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nádory ledvin

Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.
MSH

new abnormal tissue of the kidney that grows by excessive cellular division and proliferation more rapidly than normal and continues to grow after the stimuli that initiated the new growth cease.
CSP

A benign or malignant neoplasm affecting the kidney. Representative examples of benign renal neoplasms include fibroma, lipoma, oncocytoma, and juxtaglomerular cell tumor. Representative examples of malignant renal neoplasms include renal cell carcinoma, renal pelvis carcinoma, Wilms tumor, rhabdoid tumor, sarcoma, and lymphoma.
NCI

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ledviny – papilární nekróza

A complication of kidney diseases characterized by cell death involving KIDNEY PAPILLA in the KIDNEY MEDULLA. Damages to this area may hinder the kidney to concentrate urine resulting in POLYURIA. Sloughed off necrotic tissue may block KIDNEY PELVIS or URETER. Necrosis of multiple renal papillae can lead to KIDNEY FAILURE.
MSH

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ledviny – transplantace

The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.
MSH

transference of a kidney within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
CSP

A kidney transplant is an operation that places a healthy kidney in your body. The transplanted kidney takes over the work of the two kidneys that failed, and you no longer need dialysis.

During a transplant, the surgeon places the new kidney in your lower abdomen and connects the artery and vein of the new kidney to your artery and vein. Often, the new kidney will start making urine as soon as your blood starts flowing through it. But sometimes it takes a few weeks to start working.

Many transplanted kidneys come from donors who have died. Some come from a living family member. The wait for a new kidney can be long. People who have transplants must take drugs to keep their body from rejecting the new kidney for the rest of their lives.

NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases


MEDLINEPLUS

The transfer of a healthy kidney from a donor to a patient for the purpose of replacing one of the failing kidneys of the patient.
NCI

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ledviny – tubulární nekróza akutní

Acute kidney failure resulting from destruction of EPITHELIAL CELLS of the KIDNEY TUBULES. It is commonly attributed to exposure to toxic agents or renal ISCHEMIA following severe TRAUMA.
MSH

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ledviny – tubuly

Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.
MSH

one of the minute reabsorptive secretory and collecting canals, made up of basement membrane lined with epithelium, that form the substance of the kidneys.
CSP

The anatomical segment of the kidney that is comprised of both the nephron and associated collecting tubules. These tubules or tubes contains fluid that has been filtered through the glomerulus.
NCI

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ledviny – sběrací kanálky

Straight tubes commencing in the radiate part of the kidney cortex where they receive the curved ends of the distal convoluted tubules. In the medulla the collecting tubules of each pyramid converge to join a central tube (duct of Bellini) which opens on the summit of the papilla.
MSH

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ledviny – tubuly distální

The portion of renal tubule that begins from the enlarged segment of the ascending limb of the LOOP OF HENLE. It reenters the KIDNEY CORTEX and forms the convoluted segments of the distal tubule.
MSH

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ledviny – tubuly proximální

The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.
MSH

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ledvina umělá

Device(s) which can substitute for normally functioning kidneys in cleansing the blood.
MSH

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cystické ledviny

kidney containing one or more cysts, including polycystic disease, solitary cyst, multiple simple cysts, and retention cysts.
CSP

Abnormal fluid filled sac within the kidney, either acquired or congenital.
NCI

A kidney containing one or more cysts.
MSH

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polycystické ledviny – nemoci

hereditary diseases that are characterized by the progressive expansion of a large number of tightly packed cysts within the kidney; there is an autosomal recessive form appearing in childhood and a later appearing autosomal dominant form; a similar acquired disease sometimes accompanies end-stage renal disease.
CSP

A usually autosomal dominant and less frequently autosomal recessive genetic disorder characterized by the presence of numerous cysts in the kidneys leading to end-stage renal failure. The autosomal dominant trait is associated with abnormalities on the short arm of chromosome 16. Symptoms in patients with the autosomal dominant trait usually appear at middle age and include abdominal pain, hematuria, and high blood pressure. Patients may develop brain aneurysms and liver cysts. Patients with the autosomal recessive trait present with progressive renal failure early in life and symptoms resulting from hepatic fibrosis. The autosomal recessive trait is associated with abnormalities of chromosome 6. Polycystic kidney disease may also result as a side effect in patients on renal dialysis.
NCI

Hereditary diseases that are characterized by the progressive expansion of a large number of tightly packed CYSTS within the KIDNEYS. They include diseases with autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive inheritance.
MSH

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medulární houbovitá ledvina

A developmental disorder of the kidney characterized by cystic dilatation of the medullary collecting ducts, resulting in a spongy gross appearance of the kidney. It may be asymptomatic or complicated by hematuria, infections, or renal stones.
NCI

A non-hereditary KIDNEY disorder characterized by the abnormally dilated (ECTASIA) medullary and inner papillary portions of the collecting ducts. These collecting ducts usually contain CYSTS or DIVERTICULA filled with jelly-like material or small calculi (KIDNEY STONES) leading to infections or obstruction. It should be distinguished from congenital or hereditary POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES.
MSH

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Kienbockova choroba

Osteonecrosis of the lunate.
MSH

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křemelina

A form of SILICON DIOXIDE composed of skeletons of prehistoric aquatic plants which is used for its ABSORPTION quality, taking up 1.5-4 times its weight in water. The microscopic sharp edges are useful for insect control but can also be an inhalation hazard. It has been used in baked goods and animal feed. Kieselguhr is German for flint + earthy sediment.
MSH

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Killer Cells

general heading term for the effector cells of the immune system that can lyse the target cells; use the specific kind of killer cell when applicable.
CSP

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buňky K aktivované lymfokiny

Cytolytic lymphocytes with the unique capacity of killing natural killer (NK)-resistant fresh tumor cells. They are INTERLEUKIN-2-activated NK cells that have no MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX restriction or need for antigen stimulation. LAK cells are used for ADOPTIVE IMMUNOTHERAPY in cancer patients.
MSH

culturing lymphocytes in the presence of IL-2 results in the development of effector cells which are cytotoxic to tumor cells; autologous LAK cells have been used in adoptive immunotherapy in cancer treatment.
CSP

Killer cell lymphocytes activated in the presence of interleukin-2 (IL-2). Lymphokine-activated killer cells (LAKs) are cytotoxic effector cells with an exceptionally wide target cell spectrum including normal and malignant cells of different origins. LAK cells exhibit a profound heterogeneity with regard to phenotype surface marker expression; it remains to be determined if they represent a unique cell lineage.
NCI

White blood cells that are stimulated in a laboratory to kill tumor cells.
NCI

Killer cell lymphocytes activated in the presence of interleukin-2 (IL-2). Lymphokine-activated killer cells (LAKs) are cytotoxic effector cells with an exceptionally wide target cell spectrum including normal and malignant cells of different origins. LAK cells exhibit a profound heterogeneity with regard to phenotype surface marker expression; it remains to be determined if they represent a unique cell lineage. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=40219&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=40219&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C13008″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

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buňky NK

Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
MSH

type of cytotoxic leukocytes which attack and kill virus-infected or neoplastic cells independent of antibody coating or MHC restriction; may be derived from lymphocytes or monocytes.
CSP

A type of immune cell that has granules (small particles) with enzymes that can kill tumor cells or cells infected with a virus. A natural killer cell is a type of white blood cell.
NCI

Natural killer cells are cells that resemble large granular lymphocytes. They do not express markers of either T or B cell lineage. They are positive for CD16, CD56, and CD 94. These cells do possess Fc receptors for IgG and can kill target cells using antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. They can also use perforin to kill cells in the absence of antibody and killing may occur without previous sensitization.
NCI

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halančíci

Small oviparous fishes in the family Cyprinodontidae, usually striped or barred black. They are much used in mosquito control.
MSH

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chování pohybové

Systematic study of the body and the use of its static and dynamic position as a means of communication.
MSH

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kineze

Locomotor behavior not involving a steering reaction, but in which there may be a turning random in direction. It includes orthokinesis, the rate of movement and klinokinesis, the amount of turning, which are related to the intensity of stimulation.
MSH

The movement of a cell or organism in response to a stimulus in which the rate of movement depends on the intensity (rather than the direction) of the stimulus. [GOC:jl, ISBN:0192801023]
GO

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kinestezie

Sense of movement of a part of the body, such as movement of fingers, elbows, knees, limbs, or weights.
MSH

The series of events by which an organism senses the speed and direction of movement of the body and its parts. [GOC:mah]
GO

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kinetika

The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
MSH

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kinetokardiografie

The graphic recording of chest wall movement due to cardiac impulses.
MSH

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peptidyl-dipeptidasa A

A peptidyl-dipeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal dipeptide, -Xaa-*-Xbb-Xcc, when neither Xaa nor Xbb is Pro. It is a Cl(-)-dependent, zinc glycoprotein that is generally membrane-bound and active at neutral pH. It may also have endopeptidase activity on some substrates. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.4.15.1.
MSH

Cl- dependent, zinc glycoprotein that is generally membrane bound.
CSP

Angiotensin-converting enzyme (1306 aa, ~150 kDa) is encoded by the human ACE gene. This protein plays a role in the hydrolysis of angiotensin I to form angiotensin II and the solubilization of glycophophoinositol-anchored proteins from the plasma membrane.
NCI

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kininogeny

Endogenous peptides present in most body fluids. Certain enzymes convert them to active KININS which are involved in inflammation, blood clotting, complement reactions, etc. Kininogens belong to the cystatin superfamily. They are cysteine proteinase inhibitors. HIGH-MOLECULAR-WEIGHT KININOGEN; (HMWK); is split by plasma kallikrein to produce BRADYKININ. LOW-MOLECULAR-WEIGHT KININOGEN; (LMWK); is split by tissue kallikrein to produce KALLIDIN.
MSH

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kininy

A generic term used to describe a group of polypeptides with related chemical structures and pharmacological properties that are widely distributed in nature. These peptides are AUTACOIDS that act locally to produce pain, vasodilatation, increased vascular permeability, and the synthesis of prostaglandins. Thus, they comprise a subset of the large number of mediators that contribute to the inflammatory response. (From Goodman and Gilman`s The Pharmacologic Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p588)
MSH

any of a group of endogenous peptides which cause vasodilation and other changes associated with hypotension.
CSP

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Menkesův syndrom

X-linked recessive abnormality in copper absorption marked by severe cerebral degeneration and arterial changes resulting in death in infancy and by sparse, brittle scalp hair.
CSP

An inherited disorder of copper metabolism transmitted as an X-linked trait and characterized by the infantile onset of HYPOTHERMIA, feeding difficulties, hypotonia, SEIZURES, bony deformities, pili torti (twisted hair), and severely impaired intellectual development. Defective copper transport across plasma and endoplasmic reticulum membranes results in copper being unavailable for the synthesis of several copper containing enzymes, including PROTEIN-LYSINE 6-OXIDASE; CERULOPLASMIN; and SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE. Pathologic changes include defects in arterial elastin, neuronal loss, and gliosis. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p125)
MSH

An X-linked disorder caused by mutations in the ATP7A gene resulting in the abnormal transport and metabolism of copper. It affects primarily male infants. It is characterized by hypotonia, seizures, failure to thrive, and peculiar colorless or steel-colored brittle hair.
NCI

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Kyrgyzstán

A country in Central Asia, west of China. (NCI)
NCI

A country in Central Asia, west of China. (CIA World Factbook 2002)
NCI

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virus myšího sarkomu Kirstena

A replication-defective murine sarcoma virus (SARCOMA VIRUSES, MURINE) capable of transforming mouse lymphoid cells and producing erythroid leukemia after superinfection with murine leukemia viruses (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE). It has also been found to transform cultured human fibroblasts, rat liver epithelial cells, and rat adrenocortical cells.
MSH

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kitasamycin

A macrolide antibiotic produced by Streptomyces kitasatoensis. The drug has antimicrobial activity against a wide spectrum of pathogens.
MSH

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