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LacZ-genen

The lacZ gene is a popular reporter gene in transfection experiments because its product, b-galactosidase, is very stable, resistant to proteolytic degradation, and easily assayed.
NCI

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léky – hodnocení

Any process by which toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, preferred route of administration, safe dosage range, etc., for a drug or group of drugs is determined through clinical assessment in humans or veterinary animals.
MSH

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kyselina 1-karboxyglutamová

Found in various tissues, particularly in four blood-clotting proteins including prothrombin, in kidney protein, in bone protein, and in the protein present in various ectopic calcifications.
MSH

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poplatky farmaceutické

Amounts charged to the patient or third-party payer for medication. It includes the pharmacist`s professional fee and cost of ingredients, containers, etc.
MSH

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blood flow measurement

techniques used to measure velocity and amount of blood flow and circulation in the living system.
CSP

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priapismus

A prolonged painful erection that may lasts hours and is not associated with sexual activity. It is seen in patients with SICKLE CELL ANEMIA, advanced malignancy, spinal trauma; and certain drug treatments.
MSH

Persistent and usually painful erection that lasts for at least four hours, in the absence of physical or psychological stimulation. It may be caused by hematologic disorders including sickle cell disease and leukemia, spinal cord injuries, and medications.
NCI

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laryngální svaly

The striated muscle groups which move the LARYNX as a whole or its parts, such as altering tension of the VOCAL CORDS, or size of the slit (RIMA GLOTTIDIS).
MSH

intrinsic muscles of the larynx are the vocal, aryepiglottic, arytenoid, cricoarytenoid, cricothyroid, thyroarytenoid, and thyroepiglottic.
CSP

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Duchenneova svalová dystrofie

An X-linked recessive muscle disease caused by an inability to synthesize DYSTROPHIN, which is involved with maintaining the integrity of the sarcolemma. Muscle fibers undergo a process that features degeneration and regeneration. Clinical manifestations include proximal weakness in the first few years of life, pseudohypertrophy, cardiomyopathy (see MYOCARDIAL DISEASES), and an increased incidence of impaired mentation. Becker muscular dystrophy is a closely related condition featuring a later onset of disease (usually adolescence) and a slowly progressive course. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1415)
MSH

An X-linked inherited disorder caused by mutations in the DMD gene found on the X chromosome. It is characterized by rapidly progressing muscle weakness and muscle atrophy initially involving the lower extremities and eventually affecting the whole body. It affects males whereas females can be carriers. The symptoms start before the age of six and may appear at infancy.
NCI

a kind of inherited disorder, characterized by rapidly-worsening muscle weakness
CHV

X-linked recessive muscle disease caused by an inability to synthesize dystrophin, which is involved with maintaining the integrity of the sarcolemma; muscle fibers undergo a process that features degeneration and regeneration; clinical manifestations include proximal weakness in the first few years of life, pseudohypertrophy, cardiomyopathy and an increased incidence of impaired mentation; Becker muscular dystrophy is a closely related condition featuring a later onset of disease (usually adolescence) and a slowly progressive course.
CSP

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2-naftylamin

A naphthalene derivative with carcinogenic action.
MSH

A synthetic, air-sensitive, colorless crystalline solid that is soluble in hot water, alcohol, ether and many organic solvents. Currently, it is only used in laboratory research. Because the commercial production and use of 2-naphthylamine are banned, the potential for human exposure is low. The general population may be exposed to this chemical through inhalation of emissions from sources where nitrogen-containing organic matter is burned, such as coal furnaces and cigarettes. At greatest risk of occupational exposure to 2-naphthylamine are laboratory technicians and scientists who use it in research. Acute inhalation exposure to high levels of 2-naphthylamine can result in methemoglobinemia, dyspnea, ataxia, hematuria, dysuria and hemorrhagic cystitis. It is known to be a human carcinogen. (NCI05)
NCI

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ferredoxin-NADP-reduktasa

An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation and reduction of FERREDOXIN or ADRENODOXIN in the presence of NADP. EC 1.18.1.2 was formerly listed as EC 1.6.7.1 and EC 1.6.99.4.
MSH

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krevní transfúze autologní

Reinfusion of blood or blood products derived from the patient`s own circulation. (Dorland, 27th ed)
MSH

reinfusion of blood or blood products derived from the patient`s own circulation.
CSP

Infusion of previously obtained autologous blood or blood products back to the same individual.
NCI

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prokain

A local anesthetic of the ester type that has a slow onset and a short duration of action. It is mainly used for infiltration anesthesia, peripheral nerve block, and spinal block. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1016).
MSH

local anesthetic of the ester type that has a slow onset and a short duration of action, mainly used for infiltration anesthesia, peripheral nerve block, and spinal block.
CSP

A benzoic acid derivative with local anesthetic and antiarrhythmic properties. Procaine binds to and inhibits voltage-gated sodium channels, thereby inhibiting the ionic flux required for the initiation and conduction of impulses. In addition, this agent increases electrical excitation threshold, reduces rate of rise of action potential and slows nerve impulse propagation thereby causing loss of sensation.
NCI

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lawrencium

Lawrencium. A radioactive actinide discovered in 1961. It has the atomic symbol Lr, atomic number 103, and atomic weight of 257. There are two isotopes with mass number 257 or 258, and mass number 256.
MSH

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primární dysautonomie

An acute or chronic disorder, affecting the sympathetic or parasympathetic nervous system. It can be primary, the result of central nervous system degeneration, or secondary due to diabetes or alcoholism. Patients with the chronic form of this disorder usually have a progressive clinical course and a poor prognosis.
NCI

Disorders of the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM occurring as a primary condition. Manifestations can involve any or all body systems but commonly affect the BLOOD PRESSURE and HEART RATE.
MSH

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5,7-dihydroxytryptamin

Tryptamine substituted with two hydroxyl groups in positions 5 and 7. It is a neurotoxic serotonin analog that destroys serotonergic neurons preferentially and is used in neuropharmacology as a tool.
MSH

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fétus – makrozomie

A condition of fetal overgrowth leading to a large-for-gestational-age FETUS. It is defined as BIRTH WEIGHT greater than 4,000 grams or above the 90th percentile for population and sex-specific growth curves. It is commonly seen in GESTATIONAL DIABETES; PROLONGED PREGNANCY; and pregnancies complicated by pre-existing diabetes mellitus.
MSH

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tělo – velikost

The physical measurements of a body.
MSH

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progerie

An abnormal congenital condition, associated with defects in the LAMIN TYPE A gene, which is characterized by premature aging in children, where all the changes of cell senescence occur. It is manifested by premature greying; hair loss; hearing loss (DEAFNESS); cataracts (CATARACT); ARTHRITIS; OSTEOPOROSIS; DIABETES MELLITUS; atrophy of subcutaneous fat; skeletal hypoplasia; elevated urinary HYALURONIC ACID; and accelerated ATHEROSCLEROSIS. Many affected individuals develop malignant tumors, especially SARCOMA.
MSH

a disease that produces rapid aging, beginning in childhood
CHV

A very rare genetic disorder caused by mutations in the LMNA gene. It is characterized by premature aging. Signs and symptoms include failure to thrive, limited growth, alopecia, wrinkled skin, small face, development of atherosclerosis, and heart disease. There is no cure for this condition. Individuals do not usually survive beyond their early twenties. Death usually occurs as a result of complications from atherosclerosis.
NCI

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legionářská nemoc

An acute, sometimes fatal, pneumonia-like bacterial infection characterized by high fever, malaise, muscle aches, respiratory disorders and headache. It is named for an outbreak at the 1976 Philadelphia convention of the American Legion.
MSH

Legionnaires` disease is a type of pneumonia caused by bacteria. You usually get it by breathing in mist from water that contains the bacteria. The mist may come from hot tubs, showers or air-conditioning units for large buildings. The bacteria don`t spread from person to person.

Symptoms of Legionnaires` disease include fever, chills, a cough and sometimes muscle aches and headaches. Other types of pneumonia have similar symptoms. You will probably need a chest x-ray to diagnose the pneumonia. Lab tests can detect the specific bacteria that cause Legionnaires` disease.

The bacteria are more likely to make you sick if you

  • Are older than 65
  • Smoke
  • Have a lung disease
  • Have a weak immune system

Legionnaires` disease is serious and can be life-threatening. However, most people recover with antibiotic treatment.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention


MEDLINEPLUS

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bolest ucha

Pain in the ear.
MSH

A disorder characterized by a sensation of marked discomfort in the ear.
NCI

Painful sensation in the ear region.
NCI

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břicho – nádory

new abnormal abdominal tissue that grows by excessive cellular division and proliferation more rapidly than normal and continues to grow after the stimuli that initiated the new growth cease.
CSP

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fibrocystická nemoc prsu

A common condition marked by benign (not cancer) changes in breast tissue. These changes may include irregular lumps or cysts, breast discomfort, sensitive nipples, and itching. These symptoms may change throughout the menstrual cycle and usually stop after menopause.
NCI

A common and benign breast disease characterized by varying degree of fibrocystic changes in the breast tissue. There are three major patterns of morphological changes, including FIBROSIS, formation of CYSTS, and proliferation of glandular tissue (adenosis). The fibrocystic breast has a dense irregular, lumpy, bumpy consistency.
MSH

Fibrosis associated with cyst formation in the breast parenchyma. — 2003
NCI

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kosti – nádory

Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
MSH

new abnormal bone tissue that grows by excessive cellular division and proliferation more rapidly than normal and continues to grow after the stimuli that initiated the new growth cease; includes tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific bones.
CSP

A benign or malignant (primary or metastatic) tumor involving the bone. Common malignant tumor types involving the bones are metastatic carcinomas and sarcomas. — 2003
NCI

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Povýšení

Encouragement of the progress or growth or acceptance of something.
NCI

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implantace nitrooční čočky

Insertion of an artificial lens to replace the natural CRYSTALLINE LENS after CATARACT EXTRACTION or to supplement the natural lens which is left in place.
MSH

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echovirus 9

A species of ENTEROVIRUS associated with outbreaks of aseptic meningitis (MENINGITIS, ASEPTIC).
MSH

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kyselina abscisová

Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.
MSH

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herpesvirus 1 žab

A species of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, whose genus is so far unassigned. It is probably the causative agent of ADENOMA or ADENOCARCINOMA in the kidneys of certain frogs.
MSH

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Economic

Used for the economic aspects of any subject, as well as for all aspects of financial management. It includes the raising or providing of funds.
MSH

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Acanthamoeba

facultative parasite of humans usually causes chronic infectin of the skin or central nervous system; causative agents of keratitis (corneal inflammation and opacity); most common ameba in fresh water and soil.
CSP

A genus of free-living soil amoebae that produces no flagellate stage. Its organisms are pathogens for several infections in humans and have been found in the eye, bone, brain, and respiratory tract.
MSH

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