Additional pages

Lericheův syndrom

A condition caused by occlusion of terminal aorta, the primary branches of the ABDOMINAL AORTA, as in aortoiliac obstruction. Leriche syndrome usually occurs in males and is characterized by IMPOTENCE, absence of a pulse in the femoral arteries, weakness and numbness in the lower back, buttocks, hips, and lower limbs.
MSH

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

Leschův-Nyhanův syndrom

An inherited disorder transmitted as a sex-linked trait and caused by a deficiency of an enzyme of purine metabolism; HYPOXANTHINE PHOSPHORIBOSYLTRANSFERASE. Affected individuals are normal in the first year of life and then develop psychomotor retardation, extrapyramidal movement disorders, progressive spasticity, and seizures. Self-destructive behaviors such as biting of fingers and lips are seen frequently. Intellectual impairment may also occur but is typically not severe. Elevation of uric acid in the serum leads to the development of renal calculi and gouty arthritis. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp127)
MSH

rare x-linked disorder of purine metabolism, due to deficiency of hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase; affected individuals are normal in the first year of life and then develop psychomotor retardation, extrapyramidal movement disorders, progressive spasticity, and seizures; self-destructive behaviors such as biting of fingers and lips are seen frequently; intellectual impairment may also occur but is typically not severe; elevation of uric acid in the serum leads to the development of renal calculi and gouty arthritis.
CSP

An X-linked inherited syndrome caused by mutations in the gene that encodes the enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase, resulting in accumulation of uric acid in the body. It affects males and is characterized by neurologic defects, moderate mental retardation, muscle hypotonia, and a tendency for self-mutilation (self-biting of lips, tongue, and fingertips).
NCI

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

Lesotho

A kingdom in southern Africa, within the republic of SOUTH AFRICA. Its capital is Maseru.
MSH

A country in Southern Africa, an enclave of South Africa. (NCI)
NCI

A country in Southern Africa, an enclave of South Africa. (CIA World Factbook 2002)
NCI

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

LD50

The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
MSH

The dose of a chemical or biologic preparation (e.g., a bacterial exotoxin or a suspension of bacteria) that is likely to cause death in 50% of the animals being tested; it varies in relation to the type of animal and the route of administration; (the absolute lethal dose is LD100, and minimal lethal dose is LD05).
NCI

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

letargie

Characterized by a lack of vitality or energy.
NCI

A general state of sluggishness, listless, or uninterested, with being tired, and having difficulty concentrating and doing simple tasks. It may be related to DEPRESSION or DRUG ADDICTION.
MSH

Decreased consciousness characterized by mental and physical inertness.
NCI

A disorder characterized by a decrease in consciousness characterized by mental and physical inertness.
NCI

a state of sluggishness, listless, and apathy
CHV

A condition marked by drowsiness and an unusual lack of energy and mental alertness. It can be caused by many things, including illness, injury, or drugs.
NCI

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

Letterer-Siweho choroba

A multifocal, multisystem form of Langerhans-cell histiocytosis. There is involvement of multiple organ systems including the bones, skin, liver, spleen, and lymph nodes. Patients are usually infants presenting with fever, hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, bone and skin lesions, and pancytopenia.
NCI

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

antigeny CD11c

An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.
MSH

Part of the integrin CR4, aka Complement Receptor 4, the CD11c/CD18 heterodimer. (Fundamental Immunology, 3rd ed., William Paul, ed., Raven Press, NY 1993, pg 927)
NCI

Leukocyte Surface Antigen p150,95 has a unique alpha chain (CD11c) and shares a beta subunit (CD18) with two other members of the leukocyte adhesion molecule family. The alpha subunit has an extracellular domain containing ten potential glycosylation sites, a transmembrane domain, and a short cytoplasmic tail. It shows homology to alpha subunits of Platelet Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa, Vitronectin Receptor, and Fibronectin Receptor. Receptors involved in cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions belong to a superfamily of integrin genes. (from OMIM 151510 and NCI)
NCI

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

leucin

An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
MSH

essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
CSP

Amino acid with side chain -CH2CH(CH3)2.
NCI

One of nine essential amino acids in humans (provided by food), Leucine is important for protein synthesis and many metabolic functions. Leucine contributes to regulation of blood-sugar levels; growth and repair of muscle and bone tissue; growth hormone production; and wound healing. Leucine also prevents breakdown of muscle proteins after trauma or severe stress and may be beneficial for individuals with phenylketonuria. Leucine is available in many foods and deficiency is rare. (NCI04)
NCI

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

leucylaminopeptidasa

A zinc containing enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the removal of the N-terminal amino acid from most L-peptides, particularly those with N-terminal leucine residues but not those with N-terminal lysine or arginine residues. This occurs in tissue cell cytosol, with high activity in the duodenum, liver, and kidney. The activity of this enzyme is commonly assayed using a leucine arylamide chromogenic substrate such as leucyl beta-naphthylamide.
MSH

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

leukomyciny

An antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kitasatoensis. The complex consists of a mixture of at least eight biologically active components, A1 and A3 to A9. Leucomycins have both antibacterial and antimycoplasmal activities.
MSH

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

Leuconostoc

A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria whose growth is dependent on the presence of a fermentable carbohydrate. It is nonpathogenic to plants and animals, including humans.
MSH

A genus of gram-positive, nonmotile cocci in the phylum Firmicutes.
NCI

Any bacteria that is not assigned to the species level but can be assigned to the Leuconostoc genus level.
NCI

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

leukovorin

The active metabolite of FOLIC ACID. Leucovorin is used principally as its calcium salt as an antidote to folic acid antagonists which block the conversion of folic acid to folinic acid.
MSH

USP lists as an antidote to folate antagonists and an agent for treatment of folate deficiency anemias.
CSP

A drug used to lessen the toxic effects of substances that block the action of folic acid, especially the anticancer drug methotrexate. Leucovorin calcium is used to treat some types of anemia and is also used with fluorouracil to treat colorectal cancer. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer and other conditions. Leucovorin calcium is a form of folic acid. It is a type of chemoprotective agent and a type of chemosensitizing agent.
NCI

The active ingredient in a drug used to lessen the toxic effects of substances that block the action of folic acid, especially the anticancer drug methotrexate. Folinic acid is used to treat some types of anemia and is also used with fluorouracil to treat colorectal cancer. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer and other conditions. Folinic acid is a form of folic acid. It is a type of chemoprotective agent and a type of chemosensitizing agent.
NCI

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

leucin-tRNA-ligasa

An enzyme that activates leucine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.4.
MSH

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

leukoferéza

The preparation of leukocyte concentrates with the return of red cells and leukocyte-poor plasma to the donor.
MSH

selective separation and removal of leukocytes from withdrawn blood, the remainder of the blood then being retransfused into the donor.
CSP

Removal of the blood to collect specific blood cells; the remaining blood is returned to the body.
NCI

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

LEUZEMIA

A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)
MSH

progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow; classified according to degree of cell differentiation as acute or chronic, and according to predominant type of cell involved as myelogenous or lymphocytic.
CSP

Cancer that starts in blood-forming tissue such as the bone marrow and causes large numbers of blood cells to be produced and enter the bloodstream.
NCI

Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. White blood cells help your body fight infection. Your blood cells form in your bone marrow. In leukemia, however, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells. These cells crowd out the healthy blood cells, making it hard for blood to do its work.

There are different types of leukemia, including

Leukemia can develop quickly or slowly. Chronic leukemia grows slowly. In acute leukemia, the cells are very abnormal and their number increases rapidly. Adults can get either type; childen with leukemia most often have an acute type.Some leukemias can often be cured. Other types are hard to cure, but you can often control them. Treatments may include chemotherapy, radiation and stem cell transplantation. Even if symptoms disappear, you might need therapy to prevent a relapse.

NIH: National Cancer Institute


MEDLINEPLUS

A malignant (clonal) hematologic disorder, involving hematopoietic stem cells and characterized by the presence of primitive or atypical myeloid or lymphoid cells in the bone marrow and the blood. Leukemias are classified as acute or chronic based on the degree of cellular differentiation and the predominant cell type present. Leukemia is usually associated with anemia, fever, hemorrhagic episodes, and splenomegaly. Common leukemias include acute myeloid leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, acute lymphoblastic or precursor lymphoblastic leukemia, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Treatment is vital to patient survival; untreated, the natural course of acute leukemias is normally measured in weeks or months, while that of chronic leukemias is more often measured in months or years.
NCI

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

leukémie L5178

An experimental lymphocytic leukemia of mice.
MSH

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

leukémie P388

An experimental lymphocytic leukemia originally induced in DBA/2 mice by painting with methylcholanthrene.
MSH

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

leukémie chronická lymfocytární B-buněčná

chronic leukemia characterized by morphologically mature but immunologically less mature lymphocytes; manifested by an abnormal accumulation of these cells in blood, bone marrow, and lymphatic tissue.
CSP

An indolent (slow-growing) cancer in which too many immature lymphocytes (white blood cells) are found mostly in the blood and bone marrow. Sometimes, in later stages of the disease, cancer cells are found in the lymph nodes and the disease is called small lymphocytic lymphoma.
NCI

A chronic leukemia characterized by abnormal B-lymphocytes and often generalized lymphadenopathy. In patients presenting predominately with blood and bone marrow involvement it is called chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL); in those predominately with enlarged lymph nodes it is called small lymphocytic lymphoma. These terms represent spectrums of the same disease.
MSH

Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. White blood cells help your body fight infection. Your blood cells form in your bone marrow. In leukemia, however, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells. These cells crowd out the healthy blood cells, making it hard for blood to do its work. In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), there are too many of a specific type of white blood cell called a lymphocyte.

CLL is the second most common form of leukemia in adults. It often occurs during or after middle age and rarely occurs in children.

Usually CLL does not cause any symptoms at all. If you have symptoms, they may include:

  • Painless swelling of the lymph nodes in the neck, underarm, stomach or groin
  • Feeling very tired
  • Pain or a feeling of fullness below the ribs
  • Fever and infection
  • Weight loss

Tests that examine the blood, bone marrow, and lymph nodes diagnose CLL. Your doctor may choose to just monitor you until you have symptoms. Treatments include radiation therapy, chemotherapy, surgery to remove the spleen, and targeted immune therapy.

NIH: National Cancer Institute


MEDLINEPLUS

The most common type of chronic lymphoid leukemia. It comprises 90% of chronic lymphoid leukemias in the United States. Morphologically, the neoplastic cells are small, round B-lymphocytes. This type of leukemia is not considered to be curable with available therapy. (WHO, 2001)
NCI

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

leukémie bazofilní akutní

A rare acute myeloid leukemia in which the primary differentiation is to BASOPHILS. It is characterized by an extreme increase of immature basophilic granulated cells in the bone marrow and blood. Mature basophils are usually sparse.
MSH

An acute myeloid leukemia in which the immature cells differentiate towards basophils. This is a rare leukemia. The observed cases have been associated with a poor prognosis. The term basophilic leukemia is used as a synonym for acute basophilic leukemia. Chronic basophilic leukemia is an inappropriate term vaguely connected to the term mast cell leukemia. (WHO, 2001)
NCI

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

leukémie eozinofilní akutní

A rare acute myeloid leukemia characterized by abnormal EOSINOPHILS in the bone marrow.
MSH

A poorly defined concept which at best is described as an extremely rare entity, possibly related to various subtypes of acute myeloid leukemia with abnormal eosinophils. (WHO, 2001)
NCI

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

leukémie erytroblastická akutní

A myeloproliferative disorder characterized by neoplastic proliferation of erythroblastic and myeloblastic elements with atypical erythroblasts and myeloblasts in the peripheral blood.
MSH

myeloproliferative disorder characterized by neoplastic proliferation of erythroblastic and myeloblastic elements with atypical erythroblasts and myeloblasts in the peripheral blood.
CSP

Cancer of the blood-forming tissues in which large numbers of immature, abnormal red blood cells are found in the blood and bone marrow.
NCI

Acute erythroid leukemia characterised by the presence of at least 50% erythroid precursors and at least 20% myeloblasts in the bone marrow. — 2003
NCI

An acute myeloid leukemia characterized by a predominant immature erythroid population. There are two subtypes recognized: erythroleukemia and pure erythroid leukemia. Severe anemia is a common symptom. This leukemia usually follows an aggressive clinical course. (WHO, 2001)
NCI

Acute erythroid leukemia characterised by the presence of immature erythroid cells in the bone marrow (at least 80% of the cellular component), without evidence of a significant myeloblastic cell population present. — 2003
NCI

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

leukémie experimentální

Leukemia induced experimentally in animals by exposure to leukemogenic agents, such as VIRUSES; RADIATION; or by TRANSPLANTATION of leukemic tissues.
MSH

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

leukémie s vlasatými buňkami

A neoplastic disease of the lymphoreticular cells which is considered to be a rare type of chronic leukemia; it is characterized by an insidious onset, splenomegaly, anemia, granulocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, little or no lymphadenopathy, and the presence of “hairy” or “flagellated” cells in the blood and bone marrow.
MSH

neoplastic disease of the lymphoreticular cells which is considered to be a rare type of chronic leukemia; it is characterized by an insidious onset, splenomegaly, anemia, granulocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, little or no lymphadenopathy, and the presence of hairy or flagellated cells in the blood and bone marrow.
CSP

A rare type of leukemia in which abnormal B-lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) are present in the bone marrow, spleen, and peripheral blood. When viewed under a microscope, these cells appear to be covered with tiny hair-like projections.
NCI

A rare neoplasm of small B-lymphocytes with “hairy” projections in bone marrow, spleen, and peripheral blood. Most patients are middle-aged to elderly adults and present with splenomegaly and pancytopenia. (WHO, 2001)
NCI

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

leukémie lymfoidní

leukemia associated with hyperplasia and overactivity of the lymphoid tissue; there are increased numbers of circulating malignant lymphocytes and lymphoblasts.
CSP

Leukemia associated with HYPERPLASIA of the lymphoid tissues and increased numbers of circulating malignant LYMPHOCYTES and lymphoblasts.
MSH

A type of cancer in which the bone marrow makes too many lymphocytes (white blood cells).
NCI

A malignant lymphocytic neoplasm of B-cell or T-cell lineage involving primarily the bone marrow and the peripheral blood. This category includes precursor or acute lymphoblastic leukemias and chronic leukemias.
NCI

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

Akutní lymfoblastická leukemie

acute leukemia in which lymphoblasts and their progenitor cells predominate; the most common childhood cancer and accounts for 20 percent of adult acute leukemia; common ALL antigen (CALLA) expressed in most cases.
CSP

An aggressive (fast-growing) type of leukemia (blood cancer) in which too many lymphoblasts (immature white blood cells) are found in the blood and bone marrow.
NCI

Leukemia with an acute onset, characterized by the presence of lymphoblasts in the bone marrow and the peripheral blood. It includes the acute B lymphoblastic leukemia and acute T lymphoblastic leukemia.
NCI

Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. White blood cells help your body fight infection. Your blood cells form in your bone marrow. In leukemia, however, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells. These cells crowd out the healthy blood cells, making it hard for blood to do its work. In acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), there are too many of specific types of white blood cells called lymphocytes or lymphoblasts. ALL is the most common type of cancer in children.

Possible risk factors for ALL include being male, being white, previous chemotherapy treatment, exposure to radiation, and for adults, being older than 70.

Symptoms of ALL include:

  • Weakness or feeling tired
  • Fever
  • Easy bruising or bleeding
  • Bleeding under the skin
  • Shortness of breath
  • Weight loss or loss of appetite
  • Pain in the bones or stomach
  • Pain or a feeling of fullness below the ribs
  • Painless lumps in the neck, underarm, stomach, or groin

Tests that examine the blood and bone marrow diagnose ALL. Treatments include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, stem cell transplants, and targeted immune therapy. Once the leukemia is in remission, you need additional treatment to make sure that it does not come back.

NIH: National Cancer Institute


MEDLINEPLUS

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

leukémie lymfocytární akutní L1

When the disease process is confined to a mass lesion with no or minimal evidence of blood and less than 25% marrow involvement, the diagnosis is lymphoblastic lymphoma; with blood and greater than 25% marrow involvement, ALL is the appropriate term.
MSH

An acute lymphoblastic leukemia occurring during childhood. The majority of cases are B-acute lymphoblastic leukemias. Approximately 15% of the cases are T-acute lymphoblastic leukemias.
NCI

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

leukémie mastocytární

A form of systemic mastocytosis (MASTOCYTOSIS, SYSTEMIC) characterized by the presence of large numbers of tissue MAST CELLS in the peripheral blood without skin lesions. It is a high-grade LEUKEMIA disease with bone marrow smear of >20% MAST CELLS, multi-organ failure and a short survival.
MSH

A variant of systemic mastocytosis with involvement of the bone marrow (20% or more mast cells) and the peripheral blood (mast cells account for 10% or more of peripheral blood white cells). (WHO, 2001)
NCI

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

leukémie megakaryoblastická akutní

An acute myeloid leukemia in which 20-30% of the bone marrow or peripheral blood cells are of megakaryocyte lineage. MYELOFIBROSIS or increased bone marrow RETICULIN is common.
MSH

An acute myeloid leukemia in which at least 50% of the blasts are of megakaryocytic lineage. The prognosis is usually poor. (WHO, 2001)
NCI

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

leukémie bifenotypická akutní

An acute leukemia exhibiting cell features characteristic of both the myeloid and lymphoid lineages and probably arising from MULTIPOTENT STEM CELLS.
MSH

An acute leukemia of ambiguous lineage characterized by blasts which coexpress myeloid and T or B lineage antigens or concurrent B and T lineage antigens. (WHO, 2001)
NCI

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

leukémie monocytární akutní

An acute myeloid leukemia in which 80% or more of the leukemic cells are of monocytic lineage including monoblasts, promonocytes, and MONOCYTES.
MSH

Acute myeloid leukemia in which 80% or more of the leukemic cells are of monocytic lineage. Bleeding disorders are common presenting features. It usually follows an aggressive clinical course. (WHO, 2001) — 2003
NCI

uncommon form of acute myelogenous leukemia, in which the predominating cells are identified as monocytes; a few myelocytes may be present, but not as many as in acute myelomonocytic leukemia.
CSP

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…