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Ziekenhuisorganisatie en -bestuur

management of the internal organization of the hospital.
CSP

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serinproteinasy – inhibitory

Exogenous or endogenous compounds which inhibit SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.
MSH

A protein that plays a role in the inhibition of serine proteinases.
NCI

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kladení vajíček

The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.
MSH

The deposition of eggs (either fertilized or not) upon a surface or into a medium such as water. [GOC:ems]
GO

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Národní akademie věd (USA)

A United States organization of distinguished scientists and engineers established for the purpose of investigating and reporting upon any subject of art or science as requested by any department of government. The National Research Council organized by NAS serves as the principal operating agency to stimulate and support research.
MSH

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chrom – isotopy

Stable chromium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element chromium, but differ in atomic weight. Cr-50, 53, and 54 are stable chromium isotopes.
MSH

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nemocnice státní

Hospitals controlled by agencies and departments of the state government.
MSH

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sevin

A carbamate insecticide and parasiticide. It is a potent anticholinesterase agent belonging to the carbamate group of reversible cholinesterase inhibitors. It has a particularly low toxicity from dermal absorption and is used for control of head lice in some countries.
MSH

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kyselina oxonová

Antagonist of urate oxidase.
MSH

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necrobiosis lipoidica

A degenerative disease of the dermal connective tissue characterized by the development of erythematous papules or nodules in the pretibial area. The papules form plaques covered with telangiectatic vessels. More than half of the affected patients have diabetes.
MSH

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chromozómy lidské, pár 15

A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
MSH

The designation for each member of the fifteenth largest human autosomal chromosome pair. Chromosome 15 spans about 106 million base pairs and represents between 3 and 3.5% of the total DNA in normal diploid cells.
NCI

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Human Genetics

The branch of genetics focusing on human heredity.
NCI

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Seychely

A group of Indian Ocean Islands, east of Tanzania. Their capital is Victoria. They were first claimed by the French in 1744 but taken by the English in 1794 and made a dependency of MAURITIUS in 1810. They became a crown colony in 1903 and a republic within the Commonwealth in 1976. They were named for the French finance minister, Jean Moreau de Sechelles, but respelled by the English in 1794. (From Webster`s New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1102 & Room, Brewer`s Dictionary of Names, 1992, p496)
MSH

A country in Eastern Africa, comprised of a group of islands in the Indian Ocean, northeast of Madagascar. (NCI)
NCI

A country in Eastern Africa, comprised of a group of islands in the Indian Ocean, northeast of Madagascar. (CIA World Factbook 2002)
NCI

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p-aminoazobenzen

Used in the form of its salts as a dye and as an intermediate in manufacture of Acid Yellow, diazo dyes, and indulines.
MSH

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nádorové cirkulující buňky

exfoliate neoplastic cells circulating in the blood and associated with metastasizing tumors.
CSP

A metastatic cancer cell found in the peripheral blood.
NCI

Exfoliate neoplastic cells circulating in the blood and associated with metastasizing tumors.
MSH

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Cicatrization

The formation of fibrous tissue in the place of normal tissue during the process of WOUND HEALING. It includes scar tissue formation occurring in healing internal organs as well as in the skin after surface injuries.
MSH

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uhlovodíky

organic compound that contains carbon and hydrogen only.
CSP

A substance made of only hydrogen and carbon. Examples of hydrocarbons are coal, petroleum, natural gas and tar. They are used as energy sources. Being exposed to hydrocarbons may increase the risk of certain types of cancer.
NCI

A group of organic compounds that consist of only hydrogen (H) and carbon (C) atoms and are involved in energy production. They may be cyclic or non-cyclic compounds. They may have double bonds, single bonds or both with carbon forming the backbone.
NCI

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ramenní kloub

The articulation between the head of the HUMERUS and the glenoid cavity of the SCAPULA.
MSH

A ball-and-socket joint at the upper end of the humerus, located at the junction of humerus and scapula. (NCI)
NCI

A ball-and-socket joint at the upper end of the humerus, located at the junction of humerus and scapula.
NCI

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patro měkké

A movable fold suspended from the posterior border of the hard palate. The uvula hangs from the middle of the lower border.
MSH

The back, muscular (not bony) part of the roof of the mouth.
NCI

A movable fold suspended from the posterior border of the hard palate. (MeSH)
NCI

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Nepál

A country in Southern Asia, between China and India. (NCI)
NCI

A country in Southern Asia, between China and India. (CIA World Factbook 2002)
NCI

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citrátový cyklus

A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.
MSH

series of reactions involving oxidation of a two-carbon acetyl unit to carbon dioxide and water with the production of high-energy phosphate bonds by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediate.
CSP

A nearly universal metabolic pathway in which the acetyl group of acetyl coenzyme A is effectively oxidized to two CO2 and four pairs of electrons are transferred to coenzymes. The acetyl group combines with oxaloacetate to form citrate, which undergoes successive transformations to isocitrate, 2-oxoglutarate, succinyl-CoA, succinate, fumarate, malate, and oxaloacetate again, thus completing the cycle. In eukaryotes the tricarboxylic acid is confined to the mitochondria. See also glyoxylate cycle. [ISBN:0198506732 “Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology”]
GO

The Krebs cycle, also called the citric acid cycle, is a fundamental metabolic pathway involving eight enzymes essential for energy production through aerobic respiration, and, like glycolysis, arose early in evolution. This pathway is also an important source of biosynthetic building blocks used in gluconeogenesis, amino acid biosynthesis, and fatty acid biosynthesis. The Krebs cycle takes place in mitochondria where it oxidizes acetyl-CoA, releasing carbon dioxide and extracting energy primarily as the reduced high-energy electron carriers NADH and FADH2. NADH and FADH2 transfer chemical energy from metabolic intermediates to the electron transport chain to create a different form of energy, a gradient of protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane. The energy of the proton gradient in turn drives synthesis of the high-energy phosphate bonds in ATP, the common energy currency of the cell used to drive a huge variety of reactions and processes. An acetyl-CoA molecule (2 carbons) enters the cycle when citrate synthase condenses it with oxaloacetate (4 carbons) to create citrate (6 carbons). One source of the acetyl-CoA that enters the Krebs cycle is the conversion of pyruvate from glycolysis to acetyl-CoA by pyruvate dehydrogenase. Acetyl-CoA is a key metabolic junction, derived not only from glycolysis but also from the oxidation of fatty acids. As the cycle proceeds, the Krebs cycle intermediates are oxidized, transferring their energy to create reduced NADH and FADH2. The oxidation of the metabolic intermediates of the pathway also releases two carbon dioxide molecules for each acetyl-CoA that enters the cycle, leaving the net carbons the same with each turn of the cycle. This carbon dioxide, along with more released by pyruvate dehydrogenase, is the source of CO2 released into the atmosphere when you breathe. The Krebs cycle, like other metabolic pathways, is tightly regulated to efficiently meet the needs of the cell and the organism. The irreversible synthesis of acetyl-CoA from pyruvate by pyruvate dehydrogenase is one important regulatory step, and is inhibited by high concentrations of ATP that indicate abundant energy. Citrate synthase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and isocitrate dehydrogenase are all key regulatory steps in the cycle and are each inhibited by abundant energy in the cell, indicated through high concentrations of ATP or NADH. The activity of the Krebs cycle is closely linked to the availability of oxygen, although none of the steps in the pathway directly use oxygen. Oxygen is required for the electron transport chain to function, which recycles NADH back to NAD+ and FADH2 back to FADH, providing NAD+ and ADH required by enzymes in the Krebs cycle. If the oxygen supply to a muscle cell or a yeast cell is low, NAD+ and FADH levels fall, the Krebs cycle cannot proceed forward, and the cell must resort to fermentation to continue making ATP. Some Krebs cycle enzymes require non-protein cofactors for activity, such as thiamine, vitamin B1. Insufficient quantities of this vitamin in the diet leads to decreased activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, and a decrease in the ability of the Krebs cycle to meet metabolic demands, causing the disease beriberi. Although the elucidation of the Krebs cycle remains one of the landmarks of biochemistry, aspects of the Krebs cycle and its enzymes are still actively researched in the modern proteomic era.
NCI

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hydrostatický tlak

The pressure due to the weight of fluid.
MSH

pressure at any level on a fluid at rest due the weight of the fluid above it.
CSP

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silany

Compounds similar to hydrocarbons in which a tetravalent silicon atom replaces the carbon atom. They are very reactive, ignite in air, and form useful derivatives.
MSH

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pankreatické hormony

Peptide hormones secreted into the blood by cells in the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS of the pancreas. The alpha cells secrete glucagon; the beta cells secrete insulin; the delta cells secrete somatostatin; and the PP cells secrete pancreatic polypeptide.
MSH

peptide hormones secreted into the blood by cells in the pancreatic islets: alpha cells secrete glucagon; beta cells secrete insulin; delta cells secrete somatostatin; and PP cells secrete pancreatic polypeptide.
CSP

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nervový systém – nádory

Benign and malignant neoplastic processes arising from or involving components of the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems, cranial nerves, and meninges. Included in this category are primary and metastatic nervous system neoplasms.
MSH

benign and malignant neoplastic processes arising from or involving components of the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems, cranial nerves, and meninges; included are primary and metastatic nervous system neoplasms.
CSP

A benign or malignant, primary or metastatic neoplasm involving the central or peripheral nervous system.
NCI

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způsobilost zastávat místo na klinice

The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.
MSH

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hydroxyprostaglandindehydrogenasy

Catalyzes reversibly the oxidation of hydroxyl groups of prostaglandins.
MSH

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nodus sinoatrialis

The small mass of modified cardiac muscle fibers located at the junction of the superior vena cava (VENA CAVA, SUPERIOR) and right atrium. Contraction impulses probably start in this node, spread over the atrium (HEART ATRIUM) and are then transmitted by the atrioventricular bundle (BUNDLE OF HIS) to the ventricle (HEART VENTRICLE).
MSH

Subdivision of conducting system of heart at the junction of the right atrium and the superior vena cava, around the sinoatrial nodal branch of right coronary artery and is continuous with the internodal tract.
FMA

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Papio

A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of five named species: PAPIO URSINUS (chacma baboon), PAPIO CYNOCEPHALUS (yellow baboon), PAPIO PAPIO (western baboon), PAPIO ANUBIS (or olive baboon), and PAPIO HAMADRYAS (hamadryas baboon). Members of the Papio genus inhabit open woodland, savannahs, grassland, and rocky hill country. Some authors consider MANDRILLUS a subgenus of Papio.
MSH

large terrestrial monkey found in Africa and Arabia; has long doglike muzzle, large cheek pouches, and a short tail.
CSP

A large terrestrial monkey found in Africa and Arabia, it is the largest non-hominid member of the primate order. This primate has a long dog-like muzzles, close-set eyes, heavy powerful jaws, thick fur, a short tail and often brightly colored ischial callosities.
NCI

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neurofibrily

The delicate interlacing threads, formed by aggregations of neurofilaments and neurotubules, coursing through the cytoplasm of the body of a neuron and extending from one dendrite into another or into the axon.
MSH

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klorazepát dvojdraselný

A water-soluble benzodiazepine derivative effective in the treatment of anxiety. It has also muscle relaxant and anticonvulsant actions.
MSH

A benzodiazepine with anxiolytic, sedative, hypnotic, and anticonvulsant properties. Clorazepate dipotassium exerts its effect by de-activating the nervous system through potentiation of the inhibitory effect of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on the GABA-A receptors by binding to a site that is distinct from the GABA binding site. Its inhibitory effect is caused by an increase in GABA-mediated chloride channel opening events, leading to hyperpolarization and synaptic inhibition.
NCI

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