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kyselina argininjantarová

This amino acid is formed during the urea cycle from citrulline, aspartate and ATP. This reaction is catalyzed by argininosuccinic acid synthetase.
MSH

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syndrom fragilního X

A condition characterized genotypically by mutation of the distal end of the long arm of the X chromosome (at gene loci FRAXA or FRAXE) and phenotypically by cognitive impairment, hyperactivity, SEIZURES, language delay, and enlargement of the ears, head, and testes. INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY occurs in nearly all males and roughly 50% of females with the full mutation of FRAXA. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p226)
MSH

X-linked recessive disorder characterized by mental retardation and large head, jaw, ears, and testes; premutation alleles in unaffected carriers give rise to significantly amplified repeats in affected progeny.
CSP

Fragile X syndrome is the most common form of inherited mental retardation. A problem with a specific gene causes the disease. Normally, the gene makes a protein you need for brain development. But the mutation causes a person to make little or none of the protein, which results in the symptoms of Fragile X.

People with only a small change in the gene might not show any signs of Fragile X. People with bigger changes can have severe symptoms. These might include

  • Intelligence problems, ranging from learning disabilities to severe mental retardation
  • Social and emotional problems, such as aggression in boys or shyness in girls
  • Speech and language problems, especially in boys

Fragile X has no cure. You can treat some symptoms with educational, behavioral or physical therapy, and with medicines. Getting treatment early for Fragile X can help.

NIH: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development


MEDLINEPLUS

A genetic syndrome caused by mutations in the FMR1 gene which is responsible for the expression of the fragile X mental retardation 1 protein. This protein participates in neural development. This syndrome is manifested with mental, emotional, behavioral, physical, and learning disabilities.
NCI

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Bolest v končetině

Painful sensation in the upper or lower extremities.
NCI

A disorder characterized by marked discomfort sensation in the upper or lower extremities.
NCI

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demekolcin

An alkaloid isolated from Colchicum autumnale L. and used as an antineoplastic.
MSH

A colchicine analog with potential antimitotic and antineoplastic activities. Demecolcine acid binds to the colchicine-binding site of tubulin, inhibiting its polymerization into microtubules, causing cell cycle arrest at metaphase and preventing cell division.
NCI

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lokální počítačové sítě

Communications networks connecting various hardware devices together within or between buildings by means of a continuous cable or voice data telephone system.
MSH

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sigmoideum – nemoci

Pathological processes in the SIGMOID COLON region of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).
MSH

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arteriografie

A procedure to x-ray arteries. The arteries can be seen because of an injection of a dye that outlines the vessels on an x-ray.
NCI

The X-ray examination of the arterial blood vessels.
NCI

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fruktokinasy

A class of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of fructose in the presence of ATP. EC 2.7.1.-.
MSH

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pankreas – transplantace

The transference of a pancreas from one human or animal to another.
MSH

transferring pancreatic cells or tissue, or whole pancreas, within an individual or between individuals of the same or different species; for specific pancreatic islet cells use PANCREATIC ISLET CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
CSP

The pancreas is an organ that makes insulin and enzymes that help the body digest and use food. A pancreas transplant is surgery to place a healthy pancreas from a donor into a person with a diseased pancreas. A common reason for this type of damage is diabetes. Pancreas transplants can enable people with type 1 diabetes to give up insulin shots. An experimental procedure called islet cell transplantation transplants only the parts of the pancreas that make insulin.

People who have transplants must take drugs to keep their body from rejecting the new pancreas for the rest of their lives. They must also have regular follow-up care.


MEDLINEPLUS

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zubní kavita – preparace

An operation in which carious material is removed from teeth and biomechanically correct forms are established in the teeth to receive and retain restorations. A constant requirement is provision for prevention of failure of the restoration through recurrence of decay or inadequate resistance to applied stresses. (Boucher`s Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p239-40)
MSH

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Krvácení v dolní části zažívacího traktu

Bleeding from the lower gastrointestinal tract (small intestine, large intestine, and anus).
NCI

A disorder characterized by bleeding from the lower gastrointestinal tract (small intestine, large intestine, and anus).
NCI

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retroviry opic

Classes of retroviruses for which monkeys or apes are hosts. Those isolated from the West African green monkey and the Asian rhesus macaque monkey are of particular interest because of their similarities to viruses causing cancer and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans.
MSH

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arylsulfonany

Organic sulfonic acid esters or salts which contain an aromatic hydrocarbon radical.
MSH

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furagin

Nitrofuran derivative anti-infective agent used for urinary tract infections.
MSH

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kyselina pantothenová

A butyryl-beta-alanine that can also be viewed as pantoic acid complexed with BETA ALANINE. It is incorporated into COENZYME A and protects cells against peroxidative damage by increasing the level of GLUTATHIONE.
MSH

A water-soluble vitamin ubiquitously found in plants and animal tissues with antioxidant property. Vitamin B5 is a component of coenzyme A (CoA) and a part of the vitamin B2 complex. Vitamin B5 is a growth factor and is essential for various metabolic functions, including the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fatty acids. This vitamin is also involved in the synthesis of cholesterol, lipids, neurotransmitters, steroid hormones, and hemoglobin.
NCI

Water-soluble vitamin that is a component of coenzyme A and phosphopantetheine, which are involved in fatty acid metabolism. (DRI)
NCI

A nutrient in the vitamin B complex that the body needs in small amounts to function and stay healthy. Pantothenic acid helps some enzymes use foods and make many substances used in the body and protects cells against damage from peroxides. It is found in almost all plant and animal foods. Pantothenic acid is water-soluble (can dissolve in water) and must be taken in every day.
NCI

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zubní plak

A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.
MSH

film that attaches to teeth, often causing dental caries and gingivitis; composed of mucins, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.
CSP

A biofilm that contains numerous microorganisms that adheres to the teeth.
NCI

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lupus erythematosus kožní

A form of lupus erythematosus in which the skin may be the only organ involved or in which skin involvement precedes the spread into other body systems. It has been classified into three forms – acute (= LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC with skin lesions), subacute, and chronic (= LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, DISCOID).
MSH

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stárnutí kůže

The process of aging due to changes in the structure and elasticity of the skin over time. It may be a part of physiological aging or it may be due to the effects of ultraviolet radiation, usually through exposure to sunlight.
MSH

Your skin changes as you age. You might notice wrinkles, age spots and dryness. Your skin also becomes thinner and loses fat, making it less plump and smooth. It might take longer to heal, too.

Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out of the sun when it is strongest, using sunscreen with an SPF of 15 or higher, wearing protective clothing, and avoiding sunlamps and tanning beds. Cigarette smoking also contributes to wrinkles. The wrinkling increases with the amount of cigarettes and number of years a person has smoked.

Many products claim to revitalize aging skin or reduce wrinkles, but the Food and Drug Administration has approved only a few for sun-damaged or aging skin. Various treatments soothe dry skin and reduce the appearance of age spots.

NIH: National Institute on Aging


MEDLINEPLUS

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aspartátová amoniaklyasa

An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of aspartic acid to ammonia and fumaric acid in plants and some microorganisms. EC 4.3.1.1.
MSH

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galaktosamin

amino sugar derivative of galactose, substituted at the 2 position; occurs in a variety of glycosaminoglycans and complex polysaccharides, such as blood group substances, and is generally acetylated.
CSP

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Paragonimus westermani

A species of lung fluke infecting humans and other animals, and found chiefly in Asia and the Far East.
MSH

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dentin sekundární

Dentin formed by normal pulp after completion of root end formation.
MSH

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lymfatické metastázy

Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.
MSH

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viry pomalé – infekce

Diseases of viral origin, characterized by incubation periods of months to years, insidious onset of clinical manifestations, and protracted clinical course. Though the disease process is protracted, viral multiplication may not be unusually slow. Conventional viruses produce slow virus diseases such as SUBACUTE SCLEROSING PANENCEPHALITIS, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (LEUKOENCEPHALOPATHY, PROGRESSIVE MULTIFOCAL), and AIDS. Diseases produced by unconventional agents were originally considered part of this group. They are now called PRION DISEASES.
MSH

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astigmatismus

Unequal curvature of the refractive surfaces of the eye. Thus a point source of light cannot be brought to a point focus on the retina but is spread over a more or less diffuse area. This results from the radius of curvature in one plane being longer or shorter than the radius at right angles to it. (Dorland, 27th ed)
MSH

optical defect in which refractive power is not uniform in all directions (meridians); light rays entering the eye are bent unequally by different meridians, which prevents formation of a sharp image focus on the retina.
CSP

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gama paprsky

Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 – 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.
MSH

high energy photons emitted during nuclear reactions; major emission of 125-iodine and other radioisotopes useful in biochemistry because of their ease of scintillation counting.
CSP

High-energy, short wavelength, ionizing electromagnetic radiation emitted from the nucleus. Gamma radiation frequently accompanies alpha and beta emissions and always accompanies fission. Gamma rays are very penetrating and are best stopped or shielded by dense materials, such as lead or depleted uranium. Gamma rays are identical to x-rays and are only differentiated by their origin. (from NRC Glossary)
NCI

A type of high-energy radiation that is different from an x-ray.
NCI

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paraquat

A poisonous dipyridilium compound used as contact herbicide. Contact with concentrated solutions causes irritation of the skin, cracking and shedding of the nails, and delayed healing of cuts and wounds.
MSH

poisonous dipyridilium compound used as a contact herbicide.
CSP

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deoxycytidin

nucleoside component of DNA; composed of cytosine and deoxyribose.
CSP

A drug that protects healthy tissues from the toxic effects of anticancer drugs.
NCI

a drug that protects healthy cells from the toxic effects of anticancer drugs
CHV

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Lysis

Tissue structure disintegration and destruction due to action of endogenous or/and exogenous lytic substances which include but not limited to naturally occuring or laboratory designed proteolytic enzymes, glycosidases, detergents, pore-forming proteins, immune complexes, etc. Tissue lysis plays role in pathogenesis of a number of conditions e.g. protozoal infections, ischemic tissue injury, and autoimmune disorders. It is also used as a basis for non-surgical treatment modality to remove or minimize presence of abnormal tissue, e.g. adhesions.
NCI

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sociální žádoucnost

A personality trait rendering the individual acceptable in social or interpersonal relations. It is related to social acceptance, social approval, popularity, social status, leadership qualities, or any quality making him a socially desirable companion.
MSH

personality trait rendering the individual acceptable in social or interpersonal relations; related to social acceptance, social approval, popularity, social status, or leadership qualities
CSP

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