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lipoproteiny HDL

A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
MSH

class of lipoproteins that promote transport of cholesterol from extrahepatic tissue to the liver for excretion in the bile; synthesized by the liver as particles lacking a lipid core, they accumulate a core of cholesterol esters during reverse cholesterol transport and transfer them to the liver directly or indirectly via other lipoprotein; HDL also shuttle apolipoproteins C-II and E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during catabolism of the lipoproteins; serum HDL cholesterol has been negatively correlated with premature coronary heart disease.
CSP

The smallest and densest lipoproteins, containing a high proportion of protein. They are synthesized in the liver as empty proteins and they pick up cholesterol and increase in size as they circulate through the bloodstream. Because HDL can remove cholesterol from the arteries, and transport it back to the liver for excretion, they are seen as “good” lipoproteins.
NCI

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Q-horečka

An acute infectious disease caused by COXIELLA BURNETII. It is characterized by a sudden onset of FEVER; HEADACHE; malaise; and weakness. In humans, it is commonly contracted by inhalation of infected dusts derived from infected domestic animals (ANIMALS, DOMESTIC).
MSH

acute infectious disease caused by Coxiella burnetii; characterized by a sudden onset of fever,headache, malaise, and weakness; in humans, it is commonly contracted by inhalation of infected dusts derived from infected domestic animals.
CSP

A bacterial infection caused by Coxiella burnetii. It is transmitted to humans by the inhalation of infected air particles or contact with fluids and feces of infected animals. Signs and symptoms include the abrupt onset of fever, headache, myalgias, and weakness.
NCI

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blastomykóza

A fungal infection that may appear in two forms: 1, a primary lesion characterized by the formation of a small cutaneous nodule and small nodules along the lymphatics that may heal within several months; and 2, chronic granulomatous lesions characterized by thick crusts, warty growths, and unusual vascularity and infection in the middle or upper lobes of the lung.
MSH

infection caused by fungi of the genus Blastomyces.
CSP

A fungal infection caused by inhalation of spores of Blastomyces dermatitidis. It presents with flu-like symptoms including fever, chills, cough, pleuritic chest pain and myalgias. It may lead to a chronic granulomatous pulmonary infection and disseminate to other anatomic sites including skin, nervous system and bones.
NCI

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fosilní paliva

Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.
MSH

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alanintransaminasa

An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.
MSH

Expressed in liver, kidney, heart, fat, and skeletal muscle by glucocorticoid-induced human GPT Gene (Alanine Aminotransferase Family), 495-aa 54-kDa Glutamic-Pyruvate Transaminase is a homodimeric cytoplasmic pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme involved in cellular nitrogen metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and liver gluconeogenesis. GPT mediates conversion of major intermediate metabolites, catalyzing reversible transamination between alanine and alpha-ketoglutarate to form pyruvate and glutamate. (NCI)
NCI

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léky – rezistence mikrobiální

The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
MSH

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biliární cirhóza

FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to obstruction of BILE flow (CHOLESTASIS) in the intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC; BILE DUCTS, EXTRAHEPATIC). Primary biliary cirrhosis involves the destruction of small intra-hepatic bile ducts and bile secretion. Secondary biliary cirrhosis is produced by prolonged obstruction of large intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts from a variety of causes.
MSH

Cirrhosis of the liver caused either by destruction of the intrahepatic bile ducts (primary biliary cirrhosis) or blockage of the extrahepatic bile ducts (secondary biliary cirrhosis).
NCI

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chinony

Hydrocarbon rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.
MSH

benzene ring with 2 para keto groups.
CSP

A class of organic compounds with the base structure of quinone, an aromatic benzene molecule containing a double ketone functional group.
NCI

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selfmonitoring glykémie

Self evaluation of whole blood glucose levels outside the clinical laboratory. A digital or battery-operated reflectance meter may be used. It has wide application in controlling unstable insulin-dependent diabetes.
MSH

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freemartinismus

A condition occurring in the female offspring of dizygotic twins (TWIN, DIZYGOTIC) in a mixed-sex pregnancy, usually in CATTLE. Freemartinism can occur in other mammals. When placental fusion between the male and the female FETUSES permits the exchange of fetal cells and fetal hormones, TESTICULAR HORMONES from the male fetus can androgenize the female fetus producing a sterile XX/XY chimeric “female”(CHIMERISM).
MSH

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aldehyddehydrogenasa

An enzyme that oxidizes an aldehyde in the presence of NAD+ and water to an acid and NADH. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.1.1.70.
MSH

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DUODENO ULTZERA

A PEPTIC ULCER located in the DUODENUM.
MSH

peptic ulcer located in the duodenum, the shortest and widest portion of the small intestine adjacent to the pylorus of the stomach.
CSP

A disorder characterized by a circumscribed, inflammatory and necrotic erosive lesion on the mucosal surface of the duodenal wall.
NCI

An ulcer in the duodenal wall.
NCI

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lomustin

An alkylating agent of value against both hematologic malignancies and solid tumors.
MSH

cytotoxic alkylating agent of the nitrosourea group used as an antineoplastic.
CSP

An anticancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called alkylating agents.
NCI

A nitrosourea with antineoplastic activity. Lomustine alkylates and crosslinks DNA, thereby inhibiting DNA and RNA synthesis. This agent also carbamoylates DNA and proteins, resulting in inhibition of DNA and RNA synthesis and disruption of RNA processing. Lomustine is lipophilic and crosses the blood-brain barrier. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=43065&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=43065&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C617″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A nitrosourea with antineoplastic activity. Lomustine alkylates and crosslinks DNA, thereby inhibiting DNA and RNA synthesis. This agent also carbamoylates DNA and proteins, resulting in inhibition of DNA and RNA synthesis and disruption of RNA processing. Lomustine is lipophilic and crosses the blood-brain barrier. (NCI04)
NCI

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radikální krční disekce

A surgical procedure in which all the ipsilateral cervical lymph node groups of the neck, internal jugular vein, sternocleidomastoid muscle, spinal accessory nerve, and submandibular gland are removed.
NCI

A surgical operation for head and neck malignancies, most of which are squamous cell carcinomas. The neck is opened laterally, the majority of the sternocleidomastoid muscle is removed, as are the regional cervical lymph nodes, the jugular vein, the spinal accessory nerve, the submaxillary gland and most of the parotid gland. There are several modifications. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992, p605)
MSH

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hematotestikulární bariéra

A specialized barrier, in the TESTIS, between the interstitial BLOOD compartment and the adluminal compartment of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. The barrier is formed by layers of cells from the VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM of the capillary BLOOD VESSELS, to the SEMINIFEROUS EPITHELIUM of the seminiferous tubules. TIGHT JUNCTIONS form between adjacent SERTOLI CELLS, as well as between the ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.
MSH

specialized barrier in the testis between the interstitial blood compartment and the adluminal compartment of the seminiferous tubules; formed by layers of cells from the vascular endothelium of the capillaries to the seminiferous epithelium; tight junctions form between adjacent sertoli cells as well as between the endothelial cells.
CSP

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folikuly stimulující hormon lidský

A major gonadotropin secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and the LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. The alpha subunit is common in the three human pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
MSH

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alkylační látky

Highly reactive chemicals that introduce alkyl radicals into biologically active molecules and thereby prevent their proper functioning. Many are used as antineoplastic agents, but most are very toxic, with carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, and immunosuppressant actions. They have also been used as components in poison gases.
MSH

chemical agent that can add alkyl groups (for example, ethyl or methyl groups) to another molecule; many mutagens act through alkylation.
CSP

A type of drug that is used in the treatment of cancer. It interferes with the cell`s DNA and inhibits cancer cell growth.
NCI

Agents that replace hydrogen atom(s) in biologically active molecules with alky radical(s), hindering proper function. Alkylating agents exhibit cytotoxic effects through the alkylation of DNA, resulting in strand cross-linking, ultimately inhibiting DNA replication and cell growth.
NCI

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dysostózy

Defective bone formation involving individual bones, singly or in combination.
MSH

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bederní obratle

Those vertebrae between the ribs and the pelvis, L1-L5 in man.
NCI

One of the five bones situated between the thoracic vertebrae and the sacrum in the lower part of the spine. (NCI)
NCI

One of the five bones situated between the thoracic vertebrae and the sacrum in the lower part of the spine.
NCI

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hygiena záření

Health concerns associated with the effects of radiation on the environment and on public and personal health.
MSH

the health effects of radiation; includes effects and hazards from environmental radiation fallout, occupational radiation, diagnostic or therapeutic radiological equipment or materials.
CSP

Studies focusing on the effects of radiation on the environment and on public and personal health.
NCI

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vazba zubní

An adhesion procedure for orthodontic attachments, such as plastic DENTAL CROWNS. This process usually includes the application of an adhesive material (DENTAL CEMENTS) and letting it harden in-place by light or chemical curing.
MSH

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kyselina fusidová

An antibiotic isolated from the fermentation broth of Fusidium coccineum. (From Merck Index, 11th ed). It acts by inhibiting translocation during protein synthesis.
MSH

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Alouatta

A genus of the subfamily ALOUATTINAE, family ATELIDAE, inhabiting the forests of Central and South America. Howlers travel in groups and define their territories by howling accompanied by vigorously shaking and breaking branches.
MSH

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ekdysteron

A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysterone is the 20-hydroxylated ECDYSONE.
MSH

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krevní skupiny – systém Lutheran

A complex blood group system having pairs of alternate antigens and amorphic genes, but also subject to a dominant independently segregating repressor.
MSH

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Ranidae

The family of true frogs of the order Anura. The family occurs worldwide except in Antarctica.
MSH

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knihy

long written or printed literary composition.
CSP

A volume made up of pages fastened along one edge and enclosed between protective covers. (from American Heritage Dictionary)
NCI

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galaktosyltransferasy

Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of galactose from a nucleoside diphosphate galactose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
MSH

nonEC.
CSP

Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a galactosyl group from a donor to an acceptor compound. The acceptor molecule is frequently a carbohydrate moiety.
NCI

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alternativní lékařství

diagnostic or therapeutic technique which is presently outside the field of conventional medical practice; for use as a `tag` term index at `T` emphasis level.
CSP

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Economic

Used for the economic aspects of any subject, as well as for all aspects of financial management. It includes the raising or providing of funds.
MSH

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