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enzymy – represe

The interference in synthesis of an enzyme due to the elevated level of an effector substance, usually a metabolite, whose presence would cause depression of the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
MSH

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enzymy – stabilita

The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
MSH

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klinické enzymatické testy

Analyses for a specific enzyme activity, or of the level of a specific enzyme that is used to assess health and disease risk, for early detection of disease or disease prediction, diagnosis, and change in disease status.
MSH

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ELISA

An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
MSH

immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase; while either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye; many variations of the method have been developed.
CSP

An immunoassay for detecting and measuring antigens or antibodies in a solution; the solution is run over a surface to which immobilized antibodies specific to the substance have been attached, and if the substance is present, it will bind to the antibody layer, and its presence is verified and visualized with an application of antibodies that have been tagged in some way.
NCI

a test called enzyme linked immunosorbent assay
CHV

A laboratory technique that uses antibodies linked to enzymes to detect and measure the amount of a substance in a solution, such as serum. The test is done using a solid surface to which the antibodies and other molecules stick. In the final step, an enzyme reaction takes place that causes a color change that can be read using a special machine. There are many different ways that an ELISA can be done. ELISAs may be used to help diagnose certain diseases.
NCI

A highly sensitive technique for detecting and measuring antigens or antibodies in a solution; the solution is run over a surface to which immobilized antibodies specific to the substance have been attached, and if the substance is present, it will bind to the antibody layer, and its presence is verified and visualized with an application of antibodies that have been tagged in some way. (BioTech Life Science Dictionary)
NCI

ELISA


HL7V3.0

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enzymy

Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.
MSH

protein molecules that possess catalytic activity; they may occur naturally or be synthetically created; for catalytic RNA use RIBOZYME.
CSP

A protein that speeds up chemical reactions in the body.
NCI

Molecules that catalyze a chemical reaction. They are usually proteins, although catalytic RNA and DNA molecules have been identified.
NCI

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enzymy imobilizované

Enzymes which are immobilized on or in a variety of water-soluble or water-insoluble matrices with little or no loss of their catalytic activity. Since they can be reused continuously, immobilized enzymes have found wide application in the industrial, medical and research fields.
MSH

enzymes which are immobilized on or in a variety of water-soluble or water-insoluble matrices with little or no loss of their catalytic activity; since they can be reused continuously, immobilized enzymes have found wide application in the industrial, medical and research fields.
CSP

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enzymology

Used with organisms, except vertebrates, and with organs and tissues. It is also used with diseases for enzymes during the course of the disease, but excludes diagnostic enzyme tests, for which “diagnosis” is used.
MSH

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eosin

A versatile red dye used in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, textiles, etc., and as tissue stain, vital stain, and counterstain with HEMATOXYLIN. It is also used in special culture media.
MSH

Dye and chemical solution stains for medical purposes are mixtures of synthetic or natural dyes or nondye chemicals in solutions used in staining cells and tissues for diagnostic histopathology, cytopathology, or hematology.
SPN

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eozinofilie

Abnormal increase of EOSINOPHILS in the blood, tissues or organs.
MSH

disordered formation of eosinophils or an abnormal accumulation or deficiency of these cells.
CSP

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eozinofilní granulom

The most benign and common form of Langerhans-cell histiocytosis which involves localized nodular lesions predominantly of the bones but also of the gastric mucosa, small intestine, lungs, or skin, with infiltration by EOSINOPHILS.
MSH

most benign clinical form of Langerhans-cell histiocytosis, which involves localized nodular lesions of the gastric mucosa, small intestine, bones, lungs, or skin, with infiltration by eosinophils; the proliferating cell that appears to be responsible for the clinical manifestations is the Langerhans cell.
CSP

A clinical variant of Langerhans cell histiocytosis characterised by unifocal involvement of a bone (most often), skin, or lung. Patients are usually older children or adults usually presenting with a lytic bone lesion. The etiology is unknown. Morphologically, eosinophilic granuloma is characterised by the presence of Langerhans cells in a characteristic milieu which includes histiocytes, eosinophiles neutrophiles, and small, mature lymphocytes.
NCI

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eozinofily

Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.
MSH

granular leukocyte readily stained by eosin; granules are coarse, round, and uniform in size; the nucleus usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin; these cells are thought to play a specialized role in immunity to helminth infections.
CSP

A type of immune cell that has granules (small particles) with enzymes that are released during infections, allergic reactions, and asthma. An eosinophil is a type of white blood cell and a type of granulocyte.
NCI

Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.
NCI

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ependym

A thin membrane that lines the ventricles of the brain and the central canal of the SPINAL CORD.
MSH

A thin membrane that lines the fluid-filled spaces in the brain and spinal cord. It is made up of a type of glial cell called an ependymal cell.
NCI

A thin membrane that lines the ventricles of the brain and the central canal of the spinal cord.
NCI

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ependymom

Glioma derived from ependymocytes that tend to present as malignant intracranial tumors in children and as benign intraspinal neoplasms in adults. It may arise from any level of the ventricular system or central canal of the spinal cord. Intracranial ependymomas most frequently originate in the FOURTH VENTRICLE and histologically are densely cellular tumors which may contain ependymal tubules and perivascular pseudorosettes. Spinal ependymomas are usually benign papillary or myxopapillary tumors. (From DeVita et al., Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2018; Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, pp28-9)
MSH

gliomas derived from ependymocytes that tend to present as malignant intracranial tumors in children and as benign intraspinal neoplasms in adults; may arise from any level of the ventricular system or central canal of the spinal cord; intracranial ependymomas most frequently originate in the fourth ventricle and histologically are densely cellular tumors which may contain ependymal tubules and perivascular pseudorosettes; spinal ependymomas are usually benign papillary or myxopapillary tumors.
CSP

A type of brain tumor that begins in cells lining the spinal cord central canal (fluid-filled space down the center) or the ventricles (fluid-filled spaces of the brain). Ependymomas may also form in the choroid plexus (tissue in the ventricles that makes cerebrospinal fluid).
NCI

A WHO grade II, slow growing tumor of children and young adults, usually located intraventricularly. It is the most common ependymal neoplasm. It often causes clinical symptoms by blocking cerebrospinal fluid pathways. Key histological features include perivascular pseudorosettes and ependymal rosettes. (WHO) (from WHO)
NCI

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efedrin

A phenethylamine found in EPHEDRA SINICA. PSEUDOEPHEDRINE is an isomer. It is an alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine. It has been used for asthma, heart failure, rhinitis, and urinary incontinence, and for its central nervous system stimulatory effects in the treatment of narcolepsy and depression. It has become less extensively used with the advent of more selective agonists.
MSH

alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine; has been used in the treatment of several disorders including asthma, heart failure, rhinitis, and urinary incontinence, and for its central nervous system stimulatory effects in the treatment of narcolepsy and depression.
CSP

a drug treats asthma and allergy
CHV

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přechodná horečka dobytka

An Ephemerovirus infection of cattle caused by bovine ephemeral fever virus (EPHEMERAL FEVER VIRUS, BOVINE). It is characterized by respiratory symptoms, increased oropharyngeal secretions and lacrimation, joint pains, tremor, and stiffness.
MSH

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Epiandrosterone

A dehydroepiandrosterone metabolite and a precursor of testosterone and estradiol with hypolipidemic and anabolic property. Epiandrosterone, a potential neurosteroid, appears to bind to the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)/benzodiazepine-receptor complex (GABA-RC), acting as a negative non-competitive modulator of GABA-RC as well as signal through the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. In addition this agent inhibits the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) thereby dilating blood vessels pre-contracted by partial depolarization. Also, epiandrosterone inhibits the synthesis of thromboxane A2 in activated platelets, reduces plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 and tissue plasminogen activator antigen, increases serum levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 and increases cyclic guanosine monophosphate and nitric oxide synthesis. These effects may improve circulation in the microvasculature.
NCI

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epichlorhydrin

A chlorinated epoxy compound used as an industrial solvent. It is a strong skin irritant and carcinogen.
MSH

A volatile and flammable, clear, colorless, liquid, chlorinated cyclic ether with an irritating, chloroform-like odor that emits toxic fumes of hydrochloric acid and other chlorinated compounds when heated to decomposition. Epichlorohydrin is used in the manufacture of epoxy resins, synthetic glycerin and elastomers. Exposure to epichlorohydrin irritates the eyes, skin and respiratory tract, and can cause chemical pneumonitis, pulmonary edema, and renal lesions. This substance also affects the blood. Epichlorohydrin is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen and may be associated with an increased risk of developing respiratory cancer. (NCI05)
NCI

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epidemie

Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.
MSH

An outbreak of a contagious disease that spreads rapidly and widely.
CHV

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epidemiologické faktory

Events, characteristics, or other definable entities that have the potential to bring about a change in a health condition or other defined outcome.
MSH

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epidemiologická měření

Statistical calculations on the occurrence of disease or other health-related conditions in defined populations.
MSH

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epidemiologické metody

Epidemiological methods involve sophisticated statistics and higher mathematics. These methods allow epidemiologists to address issues like non-experimental studies of mechanistic questions in disease etiology, including studies of the impact of the social position of individuals in different social contexts.
NCI

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epidemiologie

Field of medicine concerned with the determination of causes, incidence, and characteristic behavior of disease outbreaks affecting human populations. It includes the interrelationships of host, agent, and environment as related to the distribution and control of disease.
MSH

The study of the patterns, causes, and control of disease in groups of people.
NCI

The study of the causes, incidence and distribution of disease in the population and its application for prevention or control.
NCI

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epidemiologic

Used with human and veterinary diseases for the distribution of disease, factors which cause disease, and the attributes of disease in defined populations; includes incidence, frequency, prevalence, endemic and epidemic outbreaks; also surveys and estimates of morbidity in geographic areas and in specified populations. Used also with geographical headings for the location of epidemiologic aspects of a disease. Excludes mortality for which “mortality” is used.
MSH

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KISTE BILGORTSUA

Intradermal or subcutaneous saclike structure, the wall of which is stratified epithelium containing keratohyalin granules.
MSH

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necrolysis epidermalis toxica

An exfoliative disease of skin seen primarily in adults and characterized by flaccid bullae and spreading erythema so that the skin has the appearance of being scalded. It results primarily from a toxic reaction to various drugs, but occasionally occurs as a result of infection, neoplastic conditions, or other exposure.
MSH

A systemic, serious, and life-threatening disorder characterized by erythematous and necrotic lesions in the skin and mucous membranes that are associated with bullous detachment of the epidermis. The epidermal and mucous membranes detachment leads to sepsis and may be fatal. The lesions appear throughout the body and occupy more than 30% of the body surfaces. It is a hypersensitivity reaction usually caused by drugs (e.g., sulfonamides, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, anticonvulsants, and antiretroviral drugs).
NCI

A disorder characterized by greater than 30% total body skin area separation of dermis. The syndrome is thought to be a hypersensitivity complex affecting the skin and the mucous membranes.
NCI

An exfoliative skin disease caused by a toxic reaction to drugs, infections, and substance exposure.
CHV

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epidermis

The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).
MSH

The outer layer of the two main layers of the skin.
NCI

the outer layer of skin
CHV

The epithelial portion of the skin (cutis). It consists of the following layers: stratum corneum (horny layer), stratum granulosum (granular layer), stratum spinosum (prickle cell layer), and stratum basale (basal cell layer).
NCI

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epidermitida exsudativní u prasat

An acute generalized dermatitis of pigs which occurs from 5 to 35 days of age, characterized by sudden onset, with morbidity of 10 to 90% and mortality of 5 to 90%. The lesions are caused by Staphylococcus hyos but the bacterial agent is unable to penetrate the intact skin. Abrasions on the feet and legs or lacerations on the body frequently precede infection. In acute cases, a vesicular-type virus may be the predisposing factor. The causative organism is inhibited by most antibiotics. (Merck Veterinary Manual, 5th ed)
MSH

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epidermodysplasia verruciformis

An autosomal recessive trait with impaired cell-mediated immunity. About 15 human papillomaviruses are implicated in associated infection, four of which lead to skin neoplasms. The disease begins in childhood with red papules and later spreads over the body as gray or yellow scales.
MSH

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epidermolysis bullosa

Group of genetically determined disorders characterized by the blistering of skin and mucosae. There are four major forms: acquired, simple, junctional, and dystrophic. Each of the latter three has several varieties.
MSH

inherited chronic noninflammatory skin disease manifested by vesicles, large bullae (blisters), and skin erosions which often result from trauma.
CSP

An autosomal recessive inherited skin disorder caused by mutations in the genes encoding keratins 5 and 14, collagen VII or laminin 5. It is characterized by skin fragility and the formation of blisters. The blisters may become large and ulcerated, resulting in skin infections and loss of body fluids.
NCI

A group of chronic skin disorders in which fluid-filled blisters form on the skin and mucosa (the moist, inner lining of some organs and body cavities). Epidermolysis bullosa is inherited and usually starts at birth. Patients with epidermolysis bullosa may be at increased risk of squamous cell cancer of the skin.
NCI

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Epidermophyton

A fungal genus which grows in the epidermis and is the cause of TINEA.
MSH

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