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pentosafosfátová dráha

pathway of hexose oxidation in which glucose-6-phosphate undergoes two successive oxidations by NADP, the final one being an oxidative decarboxylation to form a pentose phosphate.
CSP

The process in which glucose is oxidized, coupled to NADPH synthesis. Glucose 6-P is oxidized with the formation of carbon dioxide (CO2), ribulose 5-phosphate and reduced NADP; ribulose 5-P then enters a series of reactions interconverting sugar phosphates. The pentose phosphate pathway is a major source of reducing equivalents for biosynthesis reactions and is also important for the conversion of hexoses to pentoses. [ISBN:0198506732 “Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology”, MetaCyc:PENTOSE-P-PWY]
GO

An oxidative decarboxylation process that converts GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE to D-ribose-5-phosphate via 6-phosphogluconate. The pentose product is used in the biosynthesis of NUCLEIC ACIDS. The generated energy is stored in the form of NADPH. This pathway is prominent in tissues which are active in the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS and STEROIDS.
MSH

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lipoproteiny HDL

A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
MSH

class of lipoproteins that promote transport of cholesterol from extrahepatic tissue to the liver for excretion in the bile; synthesized by the liver as particles lacking a lipid core, they accumulate a core of cholesterol esters during reverse cholesterol transport and transfer them to the liver directly or indirectly via other lipoprotein; HDL also shuttle apolipoproteins C-II and E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during catabolism of the lipoproteins; serum HDL cholesterol has been negatively correlated with premature coronary heart disease.
CSP

The smallest and densest lipoproteins, containing a high proportion of protein. They are synthesized in the liver as empty proteins and they pick up cholesterol and increase in size as they circulate through the bloodstream. Because HDL can remove cholesterol from the arteries, and transport it back to the liver for excretion, they are seen as “good” lipoproteins.
NCI

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dipyridamol

A phosphodiesterase inhibitor that blocks uptake and metabolism of adenosine by erythrocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Dipyridamole also potentiates the antiaggregating action of prostacyclin. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p752)
MSH

platelet inhibitor and coronary vasodilator used to prevent thromboembolism associated with mechanical heart valves, as prophylactic adjunct in the prevention of myocardial reinfarction, and as a diagnostic aid adjunct in myocardial perfusion imaging; administered orally and intravenously.
CSP

A drug that prevents blood cell clumping and enhances the effectiveness of fluorouracil and other chemotherapeutic agents.
NCI

A synthetic agent derivative of pyrimido-pyrimidine, with antiplatelet properties. Dipyridamole inhibits adenosine uptake by platelets and endothelial cells, triggering an accumulation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), and inhibiting the stimulation of platelet aggregation by agents such as platelet activating factor and collagen. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39229&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39229&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C445″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A synthetic agent derivative of pyrimido-pyrimidine, with antiplatelet properties. Dipyridamole inhibits adenosine uptake by platelets and endothelial cells, triggering an accumulation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), and inhibiting the stimulation of platelet aggregation by agents such as platelet activating factor and collagen. (NCI04)
NCI

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fosilní paliva

Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.
MSH

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spermové banky

Centers for acquiring and storing semen.
MSH

Freezing sperm for use in the future. This procedure can allow men to father children after loss of fertility.
NCI

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beta-galaktosidasa

A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
MSH

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Peptococcus

A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, coccoid bacteria that is part of the normal flora of the mouth, upper respiratory tract, and large intestine in humans. Its organisms cause infections of soft tissues and bacteremias.
MSH

A genus of anaerobic, Gram positive, cocci shaped bacterium assigned to the phylum Firmicutes and the family Peptococcaceae.
NCI

Any bacteria that is not assigned to the species level but can be assigned to the Peptococcus genus level.
NCI

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biliární cirhóza

FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to obstruction of BILE flow (CHOLESTASIS) in the intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC; BILE DUCTS, EXTRAHEPATIC). Primary biliary cirrhosis involves the destruction of small intra-hepatic bile ducts and bile secretion. Secondary biliary cirrhosis is produced by prolonged obstruction of large intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts from a variety of causes.
MSH

Cirrhosis of the liver caused either by destruction of the intrahepatic bile ducts (primary biliary cirrhosis) or blockage of the extrahepatic bile ducts (secondary biliary cirrhosis).
NCI

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Edetic Acid, Disodium Salt

The disodium salt form of edetate, a heavy metal chelating agent with anti-hypercalcemic and anti-arrhythmic properties. Edetate, a heavy metal antagonist, chelates divalent and trivalent metals, forming soluble stable complexes which are readily excreted by the kidneys, thereby can be used to lower serum calcium concentrations. In addition, this agent exerts a negative inotropic effect on the heart through a transiently induced hypocalcemic state, thereby antagonizing the inotropic and chronotropic effects of digitalis glycosides on the ventricles of the heart. Upon ocular administration, edetate exerts its ophthalmic effect by chelating calcium to form soluble complexes, thereby removing corneal calcium deposits.
NCI

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freemartinismus

A condition occurring in the female offspring of dizygotic twins (TWIN, DIZYGOTIC) in a mixed-sex pregnancy, usually in CATTLE. Freemartinism can occur in other mammals. When placental fusion between the male and the female FETUSES permits the exchange of fetal cells and fetal hormones, TESTICULAR HORMONES from the male fetus can androgenize the female fetus producing a sterile XX/XY chimeric “female”(CHIMERISM).
MSH

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sfinkterotomie transhepatická

Surgery of the smooth muscle sphincter of the hepatopancreatic ampulla to relieve blocked biliary or pancreatic ducts.
MSH

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bicyklické sloučeniny

chemical compound containing two ring structures.
CSP

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perikarditida konstriktivní

Inflammation of the PERICARDIUM that is characterized by the fibrous scarring and adhesion of both serous layers, the VISCERAL PERICARDIUM and the PARIETAL PERICARDIUM leading to the loss of pericardial cavity. The thickened pericardium severely restricts cardiac filling. Clinical signs include FATIGUE, muscle wasting, and WEIGHT LOSS.
MSH

A heart disorder in which the pericardial sac becomes thickened and fibrotic, tightening the myocardium and impeding the normal myocardial function.
NCI

A disorder characterized by a thickened and fibrotic pericardial sac; these fibrotic changes impede normal myocardial function by restricting myocardial muscle action.
NCI

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lomustin

An alkylating agent of value against both hematologic malignancies and solid tumors.
MSH

cytotoxic alkylating agent of the nitrosourea group used as an antineoplastic.
CSP

An anticancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called alkylating agents.
NCI

A nitrosourea with antineoplastic activity. Lomustine alkylates and crosslinks DNA, thereby inhibiting DNA and RNA synthesis. This agent also carbamoylates DNA and proteins, resulting in inhibition of DNA and RNA synthesis and disruption of RNA processing. Lomustine is lipophilic and crosses the blood-brain barrier. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=43065&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=43065&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C617″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A nitrosourea with antineoplastic activity. Lomustine alkylates and crosslinks DNA, thereby inhibiting DNA and RNA synthesis. This agent also carbamoylates DNA and proteins, resulting in inhibition of DNA and RNA synthesis and disruption of RNA processing. Lomustine is lipophilic and crosses the blood-brain barrier. (NCI04)
NCI

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kolon – divertikulitida

Inflammation of the COLONIC DIVERTICULA, generally with abscess formation and subsequent perforation.
MSH

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folikuly stimulující hormon lidský

A major gonadotropin secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and the LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. The alpha subunit is common in the three human pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
MSH

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spiramycin

A macrolide antibiotic produced by Streptomyces ambofaciens. The drug is effective against gram-positive aerobic pathogens, N. gonorrhoeae, and staphylococci. It is used to treat infections caused by bacteria and Toxoplasma gondii.
MSH

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životní prostředí – biodegradace

Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
MSH

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periflebitida

Periphlebitis is inflammation of the outer coat of a vein or of tissues surrounding the vein.
MSH

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bederní obratle

Those vertebrae between the ribs and the pelvis, L1-L5 in man.
NCI

One of the five bones situated between the thoracic vertebrae and the sacrum in the lower part of the spine. (NCI)
NCI

One of the five bones situated between the thoracic vertebrae and the sacrum in the lower part of the spine.
NCI

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DNA-topoisomerasy – typ I

DNA TOPOISOMERASES that catalyze ATP-independent breakage of one of the two strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strand through the break, and rejoining of the broken strand. DNA Topoisomerases, Type I enzymes reduce the topological stress in the DNA structure by relaxing the superhelical turns and knotted rings in the DNA helix.
MSH

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kyselina fusidová

An antibiotic isolated from the fermentation broth of Fusidium coccineum. (From Merck Index, 11th ed). It acts by inhibiting translocation during protein synthesis.
MSH

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spondylóza

A degenerative spinal disease that can involve any part of the VERTEBRA, the INTERVERTEBRAL DISK, and the surrounding soft tissue.
MSH

degeneration of the spinal bone where spinal columns are fused and immobilized
CHV

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biomedicínský výzkum

Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine. (from American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed)
MSH

Research concerned with the application of biological and physiological principles to clinical medicine.
NCI

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osobnostní dotazník

Check list, usually to be filled out by a person about himself, consisting of many statements about personal characteristics which the subject checks.
MSH

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krevní skupiny – systém Lutheran

A complex blood group system having pairs of alternate antigens and amorphic genes, but also subject to a dominant independently segregating repressor.
MSH

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dopamin

One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
MSH

one of the catecholamine neurotransmitters in the brain; it is derived from tyrosine and is the precursor to norepinephrine and epinephrine; dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement; dopamine receptors mediate its action.
CSP

A monoamine compound with positive inotropic activity. Dopamine is a naturally occurring catecholamine formed by decarboxylation of dehydroxyphenylalanine and a precursor of norepinephrine and epinephrine. Dopamine binds to alpha-1 and beta-1 adrenergic receptors. Mediated through myocardial beta-1 adrenergic receptors, dopamine increase heart rate and force, thereby increasing cardiac output. Alpha-1 adrenergic receptor stimulation on vascular smooth muscle, leads to vasoconstriction and results in an increase in systemic vascular resistance. Stimulation of dopaminergic receptors in renal vasculature, leads to renal blood vessel dilation, and an increase in glomerular filtration rate, renal blood flow, sodium excretion, and urine output.
NCI

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galaktosyltransferasy

Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of galactose from a nucleoside diphosphate galactose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
MSH

nonEC.
CSP

Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a galactosyl group from a donor to an acceptor compound. The acceptor molecule is frequently a carbohydrate moiety.
NCI

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stapes

One of the three ossicles of the middle ear. It transmits sound vibrations from the INCUS to the internal ear (Ear, Internal see LABYRINTH).
MSH

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bis(chlormethyl)ether

A substance that is an irritant to the eyes and respiratory tract and may be carcinogenic.
MSH

A colorless, flammable, carcinogenic liquid with an extremely suffocating odor. Bis(Chloromethyl) Ether is used in industry as an alkylating agent, a chemical intermediate, a monitoring indicator for the presence of chloromethyl ether, and as a laboratory reagent. This substance is irritating to eyes and mucous membranes and emits toxic vapors of hydrochloric acid and other chlorinated compounds when heated to decomposition. Exposure to Bis(Chloromethyl) ether is associated with higher risk of developing lung cancer, mainly small-cell type, and the risk increases with increasing duration and cumulative exposure. (NCI05)
NCI

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