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ligandy

A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
MSH

molecule that binds to another molecule, especially a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule.
CSP

An ion, molecule or molecular group that binds to a substance to form a larger complex. (Dr. Joseph A. Thie)
NCI

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ligasy

A class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules, coupled with the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar energy donor. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 6.
MSH

Major class of enzymes that catalyze the linking together of two molecules (EC class 6) for example DNA ligases that link two fragments of DNA by forming a phosphodiester bond. (On-line Medical Dictionary)
NCI

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ligatura

Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.
MSH

The process of tying off blood vessels so that blood cannot flow to a part of the body or to a tumor.
NCI

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světlo

That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
MSH

illumination of an environment and the arrangement of lights to achieve an effect or optimal visibility.
CSP

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fotokoagulace

The coagulation of tissue by an intense beam of light, including laser (LASER COAGULATION). In the eye it is used in the treatment of retinal detachments, retinal holes, aneurysms, hemorrhages, and malignant and benign neoplasms. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)
MSH

therapeutic coagulation of tissue by an intense beam of light, including laser; in the eye it is used in the treatment of retinal detachments, retinal holes, aneurysms, hemorrhages, and malignant and benign neoplasms.
CSP

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osvětlení

The illumination of an environment and the arrangement of lights to achieve an effect or optimal visibility. Its application is in domestic or in public settings and in medical and non-medical environments.
MSH

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blýskání

An abrupt high-current electric discharge that occurs in the ATMOSPHERE and that has a path length ranging from hundreds of feet to tens of miles. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
MSH

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poranění bleskem

Accidental injuries caused by brief high-voltage electrical discharges during thunderstorms. Cardiopulmonary arrest, coma and other neurologic symptoms, myocardial necrosis, and dermal burns are common. Prompt treatment of the acute sequelae, including cardiopulmonary resuscitation, is indicated for survival.
MSH

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lignin

The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
MSH

complex polymer that forms an extensive network within the cell walls of certain plants and that confers strength and rigidity to the cell wall; one of the chief substances found in wood.
CSP

A type of dietary fiber for which a complete structure is not well defined in part because the lignin structure itself differs between plant species (I.e., no single structure exists) and because each lignin polymer is formed as a complex pattern of monomeric units attached to protein and to structural carbohydrates. The complexity of the chemical structure of lignin can be explained by random polymerizations involving one of four main phenoxyl radicals formed upon the action of peroxidase. (The Handbook of Dietary Fiber)
NCI

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pravděpodobnostní funkce

Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.
MSH

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limbický systém

A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter`s Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, http://rprcsgi.rprc.washington.edu/neuronames/index.html (September 2, 1998)).
MSH

group of brain structures associated with olfaction but of greater importance in other activities, such as autonomic functions and aspects of emotion and behavior.
CSP

A network of structures in the brain involved in memory and emotions.
NCI

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Limulus test

Sensitive method for detection of bacterial endotoxins and endotoxin-like substances that depends on the in vitro gelation of Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL), prepared from the circulating blood (amebocytes) of the horseshoe crab, by the endotoxin or related compound. Used for detection of endotoxin in body fluids and parenteral pharmaceuticals.
MSH

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linkomycin

An antibiotic produced by Streptomyces lincolnensis var. lincolnensis. It has been used in the treatment of staphylococcal, streptococcal, and Bacteroides fragilis infections.
MSH

A lincosamide antibiotic derived from bacteria Streptomyces lincolnensis with activity against gram positive and anaerobic bacteria. Lincomycin binds to the 50S subunit of the bacterial ribosome resulting in the inhibition of protein synthesis and thereby produces bactericidal effects in susceptible organisms.
NCI

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Lineaire versnellers

A medical charged-particle radiation therapy system is a device that produces by acceleration high energy charged particles (e.g., electrons and protons) intended for use in radiation therapy. This generic type of device may include signal analysis and display equipment, patient and equipment supports, treatment planning computer programs, component parts, and accessories.
SPN

A machine that uses electricity to form a stream of fast-moving subatomic particles. This creates high-energy radiation that may be used to treat cancer.
NCI

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lineární modely

Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
MSH

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nervus lingualis

A sensory branch of the MANDIBULAR NERVE, which is part of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The lingual nerve carries general afferent fibers from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, the floor of the mouth, and the mandibular gingivae.
MSH

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lingvistika

The science of language, including phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics, and historical linguistics. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
MSH

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mazání

Heat-generating liquids that are thinner than ointments and are applied to the skin with friction. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
MSH

A solution or mixture of various substances in oil, alcoholic solutions of soap, or emulsions intended for external application. (NCI)
NCI

A semi-solid with viscosity similar to that of a lotion, which is intended for topical use and must be rubbed into the site of administration to release the active and/or inert ingredient(s).
NCI

A solution or mixture of various substances in oil, alcoholic solutions of soap, or emulsions intended for external application.


HL7V3.0

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linitis plastica

A condition where the stomach wall becomes thickened, rubbery and loses its ability to distend. The stomach assumes a “leather bottle” shape. It is most often seen in adenocarcinoma of the stomach. The term is often used synonymously with diffuse adenocarcinoma of the stomach.
MSH

A cancer-related condition in which the gastric wall becomes thickened and rubbery (leather-bottle stomach). It is most often associated with diffuse gastric adenocarcinomas.
NCI

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genetická vazba

The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
MSH

The tendency for genes or segments of DNA closely positioned along a chromosome to segregate together at meiosis, and therefore be inherited together.
NCI

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vazebná nerovnováha

Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.
MSH

when a specific haplotype is almost always associated with a gene mutation; genetic diagnostic method used to decrease uncertainty in linkage analysis.
CSP

Where alleles (DNA markers) occur together more often than can be accounted for by chance because of their physical proximity on a chromosome.
NCI

Nonrandom association of linked genes; the occurrence of some genes together, more often than would be expected based upon their physical separation, presumably because the combination confers some selective advantage.
NCI

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kyselina linolová

A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
MSH

Polyunsaturated fatty acid with 18 carbons and 2 double bonds at the 6th and 9th carbons from the methyl end
NCI

A polyunsaturated essential fatty acid found mostly in plant oils. It is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes.
NCI

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kyseliny linolové

Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain two double bonds.
MSH

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kyseliny linolenové

Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain three double bonds.
MSH

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len

A plant genus of the family LINACEAE that is cultivated for its fiber (manufactured into linen cloth). It contains a trypsin inhibitor and the seed is the source of LINSEED OIL.
MSH

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lněný olej

The fixed oil obtained from the dried ripe seed of linseed, Linum usitatissimum (L. Linaceae). It is used as an emollient in liniments, pastes, and medicinal soaps, and in veterinary medicine as a laxative. It is also called flaxseed oil. (Dorland, 28th ed)
MSH

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linuron

A selective pre- and post-emergence herbicide. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
MSH

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lvi

Large, chiefly nocturnal mammals of the cat family FELIDAE, species Panthera leo. They are found in Africa and southern Asia.
MSH

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ret

Either of the two fleshy, full-blooded margins of the mouth.
MSH

upper or lower flesh margin of the mouth.
CSP

Fleshy fold which surrounds the opening of the mouth. (NCI)
NCI

Fleshy fold which surrounds the opening of the mouth.
NCI

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ret – nádory

Tumors or cancer of the LIP.
MSH

A benign or malignant neoplasm involving the lip.
NCI

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