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edém orální

A disorder of the buccal mucosa resembling early leukoplakia, characterized by the presence of filmy opalescence of the mucosa in the early stages to a whitish gray cast with a coarsely wrinkled surface in the later stages, associated with intracellular edema of the spinous or malpighian layer. (Dorland, 27th ed)
MSH

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leukoencefalopatie progresivní multifokální

An opportunistic viral infection of the central nervous system associated with conditions that impair cell-mediated immunity (e.g., ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES; HEMATOLOGIC NEOPLASMS; IMMUNOSUPPRESSION; and COLLAGEN DISEASES). The causative organism is JC Polyomavirus (JC VIRUS) which primarily affects oligodendrocytes, resulting in multiple areas of demyelination. Clinical manifestations include DEMENTIA; ATAXIA; visual disturbances; and other focal neurologic deficits, generally progressing to a vegetative state within 6 months. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp36-7)
MSH

demyelination in various part of the central nervous system, usually secondary to neoplastic disease; JC virus has been recovered from brain tissue.
CSP

A progressive demyelination within the central nervous system associated with reactivation of a latent JC virus infection.
NCI

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leukomalacie periventrikulární

Degeneration of white matter adjacent to the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES following cerebral hypoxia or BRAIN ISCHEMIA in neonates. The condition primarily affects white matter in the perfusion zone between superficial and deep branches of the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY. Clinical manifestations include VISION DISORDERS; CEREBRAL PALSY; PARAPLEGIA; SEIZURES; and cognitive disorders. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1021; Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch4, pp30-1)
MSH

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leukopenie

reduction in the number of leukocytes in the blood, the count being 5000 per cubic millimeter or less.
CSP

A condition in which there is a lower-than-normal number of leukocytes (white blood cells) in the blood.
NCI

A finding based on laboratory test results that indicate an decrease in number of white blood cells in a blood specimen.
NCI

an abnormally low white blood cell count
CHV

A laboratory test result indicating a decreased number of white blood cells in the peripheral blood.
NCI

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leukoplakie

A white patch lesion found on a MUCOUS MEMBRANE that cannot be scraped off. Leukoplakia is generally considered a precancerous condition, however its appearance may also result from a variety of HEREDITARY DISEASES.
MSH

An abnormal patch of white tissue that forms on mucous membranes in the mouth and other areas of the body. It may become cancer. Tobacco (smoking and chewing) and alcohol may increase the risk of leukoplakia in the mouth.
NCI

A white patch or plaque on a mucous membrane that cannot be characterized clinically or pathologically as any other disease. The diagnosis of leukoplakia is one of exclusion; other conditions such as candidiasis, lichen planus, leukoedema, etc. must be ruled out before a diagnosis of leukoplakia can be made. Leukoplakia may be a premalignant condition.
NCI

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leukoplakie orální

A white patch seen on the oral mucosa. It is considered a premalignant condition and is often tobacco-induced. When evidence of Epstein-Barr virus is present, the condition is called hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).
MSH

white patch seen on the oral mucosa; considered a premalignant condition and is often tobacco-induced.
CSP

A white patch or plaque on oral mucosa that cannot be characterized clinically or pathologically as any other disease. The diagnosis of leukoplakia is one of exclusion; other conditions such as candidiasis, lichen planus, leukoedema, etc. must be ruled out before a diagnosis of leukoplakia can be made. Leukoplakia may be a premalignant condition.
NCI

A white patch or plaque on oral cavity mucosa that cannot be characterized clinically or pathologically as any other disease. The diagnosis of leukoplakia is one of exclusion; other conditions such as candidiasis, lichen planus, leukoedema, etc. must be ruled out before a diagnosis of leukoplakia can be made. Leukoplakia may be a premalignant condition. –2004
NCI

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leukorea

A clear or white discharge from the VAGINA, consisting mainly of MUCUS.
MSH

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leukotrien C4

The conjugation product of LEUKOTRIENE A4 and glutathione. It is the major arachidonic acid metabolite in macrophages and human mast cells as well as in antigen-sensitized lung tissue. It stimulates mucus secretion in the lung, and produces contractions of nonvascular and some VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)
MSH

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leukotrien D4

One of the biologically active principles of SRS-A. It is generated from LEUKOTRIENE C4 after partial hydrolysis of the peptide chain, i.e., cleavage of the gamma-glutamyl portion. Its biological actions include stimulation of vascular and nonvascular smooth muscle, and increases in vascular permeability. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)
MSH

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leukotrieny

A family of biologically active compounds derived from arachidonic acid by oxidative metabolism through the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. They participate in host defense reactions and pathophysiological conditions such as immediate hypersensitivity and inflammation. They have potent actions on many essential organs and systems, including the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and central nervous system as well as the gastrointestinal tract and the immune system.
MSH

family of biologically active compounds derived from arachidonic acid by oxidative metabolism through the 5-lipoxygenase pathway; participate in host defense reactions and pathophysiological conditions such as immediate hypersensitivity and inflammation; have potent actions on many essential organs and systems, including the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and central nervous system as well as the gastrointestinal tract and the immune system.
CSP

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leukotrien B4

The major metabolite in neutrophil polymorphonuclear leukocytes. It stimulates polymorphonuclear cell function (degranulation, formation of oxygen-centered free radicals, arachidonic acid release, and metabolism). (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)
MSH

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leupeptiny

A group of acylated oligopeptides produced by Actinomycetes that function as protease inhibitors. They have been known to inhibit to varying degrees trypsin, plasmin, KALLIKREINS, papain and the cathepsins.
MSH

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levalorfan

An opioid antagonist with properties similar to those of NALOXONE; in addition it also possesses some agonist properties. It should be used cautiously; levallorphan reverses severe opioid-induced respiratory depression but may exacerbate respiratory depression such as that induced by alcohol or other non-opioid central depressants. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p683)
MSH

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levamisol

An antihelminthic drug that has been tried experimentally in rheumatic disorders where it apparently restores the immune response by increasing macrophage chemotaxis and T-lymphocyte function. Paradoxically, this immune enhancement appears to be beneficial in rheumatoid arthritis where dermatitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia, and nausea and vomiting have been reported as side effects. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p435-6)
MSH

oral imidazole used as an anthelminthic, effective against roundworms, hookworms and strongyloids; also an immunopotentiator; has been used to stimulate immune response in cancer.
CSP

An anthelmintic drug. Co-administered with fluorouracil in the treatment of Dukes` stage C colon cancer, levamisole restores immune function through stimulating antibody formation, enhancing T-cell activity, and potentiating macrophage function. (NCI04)
NCI

An antiparasitic drug that is also being studied in cancer therapy with fluorouracil.
NCI

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levonorgestrel

A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE and about twice as potent as its racemic or (+-)-isomer (NORGESTREL). It is used for contraception, control of menstrual disorders, and treatment of endometriosis.
MSH

The levorotatory form of norgestrel and synthetic progestogen with progestational and androgenic activity. Levonorgestrel binds to the progesterone receptor in the nucleus of target cells, thereby stimulating the resulting hormone-receptor complex, initiating transcription, and increasing the synthesis of certain proteins. This results in a suppression of luteinizing hormone (LH) activity and an inhibition of ovulation, as well as an alteration in the cervical mucus and endometrium.
NCI

a synthetic progestational hormone; can be delivered through different routes including capsules inserted under the skin as in Norplant.
CSP

A form of the hormone progesterone that is made in the laboratory and used to prevent pregnancy. It is being studied in the prevention of ovarian and endometrial cancer, and in the treatment of other conditions. Levonorgestrel is a type of oral contraceptive.
NCI

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levokardie

Congenital abnormalities in which the HEART is in the normal position (levocardia) in the left side of the chest but some or all of the THORAX or ABDOMEN viscera are transposed laterally (SITUS INVERSUS). It is also known as situs inversus with levocardia, or isolated levocardia. This condition is often associated with severe heart defects and splenic abnormalities such as asplenia or polysplenia.
MSH

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levodopa

The naturally occurring form of DIHYDROXYPHENYLALANINE and the immediate precursor of DOPAMINE. Unlike dopamine itself, it can be taken orally and crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is rapidly taken up by dopaminergic neurons and converted to DOPAMINE. It is used for the treatment of PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS and is usually given with agents that inhibit its conversion to dopamine outside of the central nervous system.
MSH

naturally occuring form of DOPA and precursor of dopamine; used as an antiparkinsonian agent; unlike dopamine it can be administered orally.
CSP

An amino acid precursor of dopamine with antiparkinsonian properties. Levodopa is a prodrug that is converted to dopamine by DOPA decarboxylase and can cross the blood-brain barrier. When in the brain, levodopa is decarboxylated to dopamine and stimulates the dopaminergic receptors, thereby compensating for the depleted supply of endogenous dopamine seen in Parkinson`s disease. To assure that adequate concentrations of levodopa reach the central nervous system, it is administered with carbidopa, a decarboxylase inhibitor that does not cross the blood-brain barrier, thereby diminishing the decarboxylation and inactivation of levodopa in peripheral tissues and increasing the delivery of dopamine to the CNS. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=42622&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=42622&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C611″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

An amino acid precursor of dopamine with antiparkinsonian properties. Levodopa is a prodrug that is converted to dopamine by DOPA decarboxylase and can cross the blood-brain barrier. When in the brain, levodopa is decarboxylated to dopamine and stimulates the dopaminergic receptors, thereby compensating for the depleted supply of endogenous dopamine seen in Parkinson`s disease. To assure that adequate concentrations of levodopa reach the central nervous system, it is administered with carbidopa, a decarboxylase inhibitor that does not cross the blood-brain barrier, thereby diminishing the decarboxylation and inactivation of levodopa in peripheral tissues and increasing the delivery of dopamine to the CNS.
NCI

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levorfanol

A narcotic analgesic that may be habit-forming. It is nearly as effective orally as by injection.
MSH

A synthetic derivative of morphine with analgesic activities. Levorphanol mimics the actions of morphine, however, it is about 8 times more potent than morphine. This agent binds to opioid mu receptors, thereby producing analgesia, euphoria, sedation, respiratory depression, miosis, bradycardia, and physical dependence.
NCI

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kyseliny levulové

Keto acids that are derivatives of 4-oxopentanoic acids (levulinic acid).
MSH

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krevní skupiny – systém Lewis

A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.
MSH

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nádor z Leydigových buněk

Gonadal interstitial or stromal cell neoplasm composed of only LEYDIG CELLS. These tumors may produce one or more of the steroid hormones such as ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS; and CORTICOSTEROIDS. Clinical symptoms include testicular swelling, GYNECOMASTIA, sexual precocity in children, or virilization (VIRILISM) in females.
MSH

A sex cord-stromal tumor occurring in the testis and rarely in the ovary. It is predominantly or completely composed of Leydig cells which may contain crystals of Reinke. In males it usually presents as a painless testicular enlargement and it may be associated with gynecomastia and decreased libido. The majority of the cases have a benign clinical course. Approximately 10% of the cases have a malignant clinical course and metastasize. In females it may be associated with androgenic manifestations and it follows a benign clinical course.
NCI

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Leydigovy buňky

Steroid-producing cells in the interstitial tissue of the TESTIS. They are under the regulation of PITUITARY HORMONES; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; or interstitial cell-stimulating hormone. TESTOSTERONE is the major androgen (ANDROGENS) produced.
MSH

epithelioid cells constituting the endocrine tissue of the testis, which elaborate androgens, chiefly testosterone.
CSP

Cells in the interstitial tissue of the testis that are believed to furnish the internal secretion of that gland. (MeSH)
NCI

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luteinizační hormon

A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
MSH

major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis; luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the gonads; the preovulatory luteinizing hormone surge in females induces ovulation and subsequent luteinization of the follicle.
CSP

a hormone that regulates steroid production by the TESTIS and the OVARY
CHV

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hormon uvolňující gonadotropiny

A hormone made by the hypothalamus (part of the brain). GnRH causes the pituitary gland to make luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). These hormones are involved in reproduction.
NCI

A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
MSH

decapeptide hormone released by the hypothalamus which stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the pituitary gland.
CSP

Specifically expressed in hypothalamic neurons as a preproprotein, Gonadotropin Releasing Hormones (GnRH Family) are secreted into the median eminence capillary plexus, bind to receptors on anterior pituitary gonadotrophs, and stimulate release of LHRH and FSH gonadotropins to control female reproduction. (NCI)
NCI

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Libérie

A republic in western Africa, south of GUINEA and east of COTE D`IVOIRE. Its capital is Monrovia.
MSH

A country in Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Cote d`Ivoire and Sierra Leone. (NCI)
NCI

A country in Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Cote d`Ivoire and Sierra Leone. (CIA World Factbook 2002)
NCI

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libido

The psychic drive or energy associated with sexual instinct in the broad sense (pleasure and love-object seeking). It may also connote the psychic energy associated with instincts in general that motivate behavior.
MSH

psychic drive or energy associated with sexual instinct in the broad sense (pleasure and love-object seeking); may also connote the psychic energy associated with instincts in general that motivate behavior.
CSP

Sexual desire or the mental energy or emotion related to sex.
NCI

Sexual urge or desire.
NCI

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knihovny

Collections of systematically acquired and organized information resources, and usually providing assistance to users. (ERIC Thesaurus, http://www.eric.ed.gov/ accessed 2/1/2008)
MSH

collections of organized information for study and reference.
CSP

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knihovny nemocniční

Information centers primarily serving the needs of hospital medical staff and sometimes also providing patient education and other services.
MSH

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knihovny – správa

Planning, organizing, staffing, direction, and control of libraries.
MSH

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knihovnické školy

Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of library science or information.
MSH

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