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Kazachstán

A country in Central Asia, northwest of China. (NCI)
NCI

A country in Central Asia, northwest of China. (CIA World Factbook 2002)
NCI

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KB buňky

This line KB is now known to be a subline of the ubiquitous KERATIN-forming tumor cell line HeLa. It was originally thought to be derived from an epidermal carcinoma of the mouth, but was subsequently found, based on isoenzyme analysis, HeLa marker chromosomes, and DNA fingerprinting, to have been established via contamination by HELA CELLS. The cells are positive for keratin by immunoperoxidase staining. KB cells have been reported to contain human papillomavirus18 (HPV-18) sequences.
MSH

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Kearnsův-Sayreův syndrom

A mitochondrial disorder featuring the triad of chronic progressive EXTERNAL OPHTHALMOPLEGIA, cardiomyopathy (CARDIOMYOPATHIES) with conduction block (HEART BLOCK), and RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA. Disease onset is in the first or second decade. Elevated CSF protein, sensorineural deafness, seizures, and pyramidal signs may also be present. Ragged-red fibers are found on muscle biopsy. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p984)
MSH

A rare mitochondrial myopathy characterized by a progressive limitation of eye movements, leading to immobility and eye drop. It may be associated with muscle weakness, heart block, hearing loss, ataxia and short stature.
NCI

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krevní skupiny – systém Kell

Multiple erythrocytic antigens that comprise at least three pairs of alternates and amorphs, determined by one complex gene or possibly several genes at closely linked loci. The system is important in transfusion reactions. Its expression involves the X-chromosome.
MSH

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keloid

A sharply elevated, irregularly shaped, progressively enlarging scar resulting from formation of excessive amounts of collagen in the dermis during connective tissue repair. It is differentiated from a hypertrophic scar (CICATRIX, HYPERTROPHIC) in that the former does not spread to surrounding tissues.
MSH

progressively enlarging scar resulting from formation of excessive amounts of collagen in the dermis during connective tissue repair; spreads to surrounding tissues.
CSP

A thick, irregular scar caused by excessive tissue growth at the site of an incision or wound.
NCI

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Kemerovo Virus

A serotype, in the species Great Island virus, of antigenically related tick-borne viruses found in Eastern Europe, Egypt, and Sudan.
MSH

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Kentucky

A state in the north central United States. Its capital is Frankfort.
NCI

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Keňa

A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.
MSH

A country in Eastern Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean, between Somalia and Tanzania. (NCI)
NCI

A country in Eastern Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean, between Somalia and Tanzania. (CIA World Factbook 2002)
NCI

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kepon

A highly chlorinated polycyclic hydrocarbon insecticide whose large number of chlorine atoms makes it resistant to degradation. It has been shown to be toxic to mammals and causes abnormal cellular changes in laboratory animals.
MSH

A very stable, colorless, odorless, synthetic chlorinated polycyclic hydrocarbon that is a degradation product of Mirex. Chlordecone has been used as an insecticide on bananas, non-bearing citrus trees, tobacco, lawns and flowers. Exposure to this substance causes neurological symptoms, such as tremors and slurred speech. Chlordecone is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen based on evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals. (NCI05)
NCI

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keratansulfát

A sulfated mucopolysaccharide initially isolated from bovine cornea. At least two types are known. Type I, found mostly in the cornea, contains D-galactose and D-glucosamine-6-O-sulfate as the repeating unit; type II, found in skeletal tissues, contains D-galactose and D-galactosamine-6-O-sulfate as the repeating unit.
MSH

poly(galactose-N-acetylglucosamine sulfate), an important component of the proteoglycan of cartilage and other tissues.
CSP

A glycosaminoglycan (a type of polysaccharide) found in cartilage and in the cornea of the eye.
NCI

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keratiny

family of cystine-rich proteins that tend to aggregate in side-to- side fashion, forming tough filaments or sheets; main constituent of intermediate filaments in epidermal tissues.
CSP

A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.
MSH

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Keratinization, function

The process in which the cytoplasm of the outermost cells of the vertebrate epidermis is replaced by keratin. Keratinization occurs in the stratum corneum, feathers, hair, claws, nails, hooves, and horns. [GOC:dph, GOC:ebc, GOC:sdb_2009, GOC:tb]
GO

development of or conversion into keratin.
CSP

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keratinocyty

Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.
MSH

vertebrate, epidermal cell of ectodermal origin.
CSP

Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.
NCI

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keratitida

inflammation of the cornea.
CSP

A disorder characterized by inflammation to the cornea of the eye.
NCI

inflammation of the cornea
CHV

Inflammation of the cornea.
NCI

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keratitida dendritická

A form of herpetic keratitis characterized by the formation of small vesicles which break down and coalesce to form recurring dendritic ulcers, characteristically irregular, linear, branching, and ending in knoblike extremities. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)
MSH

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keratoakantom

A benign, non-neoplastic, usually self-limiting epithelial lesion closely resembling squamous cell carcinoma clinically and histopathologically. It occurs in solitary, multiple, and eruptive forms. The solitary and multiple forms occur on sunlight exposed areas and are identical histologically; they affect primarily white males. The eruptive form usually involves both sexes and appears as a generalized papular eruption.
MSH

benign papular lesion with a superficial crater filled with a keratin plug, usually on the face.
CSP

A rapidly growing, dome-shaped skin tumor that usually occurs on sun-exposed areas of the body, especially around the head and neck. Keratoacanthoma occurs more often in males. Although in most patients it goes away on its own, in a few patients it comes back. Rarely, it may spread to other parts of the body.
NCI

A dome-shaped, rapidly growing skin lesion composed of well differentiated squamous cells. It represents a proliferation of the infundibular epithelium of the hair follicle and its morphologic distinction from a well differentiated carcinoma may be difficult or impossible. Keratoacanthomas affect males more frequently than females and the majority tend to regress spontaneously. It has been suggested that keratoacanthoma represents a distinct subtype of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin.
NCI

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keratokonjunktivitida

simultaneous inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva.
CSP

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keratokonjunktivitida suchá

Drying and inflammation of the conjunctiva as a result of insufficient lacrimal secretion. When found in association with XEROSTOMIA and polyarthritis, it is called SJOGREN`S SYNDROME.
MSH

WHAT: Keratoconjunctivitis sicca.
AIR

drying and inflammation of the conjunctiva as a result of insufficient lacrimal secretion.
CSP

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keratokonjunktivitida infekční

Infectious diseases of cattle, sheep, and goats, characterized by blepharospasm, lacrimation, conjunctivitis, and varying degrees of corneal opacity and ulceration. In cattle the causative agent is MORAXELLA (MORAXELLA) BOVIS; in sheep, MYCOPLASMA; RICKETTSIA; CHLAMYDIA; or ACHOLEPLASMA; in goats, RICKETTSIA.
MSH

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keratokonus

A noninflammatory, usually bilateral protrusion of the cornea, the apex being displaced downward and nasally. It occurs most commonly in females at about puberty. The cause is unknown but hereditary factors may play a role. The -conus refers to the cone shape of the corneal protrusion. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
MSH

noninflammatory, usually bilateral protrusion of the cornea in which the apex is displaced downward and nasally; the conus refers to the cone shape of the corneal protrusion.
CSP

A degenerative, structural disorder of the eye, characterized by a cone-shaped protrusion of the cornea. It may lead to visual disturbances.
NCI

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keratoderma palmoplantární difuzní

An autosomal dominant disorder characterized by a widely distributed, well-demarcated hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles. There is more than one genotypically distinct form, each of which is clinically similar but histologically distinguishable. Diffuse palmoplantar keratoderma is distinct from palmoplantar keratoderma (KERATODERMA, PALMOPLANTAR), as the former exhibits autosomal dominant inheritance and hyperhidrosis is frequently present.
MSH

An inherited disorder characterized by the development of keratotic lesions on the palms and soles. It appears in childhood as redness on the palms and soles which progresses to well demarcated, thickened, yellowish and waxy lesions.
NCI

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keratolytika

Agents that soften, separate, and cause desquamation of the cornified epithelium or horny layer of skin. They are used to expose mycelia of infecting fungi or to treat corns, warts, and certain other skin diseases.
MSH

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keratoplastika penetrující

Partial or total replacement of all layers of a central portion of the cornea.
MSH

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keratóza

Any horny growth such as a wart or callus.
MSH

overgrowth of the upper layer of the skin that is rough, scaly, or gritty in texture, such as a callus or wart.
CSP

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keratosis follicularis

slowly progressive autosomal dominant disorder of keratinization with papules on the seborrheic areas of the body that coalesce to form plaques which may become crusted and secondarily infected; lesions may darken and fuse over time to form papillomatous and warty malodorous growths.
CSP

An autosomal dominantly inherited skin disorder characterized by warty malodorous papules that coalesce into plaques. It is caused by mutations in the ATP2A2 gene encoding SERCA2 protein, one of the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. The condition is similar, clinically and histologically, to BENIGN FAMILIAL PEMPHIGUS, another autosomal dominant skin disorder. Both diseases have defective calcium pumps (CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES) and unstable desmosomal adhesion junctions (DESMOSOMES) between KERATINOCYTES.
MSH

An autosomal dominant inherited chronic skin disorder caused by mutations in the ATP2A2 gene. It is characterized by the development of yellow-brown keratotic skin papules in the neck, ears, forehead, chest, back and groin. It is associated with fragility of the free margins of the nails.
NCI

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keratosis palmaris et plantaris

Group of mostly hereditary disorders characterized by thickening of the palms and soles as a result of excessive keratin formation leading to hypertrophy of the stratum corneum (hyperkeratosis).
MSH

A group of autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, X-linked inherited or acquired disorders characterized by the thickening of the palms and soles due to hyperkeratosis.
NCI

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keratóza aktinická

A thick, scaly patch of skin that may become cancer. It usually forms on areas exposed to the sun, such as the face, scalp, back of the hands, or chest. It is most common in people with fair skin.
NCI

White or pink lesions on the arms, hands, face, or scalp that arise from sun-induced DNA DAMAGE to KERATINOCYTES in exposed areas. They are considered precursor lesions to superficial SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA.
MSH

precancerous thick and scaly patches of skin
CHV

A precancerous lesion of the skin composed of atypical keratinocytes. It is characterized by the presence of thick, scaly patches of skin. Several histologic variants have been described, including atrophic, acantholytic, and hyperkeratotic variants.
NCI

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keratóza seboroická

Benign eccrine poromas that present as multiple oval, brown-to-black plaques, located mostly on the chest and back. The age of onset is usually in the fourth or fifth decade.
MSH

A common benign skin neoplasm usually affecting older individuals. The lesions usually are multiple and arise in the face, chest, and shoulders. They appear as black or brown, slightly elevated skin lesions.
NCI

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keratotomie radiální

A procedure to surgically correct REFRACTIVE ERRORS by cutting radial slits into the CORNEA to change its refractive properties.
MSH

procedure to treat myopia by cutting radial slits into the cornea to flatten it and change its refractive properties.
CSP

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kernikterus

A term used pathologically to describe BILIRUBIN staining of the BASAL GANGLIA; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM and clinically to describe a syndrome associated with HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA. Clinical features include athetosis, MUSCLE SPASTICITY or hypotonia, impaired vertical gaze, and DEAFNESS. Nonconjugated bilirubin enters the brain and acts as a neurotoxin, often in association with conditions that impair the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER (e.g., SEPSIS). This condition occurs primarily in neonates (INFANT, NEWBORN), but may rarely occur in adults. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p613)
MSH

brain disorder associated with high levels of bilrubin; clinical features include athetosis, muscle spasticity or hypotonia, impaired vertical gaze, and deafness; nonconjugated bilirubin enters the brain and acts as a neurotoxin, often in association with conditions that impair the blood-brain barrier; this condition occurs primarily in neonates with perinatal blood incompatibilities, but may rarely occur in adults.
CSP

A rare neurologic disorder occurring in infants with jaundice. It results from brain damage by existing high levels of unconjugated-indirect bilirubin.
NCI

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