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lipasa

An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.3.
MSH

non-EC general term; note that individual lipid hydrolases have not been treed under this term.
CSP

Lipase; an enzyme secreted in the digestive tract that catalyzes the breakdown of fats into individual fatty acids that can be absorbed into the bloodstream.
NCI

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lipektomie

Removal of localized SUBCUTANEOUS FAT deposits by SUCTION CURETTAGE or blunt CANNULATION in the cosmetic correction of OBESITY and other esthetic contour defects.
MSH

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lipid A

Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.
MSH

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lipidové dvojvrstvy

Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
MSH

two layers of phospholipids, forming the basic structure of a biological membrane; bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
CSP

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lipidy – vrozené poruchy metabolismu

Errors in the metabolism of LIPIDS resulting from inborn genetic MUTATIONS that are heritable.
MSH

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lipidy – mobilizace

LIPOLYSIS of stored LIPIDS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE to release FREE FATTY ACIDS. Mobilization of stored lipids is under the regulation of lipolytic signals (CATECHOLAMINES) or anti-lipolytic signals (INSULIN) via their actions on the hormone-sensitive LIPASE. This concept does not include lipid transport.
MSH

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lipidy – peroxidace

Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
MSH

The degradation of lipids caused by an oxidative attack from free radicals.
NCI

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lipidové peroxidy

Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.
MSH

peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen; results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes.
CSP

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lipidy

A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh`s Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
MSH

any of a class of hydrophobic biochemicals including fats, long- chain fatty acids, steroids, oils, and waxes.
CSP

a general name for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water.
CHV

A class of hydrocarbon-containing organic compounds. Lipids are insoluble in water but soluble in nonpolar solvents and play important roles in living organisms: these roles include functioning as energy storage molecules, serving as structural components of cell membranes, and constituting important signaling molecules. Lipids can be subdivided into 2 groups: fatty acids and glycerides.
NCI

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dihydrolipoamiddehydrogenasa

a component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, which closes the dithiole ring intermediate in fatty acid elongation.
CSP

A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reduction of lipoamide by NADH to yield dihydrolipoamide and NAD+. The enzyme is a component of several MULTIENZYME COMPLEXES.
MSH

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mukopolysacharidóza I

Systemic lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of alpha-L-iduronidase (IDURONIDASE) and characterized by progressive physical deterioration with urinary excretion of DERMATAN SULFATE and HEPARAN SULFATE. There are three recognized phenotypes representing a spectrum of clinical severity from severe to mild: Hurler`s syndrome, Hurler-Scheie syndrome and Scheie`s syndrome (formerly mucopolysaccharidosis V). Symptoms may include DWARFISM, hepatosplenomegaly, gargoyle-like facies, corneal clouding, cardiac complications, and noisy breathing. Hunter syndrome (MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS II) and Hurler syndrome were each originally called “gargoylism” because of the coarseness of the facial features of affected individuals.
MSH

autosomal recessive systemic lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of alpha-L-iduronidase and characterized by progressive physical deterioration with urinary excretion of dermatan sulfate and heparan sulfate; there are three recognized phenotypes representing a spectrum of clinical severity from severe to mild: Hurler`s syndrome, Hurler-Scheie syndrome and Scheie`s syndrome (formerly mucopolysaccharidosis V); symptoms may include dwarfism, hepatosplenomegaly, gargoyle-like facies, corneal clouding, cardiac complications, and noisy breathing.
CSP

The most common type of mucopolysaccharidosis. It is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. It comprises a group of lysosomal storage diseases which includes the most severe form (Hurler syndrome) and the mildest form (Scheie syndrome).
NCI

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lipodystrofie

A collection of heterogenous conditions resulting from defective LIPID METABOLISM and characterized by ADIPOSE TISSUE atrophy. Often there is redistribution of body fat resulting in peripheral fat wasting and central adiposity. They include generalized, localized, congenital, and acquired lipodystrophy.
MSH

collection of rare conditions resulting from defective fat metabolism and characterized by atrophy of the subcutaneous fat; includes total, congenital or acquired, partial, abdominal infantile, and localized lipodystrophy.
CSP

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Whippleova nemoc

A systemic infection caused by the Gram-positive bacterium Tropheryma whipplei. It affects the small intestine resulting in malabsorption. Other sites or systems affected by the infection are the joints, central nervous system, and the cardiovascular system.
NCI

A chronic systemic infection by a gram-positive bacterium, Tropheryma whippelii, mainly affecting the SMALL INTESTINE but also the JOINTS; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The disease is characterized by fat deposits in the INTESTINAL MUCOSA and LYMPH NODES, malabsorption, DIARRHEA with fatty stools, MALNUTRITION, and ARTHRITIS.
MSH

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lipofuscin

A naturally occurring lipid pigment with histochemical characteristics similar to ceroid. It accumulates in various normal tissues and apparently increases in quantity with age.
MSH

naturally occurring lipid pigment with histochemical characteristics similar to ceroid; it accumulates in various normal tissues and apparently increases in quantity with age.
CSP

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kyselina lipoová

An octanoic acid bridged with two sulfurs so that it is sometimes also called a pentanoic acid in some naming schemes. It is biosynthesized by cleavage of LINOLEIC ACID and is a coenzyme of oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (KETOGLUTARATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX). It is used in DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS.
MSH

A naturally occurring micronutrient, synthesized in small amounts by plants and animals (including humans), with antioxidant and potential chemopreventive activities. Alpha-lipoic acid acts as a free radical scavenger and assists in repairing oxidative damage and regenerates endogenous antioxidants, including vitamins C and E and glutathione. This agent also promotes glutathione synthesis. In addition, alpha-lipoic acid exerts metal chelating capacities and functions as a cofactor in various mitochondrial enzyme complexes involved in the decarboxylation of alpha-keto acids.
NCI

A substance that is being studied for its ability to protect normal cells from the side effects of chemotherapy and prevent peripheral neuropathy (numbness, tingling, burning, and weakness in the hands or feet). Alpha-lipoic acid is made by the body and can be found in foods such as organ meats, spinach, broccoli, peas, brussel sprouts, and rice bran. It can also be made in the laboratory. Alpha-lipoic acid is a type of antioxidant and chemoprotective agent.
NCI

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lipidózy

Conditions characterized by abnormal lipid deposition due to disturbance in lipid metabolism, such as hereditary diseases involving lysosomal enzymes required for lipid breakdown. They are classified either by the enzyme defect or by the type of lipid involved.
MSH

disturbance of lipid metabolism with abnormal deposit of lipids in the cells.
CSP

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Urbachův-Wietheho syndrom

An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by glassy degenerative thickening (hyalinosis) of SKIN; MUCOSA; and certain VISCERA. This disorder is caused by mutation in the extracellular matrix protein 1 gene (ECM1). Clinical features include hoarseness and skin eruption due to widespread deposition of HYALIN.
MSH

A rare, autosomal recessive metabolic disorder characterized by hoarseness of voice, eyelid beading, skin lesions, and seizures.
NCI

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lipolýza

The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.
MSH

decomposition or splitting up of fats or lipids.
CSP

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of lipids, compounds soluble in an organic solvent but not, or sparingly, in an aqueous solvent. [GOC:go_curators]
GO

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AZALEKO LIPOMA

A benign tumor composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It can be surrounded by a thin layer of connective tissue (encapsulated), or diffuse without the capsule.
MSH

Skin Biopsy, Diagnostic of PSS: skin biopsy revealing increased compact collagen in the reticular dermis, thinning of the epidermis, loss of rete pegs, atrophy of dermal appendages, and hyalinization and fibrosis of arterioles.
AIR

A benign (not cancer) tumor made of fat cells.
NCI

A benign, usually painless, well-circumscribed lipomatous tumor composed of adipose tissue.
NCI

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lipomatóza

A disorder characterized by the accumulation of encapsulated or unencapsulated tumor-like fatty tissue resembling LIPOMA.
MSH

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lipomatóza mnohočetná symetrická

A condition characterized by the growth of unencapsulated masses of ADIPOSE TISSUE symmetrically deposited around the neck, shoulders, or other sites around the body.
MSH

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lipopolysacharidy

Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
MSH

lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens; often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion.
CSP

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lipoproteiny HDL3

Intermediate-density subclass of the high-density lipoproteins, with particle sizes between 7 to 8 nm. As the larger lighter HDL2 lipoprotein, HDL3 lipoprotein is lipid-rich.
MSH

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lipoproteinlipasa

An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.34.
MSH

enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion it occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I.
CSP

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hyperlipoproteinémie typ I

rare familial condition characterized by massive chylomicronemia and decreased levels of other lipoproteins; due to deficiency of lipoprotein lipase, an alkaline triglyceride hydrolase which catalyzes an important step in the extrahepatic removal of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins from the blood.
CSP

An inherited condition due to a deficiency of either LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE or APOLIPOPROTEIN C-II (a lipase-activating protein). The lack of lipase activities results in inability to remove CHYLOMICRONS and TRIGLYCERIDES from the blood which has a creamy top layer after standing.
MSH

A genetic disorder of lipoprotein metabolism caused by mutations in the LPL and apolipoprotein (apo) C-II genes. It is characterized by increased levels of chylomicrons and triglycerides in the blood.
NCI

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Lipoproteins, VLDL2

Intermediate density and size VLDL particles (40-60 nm).
MSH

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lipoprotein-X

An abnormal lipoprotein present in large amounts in patients with obstructive liver diseases such as INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS. LP-X derives from the reflux of BILE lipoproteins into the bloodstream. LP-X is a low-density lipoprotein rich in free CHOLESTEROL and PHOSPHOLIPIDS but poor in TRIGLYCERIDES; CHOLESTEROL ESTERS; and protein.
MSH

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lipoproteiny

Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
MSH

An important class of serum proteins in which a spherical hydrophobic core of triglycerides or cholesterol esters surrounded by an amphipathic monolayer of phospholipids, cholesterol and apolipoproteins. Classified according to density: chylomicrons, large low density particles, very low density, low density and high density species. Important in lipid transport, especially cholesterol transport in the blood stream. Abnormalities in lipoprotein metabolism have been implicated in certain heart diseases. (On-line Medical Dictionary)
NCI

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lipoproteiny HDL

A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
MSH

class of lipoproteins that promote transport of cholesterol from extrahepatic tissue to the liver for excretion in the bile; synthesized by the liver as particles lacking a lipid core, they accumulate a core of cholesterol esters during reverse cholesterol transport and transfer them to the liver directly or indirectly via other lipoprotein; HDL also shuttle apolipoproteins C-II and E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during catabolism of the lipoproteins; serum HDL cholesterol has been negatively correlated with premature coronary heart disease.
CSP

The smallest and densest lipoproteins, containing a high proportion of protein. They are synthesized in the liver as empty proteins and they pick up cholesterol and increase in size as they circulate through the bloodstream. Because HDL can remove cholesterol from the arteries, and transport it back to the liver for excretion, they are seen as “good” lipoproteins.
NCI

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HDL-cholesterol

Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
MSH

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