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embryonální indukce

The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).
MSH

A process that stimulates and directs a morphogenetic influence on a population of cells. These populations are often differentiating cells or adjacent neighboring cells that are not fixed on a developmental path. Embryonic induction plays a regulatory role in the development and construction of embryos.
NCI

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předsudek

A preconceived judgment made without adequate evidence and not easily alterable by presentation of contrary evidence.
MSH

attitude or opinion which predisposes an individual to make a preconceived judgment prior to objective evaluation; frequently an irrational attitude of hostility directed against an individual, group, or race or their supposed characteristics; do not confuse with BIAS.
CSP

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DNA komplementární

Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
MSH

single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase; used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
CSP

Single-stranded DNA that is complementary to messenger RNA or DNA that has been synthesized from messenger RNA by reverse transcriptase.
NCI

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jod – isotopy

Stable iodine atoms that have the same atomic number as the element iodine, but differ in atomic weight. I-127 is the only naturally occurring stable iodine isotope.
MSH

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Escherichia coli

species of gram negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod shaped bacteria commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm blooded animals; usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce diarrhea and pyogenic infections.
CSP

A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
MSH

Any bacterial organism that can be assigned to the species Escherichia coli.
NCI

A common, gram negative gut bacterium that has been studied intensively by geneticists because of its small genome size, normal lack of pathogenicity, and ease of growth in the laboratory.
NCI

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kyselina 1-karboxyglutamová

Found in various tissues, particularly in four blood-clotting proteins including prothrombin, in kidney protein, in bone protein, and in the protein present in various ectopic calcifications.
MSH

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enalapril

One of the ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS that is used to treat hypertension.
MSH

1-carboxy-3-phenylpropyl-L-alanyl- L-proline (as 1`-ethyl ester, maleate 1:1), is an ACE inhibitor used as an antihypertensive.
CSP

A dicarbocyl-containing peptide and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor with antihypertensive activity. As a prodrug, enalapril is converted by de-esterification into its active form enalaprilat. Enalaprilat competitively binds to and inhibits ACE, thereby blocking the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II. This prevents the potent vasoconstrictive actions of angiotensin II and results in vasodilation. Enalapril also decreases angiotensin II-induced aldosterone secretion by the adrenal cortex, which leads to an increase in sodium excretion and subsequently increases water outflow.
NCI

An antihypertensive agent that can also be used to slow or prevent the progression of heart disease in people with childhood cancer treated with drugs that may be harmful to the heart.
NCI

a drug used to treat hypertension
CHV

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priapismus

A prolonged painful erection that may lasts hours and is not associated with sexual activity. It is seen in patients with SICKLE CELL ANEMIA, advanced malignancy, spinal trauma; and certain drug treatments.
MSH

Persistent and usually painful erection that lasts for at least four hours, in the absence of physical or psychological stimulation. It may be caused by hematologic disorders including sickle cell disease and leukemia, spinal cord injuries, and medications.
NCI

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vápníkové kanály

Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
MSH

voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions.
CSP

An ion channel with selective permeability to calcium.
NCI

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iprindol

A tricyclic antidepressant that has actions and uses similar to those of AMITRIPTYLINE, but has only weak antimuscarinic and sedative effects. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p257)
MSH

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estetika stomatologická

Skills, techniques, standards, and principles used to improve the art and symmetry of the teeth and face to improve the appearance as well as the function of the teeth, mouth, and face. (From Boucher`s Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p108)
MSH

Who doesn`t want a perfect smile? While few people have one naturally, almost anyone can get one with the help of their dentist. In addition to orthodontic treatment, which can straighten your teeth, recent advances in dental materials and techniques offer near-perfect teeth that are almost as strong as the originals.

Things your dentist can do to improve your smile include

  • Bleaching to make teeth whiter
  • Repairing chips or rough spots with fillings that match your teeth
  • Filling cavities with tooth-colored materials
  • Reshaping teeth that don`t match the others
  • Closing gaps between teeth
  • Covering broken teeth with porcelain crowns


MEDLINEPLUS

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2-naftylamin

A naphthalene derivative with carcinogenic action.
MSH

A synthetic, air-sensitive, colorless crystalline solid that is soluble in hot water, alcohol, ether and many organic solvents. Currently, it is only used in laboratory research. Because the commercial production and use of 2-naphthylamine are banned, the potential for human exposure is low. The general population may be exposed to this chemical through inhalation of emissions from sources where nitrogen-containing organic matter is burned, such as coal furnaces and cigarettes. At greatest risk of occupational exposure to 2-naphthylamine are laboratory technicians and scientists who use it in research. Acute inhalation exposure to high levels of 2-naphthylamine can result in methemoglobinemia, dyspnea, ataxia, hematuria, dysuria and hemorrhagic cystitis. It is known to be a human carcinogen. (NCI05)
NCI

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karotická endarterektomie

The excision of the thickened, atheromatous tunica intima of a carotid artery.
MSH

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prokain

A local anesthetic of the ester type that has a slow onset and a short duration of action. It is mainly used for infiltration anesthesia, peripheral nerve block, and spinal block. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1016).
MSH

local anesthetic of the ester type that has a slow onset and a short duration of action, mainly used for infiltration anesthesia, peripheral nerve block, and spinal block.
CSP

A benzoic acid derivative with local anesthetic and antiarrhythmic properties. Procaine binds to and inhibits voltage-gated sodium channels, thereby inhibiting the ionic flux required for the initiation and conduction of impulses. In addition, this agent increases electrical excitation threshold, reduces rate of rise of action potential and slows nerve impulse propagation thereby causing loss of sensation.
NCI

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kostní svalek

The bony deposit formed between and around the broken ends of BONE FRACTURES during normal healing.
MSH

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isoamylasa

An enzyme that hydrolyzes 1,6-alpha-glucosidic branch linkages in glycogen, amylopectin, and their beta-limit dextrins. It is distinguished from pullulanase (EC 3.2.1.41) by its inability to attack pullulan and by the feeble action of alpha-limit dextrins. It is distinguished from amylopectin 6-glucanohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.69) by its action on glycogen. With EC 3.2.1.69, it produces the activity called “debranching enzyme”. EC 3.2.1.68.
MSH

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ethanolaminy

AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the ETHANOLAMINE; (-NH2CH2CHOH) group and its derivatives.
MSH

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5,7-dihydroxytryptamin

Tryptamine substituted with two hydroxyl groups in positions 5 and 7. It is a neurotoxic serotonin analog that destroys serotonergic neurons preferentially and is used in neuropharmacology as a tool.
MSH

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endoplazmatické retikulum

A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
MSH

system of cisternae in the cytoplasm of many cells; in places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope; rough endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes and are involved in protein synthesis and transport; smooth endoplasmic reticulum is involved in steroid synthesis.
CSP

The irregular network of unit membranes, visible only by electron microscopy, that occurs in the cytoplasm of many eukaryotic cells. The membranes form a complex meshwork of tubular channels, which are often expanded into slitlike cavities called cisternae. The ER takes two forms, rough (or granular), with ribosomes adhering to the outer surface, and smooth (with no ribosomes attached). [ISBN:0198506732 “Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology”]
GO

a part of the cell structure
CHV

The endoplasmic reticulum is a network of tubular membranes within the cytoplasm of the cell, occurring either with a smooth surface (smooth endoplasmic reticulum) or studded with ribosomes (rough endoplasmic reticulum), involved in the transport of materials. (Infoplease Dictionary)
NCI

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progerie

An abnormal congenital condition, associated with defects in the LAMIN TYPE A gene, which is characterized by premature aging in children, where all the changes of cell senescence occur. It is manifested by premature greying; hair loss; hearing loss (DEAFNESS); cataracts (CATARACT); ARTHRITIS; OSTEOPOROSIS; DIABETES MELLITUS; atrophy of subcutaneous fat; skeletal hypoplasia; elevated urinary HYALURONIC ACID; and accelerated ATHEROSCLEROSIS. Many affected individuals develop malignant tumors, especially SARCOMA.
MSH

a disease that produces rapid aging, beginning in childhood
CHV

A very rare genetic disorder caused by mutations in the LMNA gene. It is characterized by premature aging. Signs and symptoms include failure to thrive, limited growth, alopecia, wrinkled skin, small face, development of atherosclerosis, and heart disease. There is no cure for this condition. Individuals do not usually survive beyond their early twenties. Death usually occurs as a result of complications from atherosclerosis.
NCI

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kandidóza

Infection with a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. It is usually a superficial infection of the moist areas of the body and is generally caused by CANDIDA ALBICANS. (Dorland, 27th ed)
MSH

infection with a fungus of the genus Candida; usually a superficial infection of the moist areas of the body and is generally caused by Candida albicans; includes chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, cutaneous candidiasis, oral candidiasis (thrush), and monilial vaginitis.
CSP

A condition in which Candida albicans, a type of yeast, grows out of control in moist skin areas of the body. It is usually a result of a weakened immune system, but can be a side effect of chemotherapy or treatment with antibiotics. Thrush usually affects the mouth (oral thrush); however, rarely, it spreads throughout the entire body.
NCI

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Isospora

A genus of protozoan parasites found in the intestines of birds, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals, including man. The oocysts produce two sporocysts, each with four sporozoites. Many species are parasitic in wild and domestic animals.
MSH

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ethopabát

An inhibitor of folate metabolism. It is used as a coccidiostat in poultry.
MSH

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břicho – nádory

new abnormal abdominal tissue that grows by excessive cellular division and proliferation more rapidly than normal and continues to grow after the stimuli that initiated the new growth cease.
CSP

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koronavirus krocanů

A species of CORONAVIRUS causing enteritis in turkeys and pullets.
MSH

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Povýšení

Encouragement of the progress or growth or acceptance of something.
NCI

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kapsida

The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
MSH

protein shell which surrounds the virus nucleic acid; has icosahedral, helical, or complex symmetry.
CSP

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žárlivost

An irrational reaction compounded of grief, loss of self-esteem, enmity against the rival and self criticism.
MSH

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Etiology aspects

Used with diseases for causative agents including microorganisms and includes environmental and social factors and personal habits as contributing factors. It includes pathogenesis.
MSH

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kyselina abscisová

Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.
MSH

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