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lipoproteiny LDL

A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.
MSH

class of lipoproteins responsible for transport of cholesterol to extrahepatic tissues; they are formed in the circulation when very-low-density lipoproteins are degraded first to intermediate-density lipoproteins and then to LDL by the gain and loss of specific apolipoproteins and the loss of most of their triglycerides; LDL are taken up and catabolized by both the liver and extrahepatic tissues by specific receptor-mediated endocytosis.
CSP

A lipoprotein that carries cholesterol around the body, for use by various cells. LDL transports cholesterol to the arteries and increased levels are associated with atherosclerosis, and thus myocardial infarctions and strokes. This is why cholesterol inside LDL lipoproteins is called bad cholesterol.
NCI

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LDL-cholesterol

Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
MSH

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lipoproteiny VLDL

A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.
MSH

class of lipoproteins that transport triglycerides from the intestine and liver to adipose and muscle tissues.
CSP

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VLDL-cholesterol

Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). High circulating levels of VLDL cholesterol are found in HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE IIB. The cholesterol on the VLDL is eventually delivered by LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS to the tissues after the catabolism of VLDL to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LDL.
MSH

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liposarkom

A malignant tumor derived from primitive or embryonal lipoblastic cells. It may be composed of well-differentiated fat cells or may be dedifferentiated: myxoid (LIPOSARCOMA, MYXOID), round-celled, or pleomorphic, usually in association with a rich network of capillaries. Recurrences are common and dedifferentiated liposarcomas metastasize to the lungs or serosal surfaces. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)
MSH

malignant tumor derived from primitive or embryonal lipoblastic cells; may be composed of well-differentiated fat cells or may be dedifferentiated: myxoid, round-celled, or pleomorphic, usually in association with a rich network of capillaries; recurrences are common and dedifferentiated liposarcomas metastasize to the lungs or serosal surfaces.
CSP

A malignant tumor with adipocyte that does not show morphologic features of distinct liposarcoma entities. This term may be used for small biopsy specimens for which adequate tissue is not present for definitive classification.
NCI

A usually painless malignant tumor that arises from adipose tissue. Microscopically, it may contain a spectrum of neoplastic adipocytes ranging from lipoblasts to pleomorphic malignant adipocytes. Representative morphologic variants include: well differentiated, dedifferentiated, pleomorphic, and myxoid/round cell liposarcoma. The metastatic potential is higher in less differentiated tumors.
NCI

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liposomy

Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
MSH

single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that can be used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer; also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
CSP

A very tiny, fat-like particle that is made in the laboratory. In medicine, liposomes containing drugs or other substances are used in the treatment of cancer and other diseases. Drugs given in liposomes may have fewer side effects and work better than the same drugs given alone.
NCI

Substances composed of layers of lipid that form hollow microscopic spheres within which drugs or agents could be contained for enhanced safety and efficacy.
NCI

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lipotropní faktory

Endogenous factors or drugs that increase the transport and metabolism of LIPIDS including the synthesis of LIPOPROTEINS by the LIVER and their uptake by extrahepatic tissues.
MSH

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beta-lipotropin

A 90-amino acid peptide derived from post-translational processing of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) in the PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is the C-terminal fragment of POMC with lipid-mobilizing activities, such as LIPOLYSIS and steroidogenesis. Depending on the species and the tissue sites, beta-LPH may be further processed to yield active peptides including GAMMA-LIPOTROPIN; BETA-MSH; and ENDORPHINS.
MSH

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lipoxygenasa

An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class primarily found in PLANTS. It catalyzes reactions between linoleate and other fatty acids and oxygen to form hydroperoxy-fatty acid derivatives.
MSH

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odezírání

The process by which an observer comprehends speech by watching the movements of the speaker`s lips without hearing the speaker`s voice.
MSH

determining what a person is saying by watching the movement of their lips.
CSP

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lissaminová zelená barviva

Green dyes containing ammonium and aryl sulfonate moieties that facilitate the visualization of tissues, if given intravenously. They have mostly been used in the study of kidney physiology.
MSH

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Listeria

genus of bacteria which may be found in the feces of animals and man, on vegetation, and in silage; parasitic on cold blooded and warm blooded animals, including man.
CSP

A genus of bacteria which may be found in the feces of animals and man, on vegetation, and in silage. Its species are parasitic on cold-blooded and warm-blooded animals, including man.
MSH

A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the phylum Firmicutes.
NCI

Any bacteria that is not assigned to the species level but can be assigned to the Listeria genus level.
NCI

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Listeria – infekce

gram positive bacterial infection with the genus Listeria including Listeria meningitis which causes clinical manifestations including fever, altered mentation, headache, meningeal signs, focal neurologic signs, and seizures.
CSP

Listeriosis is a foodborne illness caused by Listeria monocytogenes, bacteria found in soil and water. It can be in a variety of raw foods as well as in processed foods and foods made from unpasteurized milk. Listeria is unlike many other germs because it can grow even in the cold temperature of the refrigerator.

Symptoms include fever and chills, headache, upset stomach and vomiting. Anyone can get the illness. But it is most likely to affect pregnant women and unborn babies, older adults, and people with weak immune systems. To reduce your risk

  • Use precooked and ready-to-eat foods as soon as you can
  • Avoid raw milk and raw milk products
  • Heat ready-to-eat foods and leftovers until they are steaming hot
  • Wash fresh fruits and vegetables
  • Avoid rare meat and seafood

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention


MEDLINEPLUS

A bacterial infection caused by Listeria monocytogenes. It occurs in newborns, elderly, and immunocompromised patients. The bacteria are transmitted through ingestion of contaminated food. Clinical manifestations include fever, muscle pain, respiratory distress, nausea, diarrhea, neck stiffness, irritability, seizures, and lethargy.
NCI

Infections with bacteria of the genus LISTERIA.
MSH

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Listeria monocytogenes

A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.
MSH

A species of facultatively anaerobic, Gram positive, rod shaped bacteria in the phylum Firmicutes. This species is motile by up to four peritrichous flagella, catalase positive, hemolytic, produces acid from glucose, trehalose, levulose and salacin, indole negative and does not reduce nitrate. L. monocytogenes is a food borne pathogen, being the causative agent of listeriosis in humans and animals.
NCI

Any bacterial organism that can be assigned to the species Listeria monocytogenes.
NCI

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lisurid

An ergot derivative that acts as an agonist at dopamine D2 receptors (DOPAMINE AGONISTS). It may also act as an antagonist at dopamine D1 receptors, and as an agonist at some serotonin receptors (SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS).
MSH

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Literacy

The ability to read and write.
NCI

the ability to read and write
CHV

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literatura

Writings having excellence of form or expression and expressing ideas of permanent or universal interest. The body of written works produced in a particular language, country, or age. (Webster, 3d ed)
MSH

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litiáza

A condition characterized by the formation of CALCULI and concretions in the hollow organs or ducts of the body. They occur most often in the gallbladder, kidney, and lower urinary tract.
MSH

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lithium

An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.
MSH

white metal, symbol Li, atomic number 3; lithium salts are used in treating the manic phase of bipolar disorder.
CSP

A monovalent cation that is metabolized much like sodium and is important in many cellular functions inside or on the surface of cells.
NCI

An element with atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight 6.941.
NCI

A soft metal. Lithium salts are used to treat certain mental disorders, especially bipolar (manic depressive) disorder. Lithium salts include lithium carbonate and lithium citrate.
NCI

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kyselina lithocholová

A bile acid formed from chenodeoxycholate by bacterial action, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as cholagogue and choleretic.
MSH

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litotripse

The destruction of a calculus of the kidney, ureter, bladder, or gallbladder by physical forces, including crushing with a lithotriptor through a catheter. Focused percutaneous ultrasound and focused hydraulic shock waves may be used without surgery. Lithotripsy does not include the dissolving of stones by acids or litholysis. Lithotripsy by laser is LITHOTRIPSY, LASER.
MSH

the destruction of a calculus of the kidney, ureter, bladder, or gallbladder by physical forces, including crushing with a lithotriptor through a catheter; focused percutaneous ultrasound and focused hydraulic shock waves may be used without surgery; lithotripsy does not include the dissolving of stones by acids or litholysis.
CSP

A procedure to break a stone into small particles that can be more easily cleared from the body.
NCI

a medical procedure to break up stones that form in the kidney, bladder or ureters so that they can be passed out of the body in the urine
CHV

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Litva

A country in Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, between Latvia and Russia. (NCI)
NCI

Description:Realm code for use of Lithuania


HL7V3.0

A country in Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, between Latvia and Russia. (CIA World Factbook 2002)
NCI

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vrh – velikost

The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.
MSH

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spastická diplegie

A type of cerebral palsy characterized by spasticity and hypertonia of the lower extremities bilaterally, particularly the legs, hips, and pelvis; this is the most common (70%) form of cerebral palsy.
NCI

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játra

Lobular organ the parenchyma of which consists of lobules which communicate with the biliary tree. Examples: There is only one liver.
UWDA

large gland of a dark-red color situated in the upper part of the abdomen on the right side; comprised of thousands of minute lobules, the functional units of the liver; functions include the storage and filtration of blood, secretion of bile, excretion of bilirubin and other substances formed elsewhere, and numerous metabolic functions, including the conversion of sugars into glycogen, which it stores.
CSP

A large organ located in the upper abdomen. The liver cleanses the blood and aids in digestion by secreting bile.
NCI

Lobular organ which has as its parts lobules connected to the biliary tree. Examples: There is only one liver.
FMA

A triangular-shaped organ located under the diaphragm in the right hypochondrium. It is the largest internal organ of the body, weighting up to 2 kg. Metabolism and bile secretion are its main functions. It is composed of cells which have the ability to regenerate. (NCI)
NCI

A triangular-shaped organ located under the diaphragm in the right hypochondrium. It is the largest internal organ of the body, weighting up to 2 kg. Metabolism and bile secretion are its main functions. It is composed of cells which have the ability to regenerate.
NCI

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játra – absces

Solitary or multiple collections of PUS within the liver as a result of infection by bacteria, protozoa, or other agents.
MSH

solitary or multiple collections of pus within the liver; usually associated with systemic manifestations of toxemia and clinical signs of disease in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen.
CSP

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játra – absces amébový

Single or multiple areas of PUS due to infection by any ameboid protozoa (AMEBIASIS). A common form is caused by the ingestion of ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA.
MSH

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játra – oběh krevní

The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.
MSH

vessels, supply, and flow of blood through the vascular system of the kidneys.
CSP

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jaterní cirhóza

liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.
CSP

A type of chronic, progressive liver disease in which liver cells are replaced by scar tissue.
NCI

Cirrhosis is scarring of the liver. Scar tissue forms because of injury or long-term disease. Scar tissue cannot do what healthy liver tissue does – make protein, help fight infections, clean the blood, help digest food and store energy. Cirrhosis can lead to

  • Easy bruising or bleeding, or nosebleeds
  • Swelling of the abdomen or legs
  • Extra sensitivity to medicines
  • High blood pressure in the vein entering the liver
  • Enlarged veins in the esophagus and stomach
  • Kidney failure

About 5 percent of people with cirrhosis get liver cancer.

Cirrhosis has many causes. In the United States, the most common causes are chronic alcoholism and hepatitis. Nothing will make the scar tissue disappear, but treating the cause can keep it from getting worse. If too much scar tissue forms, you may need to consider a liver transplant.

NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases


MEDLINEPLUS

A disorder characterized by replacement of the liver parenchyma with fibrous tissue and regenerative nodules. It is usually caused by alcoholisms, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C. Complications include the development of ascites, esophageal varices, bleeding, and hepatic encephalopathy.
NCI

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alkoholická cirhóza jater

FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to chronic excess ALCOHOL DRINKING.
MSH

liver disease in alcoholics in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.
CSP

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