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cholinesterasa – inhibitory

Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.
MSH

any substance or agent which suppresses, prevents or opposes the action of cholinesterase resulting in the potentiation of the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses; cholinesterase inhibition is associated with a variety of acute symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, blurred vision, stomach cramps, and rapid heart rate.
CSP

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GC bohatá sekvence

A nucleic acid sequence that contains an above average number of GUANINE and CYTOSINE bases.
MSH

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Manufactured Supplies

Goods for the support and maintenance of some endeavor.
NCI

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Maligní novotvar sítnice

Abnormal growth of cells comprising the retina with malignant characteristics.
NCI

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kyselina piromidová

Antibacterial against mainly gram negative organisms. It is used for urinary tract and intestinal infections.
MSH

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choroidea – nemoci

Disorders of the choroid including hereditary choroidal diseases, neoplasms, and other abnormalities of the vascular layer of the uvea.
MSH

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genová přestavba – alfa řetězec receptoru antigenů T-buněk

Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the alpha-chain of antigen receptors.
MSH

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stomatochirurgické předprotetické výkony

Surgery necessary for a denture to rest on a firm base, free from marked osseous protuberances or undercuts, and devoid of interfering muscle attachments, excess mucoperiosteum, hyperplasias, and fibrous or papillary growths.
MSH

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mandibula – nádory

Tumors or cancer of the MANDIBLE.
MSH

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placenta – funkční testy

Methods used for the assessment of placental function.
MSH

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chrom – isotopy

Stable chromium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element chromium, but differ in atomic weight. Cr-50, 53, and 54 are stable chromium isotopes.
MSH

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geny překrývající se

Genes whose nucleotide sequences overlap to some degree. The overlapped sequences may involve structural or regulatory genes of eukaryotic or prokaryotic cells.
MSH

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potní žlázy – nemoci

Diseases of the SWEAT GLANDS.
MSH

condition in which there is a deviation from or interruption of the normal structure or function of the sweat glands, which are sweat-producing structures that are embedded in the dermis.
CSP

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hnůj

Accumulations of solid or liquid animal excreta usually from stables and barnyards with or without litter material. Its chief application is as a fertilizer. (From Webster`s 3d ed)
MSH

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plazma – objem

Volume of PLASMA in the circulation. It is usually measured by INDICATOR DILUTION TECHNIQUES.
MSH

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chromozómy lidské, pár 15

A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
MSH

The designation for each member of the fifteenth largest human autosomal chromosome pair. Chromosome 15 spans about 106 million base pairs and represents between 3 and 3.5% of the total DNA in normal diploid cells.
NCI

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pohlavní orgány ženské – nádory

Tumor or cancer of the female reproductive tract (GENITALIA, FEMALE).
MSH

new abnormal tissue of the female reproductive system that grows by excessive cellular division and proliferation more rapidly than normal and continues to grow after the stimuli that initiated the new growth cease.
CSP

Cancer in the human female`s reproductive organs
NCI

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syndrom

A symptom complex of unknown etiology, that is characteristic of a particular abnormality.
MSH

heading term for a set of symptoms, usually three or more, which have a complex etiology and characterize a particular pathological state.
CSP

A set of symptoms or conditions that occur together and suggest the presence of a certain disease or an increased chance of developing the disease.
NCI

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davové chování

Collective behavior of an aggregate of individuals giving the appearance of unity of attitude, feeling, and motivation.
MSH

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růstový faktor odvozený z trombocytů

Mitogenic peptide growth hormone carried in the alpha-granules of platelets. It is released when platelets adhere to traumatized tissues. Connective tissue cells near the traumatized region respond by initiating the process of replication.
MSH

mitogenic peptide growth hormone carried in the alpha-granules of platelets; released when platelets adhere to traumatized tissues; connective tissue cells near the traumatized region respond by initiating the process of replication.
CSP

A family of molecules released from platelets (tiny pieces of cells that are found in the blood and that help the blood clot). Forms of PDGF help to heal wounds and to repair damage to blood vessel walls. They also help blood vessels grow.
NCI

Expressed in platelets, human Platelet-Derived Growth Factor (PDGF/VEGF Family) is a mitogenic factor for mesenchymal cells characterized by a motif of eight cysteines and released upon wounding to stimulate adjacent cell growth. PDGF can exist as antiparallel disulfide-linked homodimers (PDGFA, PDGFB) or heterodimers (PDGFA/PDGFB) that bind to PDGF receptor and elicit a variety of cellular responses. A and B homodimers are implicated in transformation processes. (NCI)
NCI

The major mitogen in serum for growth in culture of cells of connective tissue origin. It consists of 2 different but homologous polypeptides A and B (~30,000 D) linked by disulphide bonds. The B chain is almost identical in sequence to p28sis, the transforming protein of simian sarcoma virus.
NCI

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Cicatrization

The formation of fibrous tissue in the place of normal tissue during the process of WOUND HEALING. It includes scar tissue formation occurring in healing internal organs as well as in the skin after surface injuries.
MSH

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Německo

central European country bordering on the North and Baltic Seas, capital Berlin.
CSP

A country in Central Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, between the Netherlands and Poland, south of Denmark. (NCI)
NCI

Description:Realm code for use of Germany


HL7V3.0

A country in Central Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, between the Netherlands and Poland, south of Denmark. (CIA World Factbook 2002)
NCI

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síňová ektopická tachykardie

Abnormally rapid heartbeats originating from one or more automatic foci (nonsinus pacemakers) in the HEART ATRIUM but away from the SINOATRIAL NODE. Unlike the reentry mechanism, automatic tachycardia speeds up and slows down gradually. The episode is characterized by a HEART RATE between 135 to less than 200 beats per minute and lasting 30 seconds or longer.
MSH

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správa materiálů v nemocnici

The management of all procurement, distribution, and storage of equipment and supplies, as well as logistics management including laundry, processing of reusables, etc.
MSH

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pneumoencefalografie

Radiographic visualization of the cerebral ventricles by injection of air or other gas.
MSH

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citrátový cyklus

A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.
MSH

series of reactions involving oxidation of a two-carbon acetyl unit to carbon dioxide and water with the production of high-energy phosphate bonds by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediate.
CSP

A nearly universal metabolic pathway in which the acetyl group of acetyl coenzyme A is effectively oxidized to two CO2 and four pairs of electrons are transferred to coenzymes. The acetyl group combines with oxaloacetate to form citrate, which undergoes successive transformations to isocitrate, 2-oxoglutarate, succinyl-CoA, succinate, fumarate, malate, and oxaloacetate again, thus completing the cycle. In eukaryotes the tricarboxylic acid is confined to the mitochondria. See also glyoxylate cycle. [ISBN:0198506732 “Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology”]
GO

The Krebs cycle, also called the citric acid cycle, is a fundamental metabolic pathway involving eight enzymes essential for energy production through aerobic respiration, and, like glycolysis, arose early in evolution. This pathway is also an important source of biosynthetic building blocks used in gluconeogenesis, amino acid biosynthesis, and fatty acid biosynthesis. The Krebs cycle takes place in mitochondria where it oxidizes acetyl-CoA, releasing carbon dioxide and extracting energy primarily as the reduced high-energy electron carriers NADH and FADH2. NADH and FADH2 transfer chemical energy from metabolic intermediates to the electron transport chain to create a different form of energy, a gradient of protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane. The energy of the proton gradient in turn drives synthesis of the high-energy phosphate bonds in ATP, the common energy currency of the cell used to drive a huge variety of reactions and processes. An acetyl-CoA molecule (2 carbons) enters the cycle when citrate synthase condenses it with oxaloacetate (4 carbons) to create citrate (6 carbons). One source of the acetyl-CoA that enters the Krebs cycle is the conversion of pyruvate from glycolysis to acetyl-CoA by pyruvate dehydrogenase. Acetyl-CoA is a key metabolic junction, derived not only from glycolysis but also from the oxidation of fatty acids. As the cycle proceeds, the Krebs cycle intermediates are oxidized, transferring their energy to create reduced NADH and FADH2. The oxidation of the metabolic intermediates of the pathway also releases two carbon dioxide molecules for each acetyl-CoA that enters the cycle, leaving the net carbons the same with each turn of the cycle. This carbon dioxide, along with more released by pyruvate dehydrogenase, is the source of CO2 released into the atmosphere when you breathe. The Krebs cycle, like other metabolic pathways, is tightly regulated to efficiently meet the needs of the cell and the organism. The irreversible synthesis of acetyl-CoA from pyruvate by pyruvate dehydrogenase is one important regulatory step, and is inhibited by high concentrations of ATP that indicate abundant energy. Citrate synthase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and isocitrate dehydrogenase are all key regulatory steps in the cycle and are each inhibited by abundant energy in the cell, indicated through high concentrations of ATP or NADH. The activity of the Krebs cycle is closely linked to the availability of oxygen, although none of the steps in the pathway directly use oxygen. Oxygen is required for the electron transport chain to function, which recycles NADH back to NAD+ and FADH2 back to FADH, providing NAD+ and ADH required by enzymes in the Krebs cycle. If the oxygen supply to a muscle cell or a yeast cell is low, NAD+ and FADH levels fall, the Krebs cycle cannot proceed forward, and the cell must resort to fermentation to continue making ATP. Some Krebs cycle enzymes require non-protein cofactors for activity, such as thiamine, vitamin B1. Insufficient quantities of this vitamin in the diet leads to decreased activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, and a decrease in the ability of the Krebs cycle to meet metabolic demands, causing the disease beriberi. Although the elucidation of the Krebs cycle remains one of the landmarks of biochemistry, aspects of the Krebs cycle and its enzymes are still actively researched in the modern proteomic era.
NCI

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dásně – hypertrofie

Abnormal enlargement or overgrowth of the gingivae brought about by enlargement of existing cells.
MSH

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Tarsiidae

The single family of PRIMATES in the infraorder TARSII, suborder HAPLORHINI. It is comprised of one genus, Tarsius, that inhabits southern Sumatra, Borneo, Sulawesi, and the Philippines.
MSH

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maytansin

An ansa macrolide isolated from the MAYTENUS genus of East African shrubs.
MSH

An ansamycin antibiotic originally isolated from the Ethiopian shrub Maytenus serrata. Maytansine binds to tubulin at the rhizoxin binding site, thereby inhibiting microtubule assembly, inducing microtubule disassembly, and disrupting mitosis. Maytansine exhibits cytotoxicity against many tumor cell lines and may inhibit tumor growth in vivo. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39492&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39492&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C626″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

An ansamycin antibiotic originally isolated from the Ethiopian shrub Maytenus serrata. Maytansine binds to tubulin at the rhizoxin binding site, thereby inhibiting microtubule assembly, inducing microtubule disassembly, and disrupting mitosis. Maytansine exhibits cytotoxicity against many tumor cell lines and may inhibit tumor growth in vivo. (NCI04)
NCI

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Poissonovo rozdělení

A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.
MSH

A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space. This special probability distribution can apply to the number of discrete independent random events occurring in a given interval when knowing their average rate of occurrence over a very long interval. (Dr. Joseph A. Thie)
NCI

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