Additional pages

petrolej

A refined petroleum fraction used as a fuel as well as a solvent.
MSH

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

ketamin

A cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Its mechanism of action is not well understood, but ketamine can block NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and may interact with sigma receptors.
MSH

rapid-acting general anesthetic, animal anesthetic, and emerging drug of abuse.
CSP

A cyclohexanone derivative with analgesic and anesthetic properties. Although its mechanism of action is not well understood, ketamine appears exerts complex pharmacological actions including inhibition of biogenic amine uptake, binding to opioid receptors, and inhibition of N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Because of the involvement of spinal NMDA receptors in the process of central sensitization, this agent may reduce pain perception and induce sedation.
NCI

a kind of anesthetic drug
CHV

A drug used to cause a loss of feeling and awareness and to induce sleep in patients having surgery. It is also being studied in the treatment of nerve pain caused by chemotherapy. Ketamine blocks pathways to the brain that are involved in sensing pain. It is a type of general anesthetic.
NCI

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

ketanserin

A selective serotonin receptor antagonist with weak adrenergic receptor blocking properties. The drug is effective in lowering blood pressure in essential hypertension. It also inhibits platelet aggregation. It is well tolerated and is particularly effective in older patients.
MSH

3-(2-(4-(p-fluorobenzoyl)-piperidino) ethyl)-2,4-quinazolinedione.
CSP

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

ketokyseliny

carboxylic acid containing a carbonyl group.
CSP

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

oxokyseliny-lyasy

Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond of a 3-hydroxy acid. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 4.1.3.
MSH

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

ketocholesteroly

Cholesterol substituted in any position by a keto moiety. The 7-keto isomer inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity and inhibits cholesterol uptake in the coronary arteries and aorta in vitro.
MSH

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

ketokonazol

Broad spectrum antifungal agent used for long periods at high doses, especially in immunosuppressed patients.
MSH

1-acetyl-4-(2,4-dichlorophenyl-2-imidazolylmethyl- 1,3- dioxolanylmethoxyphenyl) piperazine; broad spectrum, oral antifungal.
CSP

A drug that treats infection caused by a fungus. It is also used as a treatment for prostate cancer because it can block the production of male sex hormones.
NCI

A synthetic derivative of phenylpiperazine with broad antifungal properties and potential antineoplastic activity. Ketoconazole inhibits sterol 14-a-dimethylase, a microsomal cytochrome P450-dependent enzyme, thereby disrupting synthesis of ergosterol, an important component of the fungal cell wall. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39488&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39488&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C605″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A synthetic derivative of phenylpiperazine with broad antifungal properties and potential antineoplastic activity. Ketoconazole inhibits sterol 14-a-dimethylase, a microsomal cytochrome P450-dependent enzyme, thereby disrupting synthesis of ergosterol, an important component of the fungal cell wall. (NCI04)
NCI

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

ketoglutarátdehydrogenasový komplex

component of a multi-enzyme complex which decarboxylates alpha ketoglutarate to form succinyl coA in the Krebs` cycle.
CSP

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

kyseliny ketoglutarové

A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)
MSH

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

ketolátky

The metabolic substances ACETONE; 3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID; and acetoacetic acid (ACETOACETATES). They are produced in the liver and kidney during FATTY ACIDS oxidation and used as a source of energy by the heart, muscle and brain.
MSH

acetone, acetoacetic acid, and beta-hydroxybutyric acid in the context of lipid and pyruvate metabolism; may appear in urine marking metabolic abnormalities, as in diabetes mellitus.
CSP

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

ketonoxidoreduktasy

Oxidoreductases that are specific for KETONES.
MSH

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

ketony

functional group of an organic compound in which a carbon atom is double-bonded to an oxygen; neither of the other substituents attached to the carbon can be a hydrogen.
CSP

A type of chemical substance used in perfumes, paints, solvents, and found in essential oils (scented liquid taken from plants). Ketones are also made by the body when there is not enough insulin.
NCI

Organic compounds with a carbonyl group (C=O) bonded to two other carbon atoms as the skeleton structure. Acetone is the simplest ketone compound.
NCI

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

ketoprofen

An IBUPROFEN-type anti-inflammatory analgesic and antipyretic. It is used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.
MSH

A propionic acid derivate and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic effects. Ketoprofen inhibits the activity of the enzymes cyclo-oxygenase I and II, resulting in a decreased formation of precursors of prostaglandins and thromboxanes. The resulting decrease in prostaglandin synthesis, by prostaglandin synthase, is responsible for the therapeutic effects of ibuprofen. Ketoprofen also causes a decrease in the formation of thromboxane A2 synthesis, by thromboxane synthase, thereby inhibiting platelet aggregation.
NCI

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

ketóza

A condition characterized by an abnormally elevated concentration of KETONE BODIES in the blood (acetonemia) or urine (acetonuria). It is a sign of DIABETES COMPLICATION, starvation, alcoholism or a mitochondrial metabolic disturbance (e.g., MAPLE SYRUP URINE DISEASE).
MSH

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

ketosteroidy

Steroid derivatives formed by oxidation of a methyl group on the side chain or a methylene group in the ring skeleton to form a ketone.
MSH

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

ketotifen

A cycloheptathiophene blocker of histamine H1 receptors and release of inflammatory mediators. It has been proposed for the treatment of asthma, rhinitis, skin allergies, and anaphylaxis.
MSH

A cycloheptathiophene derivative with anti-allergic activity. Ketotifen selectively blocks histamine (H1) receptors and prevents the typical symptoms caused by histamine release. This agent also interferes with the release of inflammatory mediators from mast cells involved in hypersensitivity reactions, thereby decreasing chemotaxis and activation of eosinophils.
NCI

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

khelin

A vasodilator that also has bronchodilatory action. It has been employed in the treatment of angina pectoris, in the treatment of asthma, and in conjunction with ultraviolet light A, has been tried in the treatment of vitiligo. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1024)
MSH

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

krevní skupiny – systém Kidd

A group of antigens consisting principally of Jk(a) and Jk(b), determined by allelic genes. Amorphs are encountered. Antibodies of these substances are usually weak and quite labile, stimulated by erythrocytes.
MSH

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

ledviny

body organ that filters blood for the secretion of urine and that regulates ion concentrations.
CSP

One of the two bean-shaped organs located on each side of the spine in the retroperitoneum. The right kidney is located below the liver and the left kidney below the diaphragm. The kidneys filter and secret the metabolic products and minerals from the blood, thus maintaining the homeostasis. On the superior pole of each kidney there is an adrenal gland. Each kidney and adrenal gland is surrounded by fat. (NCI)
NCI

One of a pair of organs in the abdomen. Kidneys remove waste from the blood (as urine), produce erythropoietin (a substance that stimulates red blood cell production), and play a role in blood pressure regulation.
NCI

One of the two bean-shaped organs located on each side of the spine in the retroperitoneum. The right kidney is located below the liver and the left kidney below the diaphragm. The kidneys filter and secret the metabolic products and minerals from the blood, thus maintaining the homeostasis. On the superior pole of each kidney there is an adrenal gland. Each kidney and adrenal gland is surrounded by fat.
NCI

Of or pertaining to the kidney.
NCI

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

ledviny – kameny

Stones in the KIDNEY, usually formed in the urine-collecting area of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS). Their sizes vary and most contains CALCIUM OXALATE.
MSH

A kidney stone is a solid piece of material that forms in the kidney from substances in the urine. It may be as small as a grain of sand or as large as a pearl. Most kidney stones pass out of the body without help from a doctor. But sometimes a stone will not go away. It may get stuck in the urinary tract, block the flow of urine and cause great pain.

The following may be signs of kidney stones that need a doctor`s help:

  • Extreme pain in your back or side that will not go away
  • Blood in your urine
  • Fever and chills
  • Vomiting
  • Urine that smells bad or looks cloudy
  • A burning feeling when you urinate

NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases


MEDLINEPLUS

A disorder characterized by the formation of crystals in the pelvis of the kidney.
NCI

Crystals in the pelvis of the kidney.
NCI

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

ledviny – kalichy

Recesses of the kidney pelvis which divides into two wide, cup-shaped major renal calices, with each major calix subdivided into 7 to 14 minor calices. Urine empties into a minor calix from collecting tubules, then passes through the major calix, renal pelvis, and ureter to enter the urinary bladder. (From Moore, Clinically Oriented Anatomy, 3d ed, p211)
MSH

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

ledviny – koncentrační schopnost

The ability of the kidney to excrete in the urine high concentrations of solutes from the blood plasma.
MSH

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

ledviny – kůra

The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.
MSH

outer part of the substance of the kidney, composed mainly of glomeruli and convoluted tubules.
CSP

Region of parenchyma of kidney representing the outer portion.
FMA

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

ledviny – nekróza kůry

Death of cells in the KIDNEY CORTEX, a common final result of various renal injuries including HYPOXIA; ISCHEMIA; and drug toxicity.
MSH

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

ledviny – nemoci

Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.
MSH

impairment of health or a condition of abnormal functioning of the kidney.
CSP

Your kidneys are two bean-shaped organs, each about the size of your fists. They are located near the middle of your back, just below the rib cage. Inside each kidney about a million tiny structures called nephrons filter blood. They remove waste products and extra water, which become urine. The urine flows through tubes called ureters to your bladder, which stores the urine until you go to the bathroom.

Damage to the nephrons results in kidney disease. This damage may leave kidneys unable to remove wastes. Usually the damage occurs slowly over years. There are no obvious symptoms, so you don`t know it is happening.

Many things can cause kidney disease. You are at risk if you have

  • Diabetes
  • High blood pressure
  • A close family member with kidney disease

Your doctor can run tests to find out if you have kidney disease. If your kidneys fail completely, a kidney transplant or dialysis can replace the work your kidneys normally do.

NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases


MEDLINEPLUS

A term referring to any disease affecting the kidneys.
NCI

A neoplastic or non-neoplastic condition affecting the kidney. Representative examples of non-neoplastic conditions include glomerulonephritis and nephrotic syndrome. Representative examples of neoplastic conditions include benign processes (e.g., renal lipoma and renal fibroma) and malignant processes (e.g., renal cell carcinoma and renal lymphoma).
NCI

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

akutní selhání ledvin

clinical syndrome characterized by a sudden decrease in glomerular filtration rate, usually associated with oliguria and always associated with biochemical consequences of the reduction in glomerular filtration rate such as a rise in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine concentrations.
CSP

A disorder characterized by the acute loss of renal function and is traditionally classified as pre-renal (low blood flow into kidney), renal (kidney damage) and post-renal causes (ureteral or bladder outflow obstruction).
NCI

Sudden and sustained deterioration of the kidney function characterized by decreased glomerular filtration rate, increased serum creatinine or oliguria.
NCI

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

chronické selhání ledvin

The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
MSH

irreversible and usually progressive reduction in renal function in which both kidneys have been damaged by a variety of diseases to the extent that they are unable to adequately remove the metabolic products from the blood and regulate the body`s electrolyte composition and acid-base balance.
CSP

Gradual and usually permanent loss of kidney function resulting in renal failure. Causes include diabetes, hypertension, and glomerulonephritis.
NCI

A disorder characterized by gradual and usually permanent loss of kidney function resulting in renal failure.
NCI

Impairment of the renal function due to chronic kidney damage.
NCI

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

ledviny – funkční testy

A laboratory procedure that evaluates the kidney function.
NCI

A test in which blood or urine samples are checked for the amounts of certain substances released by the kidneys. A higher- or lower-than-normal amount of a substance can be a sign that the kidneys are not working the way they should.
NCI

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

ledviny – glomerulus

A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.
MSH

globular tufts of capillaries, one projecting into the expanded end or capsule of each the uriniferous tubules.
CSP

A tiny, round cluster of blood vessels within the kidneys. It filters the blood to reabsorb useful materials and remove waste as urine.
NCI

A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue. (MeSH)
NCI

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

ledviny – dřeň

The internal portion of the kidney, consisting of striated conical masses, the renal pyramids, whose bases are adjacent to the cortex and whose apices form prominent papillae projecting into the lumen of the minor calyces.
MSH

internal portion of the kidney, consisting of striated conical masses, the renal pyramids, whose bases are adjacent to the cortex and whose apices form prominent papillae projecting into the lumen of the minor calyces.
CSP

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…