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anatomie srovnávací

The comparative study of animal structure with regard to homologous organs or parts. (Stedman, 25th ed)
MSH

The comparison of the structure (anatomy) of one animal or plant with the structure of a different animal or plant.
NCI

The study of similarities and differences in homologous and analagous structures between different organisms.
NCI

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složené pryskyřice

Synthetic resins, containing an inert filler, that are widely used in dentistry.
MSH

synthetic resins, containing an inert filler, usually polymer mineral pastes, that are widely used in dentistry.
CSP

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jodpyridony

Iodinated pyridine derivatives that are often used as contrast media.
MSH

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reprodukční chování

The specific actions or reactions of an organism that are associated with reproduction. [GOC:jl]
GO

Human behavior or decision related to REPRODUCTION.
MSH

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poruchy motility jícnu

Disorders affecting the motor function of the UPPER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER; LOWER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER; the ESOPHAGUS body, or a combination of these parts. The failure of the sphincters to maintain a tonic pressure may result in gastric reflux of food and acid into the esophagus (GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX). Other disorders include hypermotility (spastic disorders) and markedly increased amplitude in contraction (nutcracker esophagus).
MSH

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condylomata acuminata

Sexually transmitted form of anogenital warty growth caused by the human papillomaviruses.
MSH

small, pointed papilloma of viral origin, usually occurring on the skin or mucous surface of the external genitalia or perianal region.
CSP

Genital warts are a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). The warts are soft, moist, pink or flesh-colored bumps. You can have one or many of these bumps. In women, the warts usually occur in or around the vagina, on the cervix or around the anus. In men, genital warts are less common but might occur on the tip of the penis.

You can get genital warts during oral, vaginal or anal sex with an infected partner. Correct usage of latex condoms greatly reduces, but does not completely eliminate, the risk of catching or spreading HPV.

The warts might disappear on their own. If not, your health care provider can treat or remove them. The virus stays in your body even after treatment, so warts can come back.

NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases


MEDLINEPLUS

A raised growth on the surface of the genitals caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. The HPV in genital warts is very contagious and can be spread by skin-to-skin contact, usually during oral, anal, or genital sex with an infected partner.
NCI

A sexually transmitted papillary growth caused by the human papillomavirus. It usually arises in the skin and mucous membranes of the perianal region and external genitalia.
NCI

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iris – nemoci

Diseases, dysfunctions, or disorders of or located in the iris.
MSH

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respirační paralýza

Complete or severe weakness of the muscles of respiration. This condition may be associated with MOTOR NEURON DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; injury to the PHRENIC NERVE; and other disorders.
MSH

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estriol

A hydroxylated metabolite of ESTRADIOL or ESTRONE that has a hydroxyl group at C3-beta, 16-alpha, and 17-beta position. Estriol is a major urinary estrogen. During PREGNANCY, large amount of estriol is produced by the PLACENTA. Isomers with inversion of the hydroxyl group or groups are called epiestriol.
MSH

oxidation product of estradiol and estrone, having relatively weak estrogenic activity, detectable in high concentration in urine, especially human pregnancy urine.
CSP

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ESTITIKEZA

Infrequent or difficult evacuation of FECES. These symptoms are associated with a variety of causes, including low DIETARY FIBER intake, emotional or nervous disturbances, systemic and structural disorders, drug-induced aggravation, and infections.
MSH

condition in which bowel movements are infrequent or incomplete.
CSP

Constipation means that a person has three or fewer bowel movements in a week. The stool can be hard and dry. Sometimes it is painful to pass. At one time or another, almost everyone gets constipated. In most cases, it lasts a short time and is not serious.

There are many things you can do to prevent constipation. They include

  • Eating more fruits, vegetables and grains, which are high in fiber
  • Drinking plenty of water and other liquids
  • Getting enough exercise
  • Taking time to have a bowel movement when you need to
  • Using laxatives only if your doctor says you should
  • Asking your doctor if medicines you take may cause constipation

It`s not important that you have a bowel movement every day. If your bowel habits change, however, check with your doctor.

NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases


MEDLINEPLUS

A disorder characterized by irregular and infrequent or difficult evacuation of the bowels.
NCI

A condition in which stool becomes hard, dry, and difficult to pass, and bowel movements don`t happen very often. Other symptoms may include painful bowel movements, and feeling bloated, uncomfortable, and sluggish.
NCI

Irregular and infrequent or difficult evacuation of the bowels.
NCI

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isoflavony

3-Phenylchromones. Isomeric form of FLAVONOIDS in which the benzene group is attached to the 3 position of the benzopyran ring instead of the 2 position.
MSH

A flavone with the phenyl group at C-3 instead of C-2.
NCI

An estrogen-like substance made by some plants, including the soy plant. Soy isoflavones are being studied in the prevention of cancer, hot flashes that occur with menopause, and osteoporosis (loss of bone density).
NCI

A class of polyphenolic compounds derived from the Fabaceae family with potential phytoestrogenic, cholesterol-reducing, chemotherapeutic and antioxidant activity. In isoflavones the phenyl group on the benzopyran ring is in position 3 relative to the oxygen of the ring. Most isoflavones for human consumption and that are currently studied are derived from soy beans.
NCI

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retina – degenerace

A retrogressive pathological change in the retina, focal or generalized, caused by genetic defects, inflammation, trauma, vascular disease, or aging. Degeneration affecting predominantly the macula lutea of the retina is MACULAR DEGENERATION. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p304)
MSH

retrogressive pathological change in the retina, focal or generalized, caused by genetic defects, inflammation, trauma, vascular disease, or aging.
CSP

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etika lékařská

The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.
MSH

The field of ethics studies principles of right and wrong. There is hardly an area in medicine that doesn`t have an ethical aspect. For example, there are ethical issues relating to

  • End of life care: Should a patient receive nutrition? What about advance directives and resuscitation orders?
  • Abortion: When does life begin? Is it ethical to terminate a pregnancy with a birth defect?
  • Genetic and prenatal testing: What happens if you are a carrier of a defect? What if testing shows that your unborn baby has a defect?
  • Birth control: Should it be available to minors?
  • Is it ethical to harvest embryonic stem cells to treat diseases?
  • Organ donation: Must a relative donate an organ to a sick relative?
  • Your personal health information: who has access to your records?
  • Patient rights: Do you have the right to refuse treatment?
  • When you talk with your doctor, is it ethical for her to withhold information from you or your family?

Below you`ll find some links about ethics in medicine.


MEDLINEPLUS

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antikoncepční látky orální sekvenční

Drugs administered orally and sequentially for contraceptive purposes.
MSH

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Itálie

European country on the Mediterranean, capital city is Rome.
CSP

A country in Southern Europe, occupying a peninsula extending into the central Mediterranean Sea, northeast of Tunisia. (NCI)
NCI

Description:Realm code for use of Italy


HL7V3.0

A country in Southern Europe, occupying a peninsula extending into the central Mediterranean Sea, northeast of Tunisia. (CIA World Factbook 2002)
NCI

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Retroviridae – proteiny

Proteins from the family Retroviridae. The most frequently encountered member of this family is the Rous sarcoma virus protein.
MSH

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ethylene dichloride

A clear, colorless, oily, synthetic, flammable liquid chlorinated hydrocarbon with a pleasant chloroform-like smell that emits toxic fumes of hydrochloric acid when heated to decomposition. Ethylene dichloride is primarily used to produce vinyl chloride. Inhalation exposure to this substance induces respiratory distress, nausea and vomiting and affects the central nervous system, liver and kidneys. It is mutagenic in animals and is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen. (NCI05)
NCI

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kopulace

Sexual union of a male and a female in non-human species.
MSH

The act of sexual union between male and female, involving the transfer of sperm. [ISBN:0721662544 “Dorland`s Illustrated Medical Dictionary”]
GO

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pracovní uspokojení

Personal satisfaction relative to the work situation.
MSH

experience of a sense of fulfillment of a need or want and the quality or state of being satisfied in relation to the job.
CSP

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atrofická rýma

A chronic inflammation in which the NASAL MUCOSA gradually changes from a functional to a non-functional lining without mucociliary clearance. It is often accompanied by degradation of the bony TURBINATES, and the foul-smelling mucus which forms a greenish crust (ozena).
MSH

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Euglena gracilis

A species of fresh-water, flagellated EUKARYOTES in the phylum EUGLENIDA.
MSH

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corpus callosum

Broad plate of dense myelinated fibers that reciprocally interconnect regions of the cortex in all lobes with corresponding regions of the opposite hemisphere. The corpus callosum is located deep in the longitudinal fissure.
MSH

the main neocortical commissure of the cerebral hemispheres; it is subdivided into a genu, a rostrum, a body, and a splenium.
CSP

A white matter structure within the cleft that separates the left and right cerebral hemispheres in the mammalian brain. It is composed of a wide, flat bundle of 200-250 million axonal projections.
NCI

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Karwinskia

A plant genus of the family RHAMNACEAE that contains tullidinol (toxin T-544) and peroxisomicine (toxin T-514). It is sometimes called buckthorn but should not be confused with other plants called that.
MSH

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riboflavin

Nutritional factor found in milk, eggs, malted barley, liver, kidney, heart, and leafy vegetables. The richest natural source is yeast. It occurs in the free form only in the retina of the eye, in whey, and in urine; its principal forms in tissues and cells are as FLAVIN MONONUCLEOTIDE and FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE.
MSH

water soluble B vitamin; precursor of FMN and FAD.
CSP

Water-soluble vitamin that is a coenzyme in numerous oxidation-reduction reactions. (DRI)
NCI

A nutrient in the vitamin B complex that the body needs in small amounts to function and stay healthy. Riboflavin helps make red blood cells, helps some enzymes work properly, and keeps skin, nails, and hair healthy. It is found in milk, eggs, malted barley, organ meats, yeast, and leafy vegetables. Riboflavin is water-soluble (can dissolve in water) and must be taken in every day. Not enough riboflavin can cause anemia (a low number of red blood cells), mouth sores, and skin problems. Amounts of riboflavin may be higher in the blood of patients with some types of cancer.
NCI

An essential human nutrient that is a heat-stable and water-soluble flavin belonging to the vitamin B family. Riboflavin is a precursor of the coenzymes flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). These coenzymes are of vital importance in normal tissue respiration, pyridoxine activation, tryptophan to niacin conversion, fat, carbohydrate, and protein metabolism, and glutathione reductase mediated detoxification. Riboflavin may also be involved in maintaining erythrocyte integrity. This vitamin is essential for healthy skin, nails, and hair. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=38330&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=38330&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C808″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

An essential human nutrient that is a heat-stable and water-soluble flavin belonging to the vitamin B family. Riboflavin is a precursor of the coenzymes flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). These coenzymes are of vital importance in normal tissue respiration, pyridoxine activation, tryptophan to niacin conversion, fat, carbohydrate, and protein metabolism, and glutathione reductase mediated detoxification. Riboflavin may also be involved in maintaining erythrocyte integrity. This vitamin is essential for healthy skin, nails, and hair.
NCI

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anencefalie

A malformation of the nervous system caused by failure of the anterior neuropore to close. Infants are born with intact spinal cords, cerebellums, and brainstems, but lack formation of neural structures above this level. The skull is only partially formed but the eyes are usually normal. This condition may be associated with folate deficiency. Affected infants are only capable of primitive (brain stem) reflexes and usually do not survive for more than two weeks. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p247)
MSH

congenital malformation of the nervous system caused by failure of the anterior neuropore to close; infants are born with intact spinal cords, cerebellums, and brainstems, but lack formation of neural structures above this level; the skull is only partially formed but the eyes are usually normal; affected infants are only capable of primitive reflexes and usually do not survive for more than two weeks; complete absence of the brain is rare.
CSP

A rare neural tube defect during pregnancy, resulting in the absence of a large portion of the brain and skull in the fetus.
NCI

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exokrinní žlázy

gland that secretes its products through ducts or canals, such as sweat glands or mammary glands.
CSP

A type of gland that is found in the skin, breast, eyelid, and ear. Apocrine glands in the breast secrete fat droplets into breast milk and those in the ear help form earwax. Apocrine glands in the skin and eyelid are sweat glands. Most apocrine glands in the skin are in the armpits, the groin, and the area around the nipples of the breast. Apocrine glands in the skin are scent glands, and their secretions usually have an odor. Another type of gland (eccrine gland or simple sweat gland) produces most sweat.
NCI

A gland from which secretions reach a free surface of the body by ducts.
NCI

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Gossypium

A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. It is the source of COTTON FIBER; COTTONSEED OIL, which is used for cooking, and GOSSYPOL. The economically important cotton crop is a major user of agricultural PESTICIDES.
MSH

various erect freely branching tropical plants (genus Gossypium) of the mallow family, or the soft usually white fibrous substance composed of the hairs surrounding the seeds of these plants.
CSP

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keratotomie radiální

A procedure to surgically correct REFRACTIVE ERRORS by cutting radial slits into the CORNEA to change its refractive properties.
MSH

procedure to treat myopia by cutting radial slits into the cornea to flatten it and change its refractive properties.
CSP

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Rickettsiaceae

A family of small, gram-negative organisms, often parasitic in humans and other animals, causing diseases that may be transmitted by invertebrate vectors.
MSH

A taxonomic family of Gram negative, non acid fast bacterium in the phylum Proteobacteria that includes the genera Rickettsia and Wolbachia, among others.
NCI

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angiografie digitální subtrakční

A method of delineating blood vessels by subtracting a tissue background image from an image of tissue plus intravascular contrast material that attenuates the X-ray photons. The background image is determined from a digitized image taken a few moments before injection of the contrast material. The resulting angiogram is a high-contrast image of the vessel. This subtraction technique allows extraction of a high-intensity signal from the superimposed background information. The image is thus the result of the differential absorption of X-rays by different tissues.
MSH

A technique which subtracts two images that are obtained before and after contrast media is administered to the patient for the purpose of studying blood vessels.
NCI

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