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nemoc

A definite pathologic process with a characteristic set of signs and symptoms. It may affect the whole body or any of its parts, and its etiology, pathology, and prognosis may be known or unknown.
MSH

Any abnormal condition of the body or mind that causes discomfort, dysfunction, or distress to the person affected or those in contact with the person. The term is often used broadly to include injuries, disabilities, syndromes, symptoms, deviant behaviors, and atypical variations of structure and function.
NCI

top term heading for all specific disorders and diseases; a disease is a deviation from or interruption of the normal structure or function of any part, organ or system (or combination thereof) of the body that is manifested by a characteristic set of symptoms and signs; a disorder is a derangement or abnormality of function.
CSP

In medicine, a health problem with certain characteristics or symptoms.
NCI

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kyselina lithocholová

A bile acid formed from chenodeoxycholate by bacterial action, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as cholagogue and choleretic.
MSH

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chinazoliny

two ring heterocyclic compound.
CSP

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dibenzyly

Compounds with 1,2-diphenylethane. They are structurally like reduced STILBENES.
MSH

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syndrom fragilního X

A condition characterized genotypically by mutation of the distal end of the long arm of the X chromosome (at gene loci FRAXA or FRAXE) and phenotypically by cognitive impairment, hyperactivity, SEIZURES, language delay, and enlargement of the ears, head, and testes. INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY occurs in nearly all males and roughly 50% of females with the full mutation of FRAXA. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p226)
MSH

X-linked recessive disorder characterized by mental retardation and large head, jaw, ears, and testes; premutation alleles in unaffected carriers give rise to significantly amplified repeats in affected progeny.
CSP

Fragile X syndrome is the most common form of inherited mental retardation. A problem with a specific gene causes the disease. Normally, the gene makes a protein you need for brain development. But the mutation causes a person to make little or none of the protein, which results in the symptoms of Fragile X.

People with only a small change in the gene might not show any signs of Fragile X. People with bigger changes can have severe symptoms. These might include

  • Intelligence problems, ranging from learning disabilities to severe mental retardation
  • Social and emotional problems, such as aggression in boys or shyness in girls
  • Speech and language problems, especially in boys

Fragile X has no cure. You can treat some symptoms with educational, behavioral or physical therapy, and with medicines. Getting treatment early for Fragile X can help.

NIH: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development


MEDLINEPLUS

A genetic syndrome caused by mutations in the FMR1 gene which is responsible for the expression of the fragile X mental retardation 1 protein. This protein participates in neural development. This syndrome is manifested with mental, emotional, behavioral, physical, and learning disabilities.
NCI

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1-propanol

A colorless liquid made by oxidation of aliphatic hydrocarbons that is used as a solvent and chemical intermediate.
MSH

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kyselina dithionitrobenzoová

A standard reagent for the determination of reactive sulfhydryl groups by absorbance measurements. It is used primarily for the determination of sulfhydryl and disulfide groups in proteins. The color produced is due to the formation of a thio anion, 3-carboxyl-4-nitrothiophenolate.
MSH

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lokální počítačové sítě

Communications networks connecting various hardware devices together within or between buildings by means of a continuous cable or voice data telephone system.
MSH

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aspects of radiation effects

Used for effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation upon living organisms, organs and tissues, and their constituents, and upon physiologic processes. It includes the effect of irradiation on drugs and chemicals.
MSH

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biliverdin

1,3,6,7-Tetramethyl-4,5-dicarboxyethyl-2,8-divinylbilenone. Biosynthesized from hemoglobin as a precursor of bilirubin. Occurs in the bile of AMPHIBIANS and of birds, but not in normal human bile or serum.
MSH

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fruktokinasy

A class of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of fructose in the presence of ATP. EC 2.7.1.-.
MSH

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algoritmy

A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
MSH

A defined procedure for solving a problem. Applied to a problem-solving procedure implemented in software to be executed by a computer.
NCI

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DNA-polymerasa I

A DNA-dependent DNA polymerase characterized in prokaryotes and may be present in higher organisms. It has both 3`-5` and 5`-3` exonuclease activity, but cannot use native double-stranded DNA as template-primer. It is not inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents and is active in both DNA synthesis and repair. EC 2.7.7.7.
MSH

An enzyme that plays major roles in DNA metabolism. The protein, which exhibits bidirectional nuclease activity is required for both DNA synthesis and repair. DNA polymerase alpha is most active in dividing cells, and is primarily involved with lagging strand synthesis.
NCI

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Krvácení v dolní části zažívacího traktu

Bleeding from the lower gastrointestinal tract (small intestine, large intestine, and anus).
NCI

A disorder characterized by bleeding from the lower gastrointestinal tract (small intestine, large intestine, and anus).
NCI

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rentgendiagnostika – dvourozměrná projekce

A method of producing a high-quality scan by digitizing and subtracting the images produced by high- and low-energy x-rays.
MSH

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biologické vědy

All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
MSH

The division of the natural sciences that is concerned with the phenomenon of life and vital processes.
NCI

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furagin

Nitrofuran derivative anti-infective agent used for urinary tract infections.
MSH

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slitiny

A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions.
MSH

mixture of two or more metals or of one or more metals with certain metalloids that are mutually soluble in the molten condition; distinguished as binary, ternary, quaternary, etc., depending on the number of metals in the mixture.
CSP

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dolicholmonofosfátmannosa

A lipophilic glycosyl carrier of the monosaccharide mannose in the biosynthesis of oligosaccharide phospholipids and glycoproteins.
MSH

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lupus erythematosus kožní

A form of lupus erythematosus in which the skin may be the only organ involved or in which skin involvement precedes the spread into other body systems. It has been classified into three forms – acute (= LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC with skin lesions), subacute, and chronic (= LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, DISCOID).
MSH

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vztek

Fury; violent, intense anger.
MSH

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ptáci – nemoci

Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.
MSH

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galaktosamin

amino sugar derivative of galactose, substituted at the 2 position; occurs in a variety of glycosaminoglycans and complex polysaccharides, such as blood group substances, and is generally acetylated.
CSP

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talasémie alfa

A disorder characterized by reduced synthesis of the alpha chains of hemoglobin. The severity of this condition can vary from mild anemia to death, depending on the number of genes deleted.
MSH

A genetic hematologic disorder characterized by partial or complete absence of the alpha globin chains of the heme molecule.
NCI

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doxycyklin

A synthetic TETRACYCLINE derivative with similar antimicrobial activity. Animal studies suggest that it may cause less tooth staining than other tetracyclines. It is used in some areas for the treatment of chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM).
MSH

A drug used to treat many types of bacterial infections. It stops the growth of bacteria by keeping them from making proteins. It is a type of antibiotic.
NCI

a kind of antibiotics
CHV

A synthetic, broad-spectrum tetracycline antibiotic exhibiting antimicrobial activity. Doxycycline binds to the 30S ribosomal subunit, possibly to the 50S ribosomal subunit as well, thereby blocking the binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to the mRNA-ribosome complex. This leads to an inhibition of protein synthesis. In addition, this agent has exhibited inhibition of collagenase activity. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=42494&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=42494&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C457″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A synthetic, broad-spectrum tetracycline antibiotic exhibiting antimicrobial activity. Doxycycline binds to the 30S ribosomal subunit, possibly to the 50S ribosomal subunit as well, thereby blocking the binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to the mRNA-ribosome complex. This leads to an inhibition of protein synthesis. In addition, this agent has exhibited inhibition of collagenase activity.
NCI

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lymfatické metastázy

Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.
MSH

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potkani – mutantní kmeny

Rats bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
MSH

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močový měchýř – nádory

new abnormal urinary bladder tissue that grows by excessive cellular division and proliferation more rapidly than normal and continues to grow after the stimuli that initiated the new growth cease.
CSP

Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.
MSH

A benign or malignant, primary or metastatic neoplasm of the bladder. – 2003
NCI

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gama paprsky

Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 – 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.
MSH

high energy photons emitted during nuclear reactions; major emission of 125-iodine and other radioisotopes useful in biochemistry because of their ease of scintillation counting.
CSP

High-energy, short wavelength, ionizing electromagnetic radiation emitted from the nucleus. Gamma radiation frequently accompanies alpha and beta emissions and always accompanies fission. Gamma rays are very penetrating and are best stopped or shielded by dense materials, such as lead or depleted uranium. Gamma rays are identical to x-rays and are only differentiated by their origin. (from NRC Glossary)
NCI

A type of high-energy radiation that is different from an x-ray.
NCI

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Ambenonium

A bisquaternary ammonium alcohol with parasympathomimetic activity. The positive charge of ambenonium allows it to act as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor by binding to the anionic site at the reactive center of acetylcholinesterase, preventing the breakdown of acetylcholine and producing an indirect cholinomimetic effect at both nicotinic and muscarinic receptors. Ambenonium also has direct agonist activity at nicotinic receptors, potentiating the cholinomimetic effect at the neuromuscular junction.
NCI

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