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leukémie myeloidní akutní

acute leukemia arising from myeloid tissue in which the granular, polymorphonuclear leukocytes and their precursors predominate.
CSP

leukemia commonly occurring after alkylating agent treatment; manifestations include pancytopenia, megaloblastic bone marrow, and nucleated red cells in peripheral marrow; patients usually have chromosomal abnormalities in marrow cells.
CSP

An aggressive (fast-growing) disease in which too many myeloblasts (immature white blood cells that are not lymphoblasts) are found in the bone marrow and blood.
NCI

Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in bone marrow, blood, and other tissue. Myeloid leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce NEUTROPHILS; BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES.
MSH

This term refers to acute myeloid leukemias that do not fulfill the criteria for inclusion in the group of acute myeloid leukemias which have recurrent genetic abnormalities or myelodysplastic changes, or are therapy-related. It includes entities classified according to the French-American-British classification scheme.
NCI

Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. White blood cells help your body fight infection. Your blood cells form in your bone marrow. In leukemia, however, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells. These cells crowd out the healthy blood cells, making it hard for blood to do its work. In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), there are too many of a specific type of white blood cell called a myeloblast.

AML is the most common type of acute leukemia in adults. This type of cancer usually gets worse quickly if it is not treated. Possible risk factors include smoking, previous chemotherapy treatment, and exposure to radiation.

Symptoms of AML include:

  • Fever
  • Shortness of breath
  • Easy bruising or bleeding
  • Bleeding under the skin
  • Weakness or feeling tired
  • Weight loss or loss of appetite

Tests that examine the blood and bone marrow diagnose AML. Treatments include chemotherapy, other drugs, radiation therapy, stem cell transplants, and targeted immune therapy. Once the leukemia is in remission, you need additional treatment to make sure that it does not come back.

NIH: National Cancer Institute


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A clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in the bone marrow, blood or other tissues. The classification of acute myeloid leukemias (AMLs) encompasses four major categories: 1) AML with recurrent genetic abnormalities 2) AML with multilineage dysplasia 3) Therapy-related AML 4) AML not otherwise categorized. The required bone marrow or peripheral blood blast percentage for the diagnosis of AML has been recently reduced from 30% (French-American-British [FAB] classification) to 20% (WHO classification). (WHO, 2001)
NCI

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leukémie myeloidní

Form of leukemia characterized by an uncontrolled proliferation of the myeloid lineage and their precursors (MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS) in the bone marrow and other sites.
MSH

leukemia characterized by an uncontrolled proliferation of the myeloid lineage and their precursors in the bone marrow and other sites.
CSP

A clonal proliferation of myeloid cells and their precursors in the bone marrow, peripheral blood, and spleen. When the proliferating cells are immature myeloid cells and myeloblasts, it is called acute myeloid leukemia. When the proliferating myeloid cells are neutrophils, it is called chronic myelogenous leukemia.
NCI

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leukémie myeloidní – akcelerovaná fáze

The phase of chronic myeloid leukemia following the chronic phase (LEUKEMIA, MYELOID, CHRONIC-PHASE), where there are increased systemic symptoms, worsening cytopenias, and refractory LEUKOCYTOSIS.
MSH

A phase of chronic myelogenous leukemia in which the disease is progressing. In this phase, 10% to 19% of the cells in the blood and bone marrow are blast cells (immature blood cells).
NCI

A phase of chronic myelogenous leukemia characterized by one or more of the following: 1) Myeloblasts accounting for 10-19% of the peripheral blood white cells or of the nucleated cells in the bone marrow, 2) peripheral blood basophils at least 20%, 3) persistent thrombocytopenia that is unrelated to therapy, 4) persistent thrombocytosis despite adequate therapy, 5) increasing white blood cell count and increasing spleen size unresponsive to therapy, and/or evidence of clonal evolution. (WHO, 2001)
NCI

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leukémie myeloidní chronická BCR-ABL pozitivní

chronic leukemia in which myeloid progenitor cells predominate; the hallmark of CML, the Philadelphia chromosome, is a reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22 which activates the proto- oncogene c-abl.
CSP

A slowly progressing disease in which too many white blood cells are made in the bone marrow.
NCI

Clonal hematopoetic disorder caused by an acquired genetic defect in PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS. It starts in MYELOID CELLS of the bone marrow, invades the blood and then other organs. The condition progresses from a stable, more indolent, chronic phase (LEUKEMIA, MYELOID, CHRONIC PHASE) lasting up to 7 years, to an advanced phase composed of an accelerated phase (LEUKEMIA, MYELOID, ACCELERATED PHASE) and BLAST CRISIS.
MSH

A chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm characterized by the expression of the BCR-ABL1 fusion gene. It presents with neutrophilic leukocytosis. It can appear at any age, but it mostly affects middle aged and older individuals. Patients usually present with fatigue, weight loss, anemia, night sweats, and splenomegaly. If untreated, it follows a biphasic or triphasic natural course; an initial indolent chronic phase which is followed by an accelerated phase, a blast phase, or both. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation and imatinib therapy delay disease progression and prolong overall survival.
NCI

Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. White blood cells help your body fight infection. Your blood cells form in your bone marrow. In leukemia, however, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells. These cells crowd out the healthy blood cells, making it hard for blood to do its work. In chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), there are too many of a specific type of white blood cell called a granulocyte.

Sometimes CML does not cause any symptoms at all. If you have symptoms, they may include:

  • Feeling very tired
  • Weight loss
  • Night sweats
  • Fever
  • Pain or a feeling of fullness below the ribs on the left side

Tests that examine the blood and bone marrow diagnose CML. Treatments include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, stem cell transplants, infusion of donated white blood cells following stem cell transplants, immune therapy, or surgery to remove the spleen.

NIH: National Cancer Institute


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leukémie myeloidní – chronická fáze

The initial phase of chronic myeloid leukemia consisting of an relatively indolent period lasting from 4 to 7 years. Patients range from asymptomatic to those exhibiting ANEMIA; SPLENOMEGALY; and increased cell turnover. There are 5% or fewer blast cells in the blood and bone marrow in this phase.
MSH

A phase of chronic myelogenous leukemia in which fewer than 10% of the cells in the blood and bone marrow are blast cells (immature blood cells). This phase may last from several months to several years, and there may be no symptoms of leukemia.
NCI

A phase of chronic myelogenous leukemia in which the peripheral blood smear shows leukocytosis due mainly to neutrophils in different stages of maturation. Blasts usually account for less than 2% of the white blood cells counts. The platelet count is normal or increased. Thrombocytopenia is very uncommon during the chronic phase. Most patients have mild anemia. The bone marrow biopsy is hypercellular due to increased numbers of neutrophils and their precursors. Blasts usually account for fewer than 5% of the marrow cells, and more than 10% indicates transformation to the accelerated phase. Megakaryocytes are smaller than normal and have hypolobated nuclei. The spleen is enlarged due to infiltration of the cords of the red pulp by granulocytes. Most patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia are diagnosed in the chronic phase, which usually has an insidious onset and may last from several months to several years. (WHO, 2001)
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leukémie myelomonocytární akutní

A pediatric acute myeloid leukemia involving both myeloid and monocytoid precursors. At least 20% of non-erythroid cells are of monocytic origin.
MSH

An acute leukemia characterized by the proliferation of both neutrophil and monocyte precursors. Patients typically present with anemia, thrombocytopenia, fever and fatigue. This type of leukemia frequently responds to aggressive therapy. (WHO, 2001) — 2003
NCI

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leukémie myelomonocytární chronická

A myelodysplastic-myeloproliferative disease characterized by monocytosis, increased monocytes in the bone marrow, variable degrees of dysplasia, but an absence of immature granulocytes in the blood.
MSH

A slowly progressing type of myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative disease in which too many myelomonocytes (a type of white blood cell) are in the bone marrow, crowding out other normal blood cells, such as other white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets.
NCI

A myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm which is characterized by persistent monocytosis, absence of a Philadelphia chromosome and BCR/ABL fusion gene, fewer than 20 percent blasts in the bone marrow and blood, myelodysplasia, and absence of PDGFRA or PDGFRB rearrangement.
NCI

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leukémie neutrofilní chronická

A rare myeloproliferative disorder that is characterized by a sustained, mature neutrophilic leukocytosis. No monocytosis, EOSINOPHILIA, or basophilia is present, nor is there a PHILADELPHIA CHROMOSOME or bcr-abl fusion gene (GENES, ABL).
MSH

A disease in which too many neutrophils (a type of white blood cell) are found in the blood. The extra neutrophils may cause the spleen and liver to become enlarged. Chronic neutrophilic leukemia may stay the same for many years or it may progress quickly to acute leukemia.
NCI

A rare chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm characterised by neutrophilic leukocytosis. There is no detectable Philadelphia chromosome or BCR/ABL fusion gene.
NCI

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leukémie plazmocytární

rare type of acute leukemia in which the predominating cell in the peripheral blood is the plasma cell; it is often seen in conjunction with multiple myeloma and may be a variant form of that disease.
CSP

A rare, aggressive variant of MULTIPLE MYELOMA characterized by the circulation of excessive PLASMA CELLS in the peripheral blood. It can be a primary manifestation of multiple myeloma or develop as a terminal complication during the disease.
MSH

An aggressive plasma cell neoplasm with usually short survival. It is characterized by the presence of neoplastic plasma cells in the peripheral blood. The peripheral blood plasma cells comprise more than 20% of the peripheral blood white cells. It may be the initial presentation of a plasma cell neoplasm or manifest as a terminal complication of plasma cell myeloma. Lymphadenopathy and organomegaly are frequent clinical signs, whereas bone pain and osteolytic lesions are less frequently present.
NCI

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leukémie pre-B-buněčná

A leukemia/lymphoma found predominately in children and adolescents and characterized by a high number of lymphoblasts and solid tumor lesions. Frequent sites involve LYMPH NODES, skin, and bones. It most commonly presents as leukemia.
MSH

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leukémie prolymfocytární

A chronic leukemia characterized by a large number of circulating prolymphocytes. It can arise spontaneously or as a consequence of transformation of CHRONIC LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA.
MSH

A type of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in which too many immature white blood cells (prolymphocytes) are found in the blood and bone marrow. PLL usually progresses more rapidly than classic CLL.
NCI

A mature B- or T- cell leukemia with progressive clinical course. It is characterized by the presence of medium-sized lymphocytes with visible nucleoli (prolymphocytes) in the peripheral blood, bone marrow, and spleen.
NCI

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leukémie promyelocytární akutní

An acute myeloid leukemia in which abnormal PROMYELOCYTES predominate. It is frequently associated with DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR COAGULATION.
MSH

An aggressive (fast-growing) type of acute myeloid leukemia in which there are too many immature blood-forming cells in the blood and bone marrow. It is usually marked by an exchange of parts of chromosomes 15 and 17.
NCI

An acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in which abnormal promyelocytes predominate. It is characterized by the t(15;17)(q22;q12) translocation. There are two variants: the typical and microgranular variant. This AML is particularly sensitive to treatment with all trans-retinoic acid and has a favorable prognosis. (WHO, 2001)
NCI

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leukémie radiační

Leukemia produced by exposure to IONIZING RADIATION or NON-IONIZING RADIATION.
MSH

radiation induced progressive, malignant disease of the blood forming organs.
CSP

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leukémie T-buněčná

A malignant disease of the T-LYMPHOCYTES in the bone marrow, thymus, and/or blood.
MSH

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leukémie T-buněčná akutní

aggressive T-cell malignancy with adult onset, caused by human T lymphotropic virus type 1.
CSP

An aggressive (fast-growing) type of T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma caused by the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). It is marked by bone and skin lesions, high calcium levels, and enlarged lymph nodes, spleen, and liver.
NCI

Aggressive T-Cell malignancy with adult onset, caused by HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1. It is endemic in Japan, the Caribbean basin, Southeastern United States, Hawaii, and parts of Central and South America and sub-Saharan Africa.
MSH

A peripheral (mature) T-cell neoplasm caused by the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma is endemic in several regions of the world, in particular Japan, the Caribbean, and parts of Central Africa. (WHO, 2001)
NCI

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T-chronická lymfatická leukemie

A slow-growing type of leukemia (blood cancer) in which too many lymphocytes are found in the bone marrow and/or blood. The T-cell is specified as the defective cell line.
NCI

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leukemoidní reakce

A peripheral blood picture resembling that of leukemia or indistinguishable from it on the basis of morphologic appearance alone. (Dorland, 27th ed)
MSH

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leukocidiny

Pore forming proteins originally discovered for toxic activity to LEUKOCYTES. They are EXOTOXINS produced by some pathogenic STAPHYLOCOCCUS and STREPTOCOCCUS that destroy leukocytes by lysis of the cytoplasmic granules and are partially responsible for the pathogenicity of the organisms.
MSH

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test inhibice adherence leukocytů

Test for cell-mediated antitumor immunity and related serum blocking factors based on the finding that leukocytes from cancer patients, but not from controls, when mixed in vitro with antigenic extracts of tumors of the same histological type, undergo a diminution in their normal adherence to glass surfaces. Sera from tumor-bearing patients block the LAI reaction of their own leukocytes or those of other patients with the same type of tumor.
MSH

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leukocyty – počet

The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
MSH

number of white blood cells per unit volume in venous blood.
CSP

A test to determine the number of leukocytes in a sample of blood.
NCI

A measurement of the leukocytes in a biological specimen.
NCI

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leukocytové kultury smíšené – test

Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with MITOMYCIN or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.
MSH

measure of histocompatibility at the HLA locus: peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days; lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not; in the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.
CSP

Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (usually measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with mitomycin C or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.
NCI

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leukocyty – poruchy

disordered formation of various types of leukocytes or an abnormal accumulation or deficiency of these cells.
CSP

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leukocyty – faktory inhibice migrace

Protein factor(s) released by sensitized lymphocytes (and possibly other cells) that inhibit the movement of LEUKOCYTES, especially polymorphonuclear cells, away from their site of release. Assays for these factors are used as tests for cellular immunity. Two of the common assays are the LEUKOCYTE MIGRATION CAPILLARY TUBE TECHNIQUE (LMCT) and the LEUKOCYTE MIGRATION AGAROSE TEST (LMAT).
MSH

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testy migrace leukocytů

Assays that measure the rate of migration of LEUKOCYTES. They may involve a variety of techniques such as measuring the movement of leukocytes through substrates such as AGAROSE gels or the rate of exit of cells from a glass capillary.
MSH

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leukocyty

White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
MSH

white blood cell, specifically a colorless cell with a nucleus, found in blood and lymph; leukocytes are capable of amoeboid movement; they can produce antibodies and move through the walls of vessels to migrate to sites of injury, where they isolate and destroy dead tissue, foreign protein and bacteria.
CSP

A type of immune cell. Most leukocytes are made in the bone marrow and are found in the blood and lymph tissue. Leukocytes help the body fight infections and other diseases. Granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphocytes are leukocytes.
NCI

Blood cells that are devoid of hemoglobin, capable of ameboid motion and phagocytosis, and act as the principal components of the immune system.
NCI

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leukocyty mononukleární

Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body`s extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
MSH

A type of white blood cell. Monocytes and lymphocytes are agranulocytes.
NCI

Mature lymphocytes andmonocytes transported by the blood to the body`s extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules. (MeSH)
NCI

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leukocytóza

A transient increase in the number of leukocytes in a body fluid.
MSH

transient increase in the number of leukocytes in a body fluid.
CSP

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Leukodystrofie

group of diseases affecting the white matter of the brain, especially the cerebral hemispheres, due to defects in the formation and maintenance of myelin in infants and children.
CSP

The leukodystrophies are rare diseases that affect the cells of the brain. Specifically, the diseases affect the myelin sheath, the material that surrounds and protects nerve cells. Damage to this sheath slows down or blocks messages between the brain and the rest of the body. This leads to problems with

  • Movement
  • Speaking
  • Vision
  • Hearing
  • Mental and physical development

Most of the leukodystrophies are genetic. They usually appear during infancy or childhood. They can be hard to detect early because children seem healthy at first. However, symptoms gradually get worse over time.

There are no cures for any of the leukodystrophies. Medicines, speech therapy and physical therapy might help with symptoms. Researchers are testing bone marrow transplantation as a treatment for some of the leukodystrophies.

NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke


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leukodystrofie globoidní

An autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by a deficiency of GALACTOSYLCERAMIDASE leading to intralysosomal accumulation of galactolipids such as GALACTOSYLCERAMIDES and PSYCHOSINE. It is characterized by demyelination associated with large multinucleated globoid cells, predominantly involving the white matter of the central nervous system. The loss of MYELIN disrupts normal conduction of nerve impulses.
MSH

inherited, demyelinating, human lipid storage disease caused by a deficiency of galactosylceramidase; manifestations include convulsions, quadriplegia, blindness, deafness, and mental retardation.
CSP

A rare inherited neurodegenerative disorder that belongs to the group of leukodystrophies. It is characterized by myelin destruction, gliosis in the brain, and the presence of multinucleated globoid cells. Signs and symptoms include irritability, mental and motor developmental disturbances, muscle weakness, seizures, blindness, and deafness.
NCI

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leukodystrofie metachromatická

An autosomal recessive metabolic disease caused by a deficiency of CEREBROSIDE-SULFATASE leading to intralysosomal accumulation of cerebroside sulfate (SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS) in the nervous system and other organs. Pathological features include diffuse demyelination, and metachromatically-staining granules in many cell types such as the GLIAL CELLS. There are several allelic and nonallelic forms with a variety of neurological symptoms.
MSH

autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of cerebroside sulfatase leading to an accumulation of cerebroside sulfate in the nervous system and other organs.
CSP

An autosomal recessive inherited disorder characterized by abnormalities in the development of the myelin sheaths. It is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme arylsulfatase A. There are three forms of this disease: late infantile, juvenile, and adult. In the late infantile form symptoms include muscle weakness and rigidity, gait disturbances, developmental delays, and seizures. In the juvenile form symptoms include gait disturbances, mental deterioration and seizures. The adult form is characterized by psychotic symptoms and dementia.
NCI

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