grows out of control in moist skin areas of the body. It is usually a result of a weakened immune system, but can be a side effect of chemotherapy or treatment with antibiotics. Thrush usually affects the mouth (oral thrush); however, rarely, it spreads throughout the entire body.
NCI

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fosfátacetyltransferasa

An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of acetylphosphate from acetyl-CoA and inorganic phosphate. Acetylphosphate serves as a high-energy phosphate compound. EC 2.3.1.8.
MSH

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ethopabát

An inhibitor of folate metabolism. It is used as a coccidiostat in poultry.
MSH

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koronavirus krocanů

A species of CORONAVIRUS causing enteritis in turkeys and pullets.
MSH

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Sturgeův-Weberův syndrom

A non-inherited congenital condition with vascular and neurological abnormalities. It is characterized by facial vascular nevi (PORT-WINE STAIN), and capillary angiomatosis of intracranial membranes (MENINGES; CHOROID). Neurological features include EPILEPSY; cognitive deficits; GLAUCOMA; and visual defects.
MSH

A rare, congenital disorder that affects the brain, skin, and eyes. Abnormal blood vessel growth occurs in the trigeminal nerve in the face and the meninges (covering) of the brain. This abnormal growth causes red or purple skin discoloration (sometimes called a port wine stain), usually on one side of the face, and can also cause seizures, learning disabilities, and glaucoma.
NCI

A congenital disorder characterized by the presence of a port-wine nevus birthmark on one or both sides of the face. Additional clinical manifestations may include seizures, leptomenigeal angiomas, glaucoma, progressive hemiparesis and cognitive deficits.
NCI

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žárlivost

An irrational reaction compounded of grief, loss of self-esteem, enmity against the rival and self criticism.
MSH

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kapsida

The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
MSH

protein shell which surrounds the virus nucleic acid; has icosahedral, helical, or complex symmetry.
CSP

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