Additional pages

lymfokela

Cystic mass containing lymph from diseased lymphatic channels or following surgical trauma or other injury.
MSH

A cystic lesion containing lymph. It usually results from injury, gynecologic surgery, or urologic surgery.
NCI

A disorder characterized by a cystic lesion containing lymph.
NCI

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lymfocyty – spolupráce

T-cell enhancement of the B-cell response to thymic-dependent antigens.
MSH

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lymfocyty – deplece

Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.
MSH

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lymfocyty – aktivace

Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
MSH

A change in morphology and behavior of a lymphocyte resulting from exposure to a specific antigen, mitogen, cytokine, chemokine, cellular ligand, or soluble factor. [GOC:mgi_curators, ISBN:0781735140]
GO

Lymphocyte Activation involves stimulation of the production and activity of lymphocytes. Stimulation increases the immune response to invading substances.
NCI

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lymfocyty

White blood cells formed in the body`s lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
MSH

white blood cells formed in the body`s lymphoid tissue.
CSP

A type of immune cell that is made in the bone marrow and is found in the blood and in lymph tissue. The two main types of lymphocytes are B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes. B lymphocytes make antibodies, and T lymphocytes help kill tumor cells and help control immune responses. A lymphocyte is a type of white blood cell.
NCI

White blood cells formed in the body`s lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each); those with characteristics of neither major class are called null cells.
NCI

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lymfocyty nulové

A class of lymphocytes characterized by the lack of surface markers specific for either T or B lymphocytes.
MSH

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lymfocytární choriomeningitida

A form of meningitis caused by LYMPHOCYTIC CHORIOMENINGITIS VIRUS. MICE and other rodents serve as the natural hosts, and infection in humans usually occurs through inhalation or ingestion of infectious particles. Clinical manifestations include an influenza-like syndrome followed by stiff neck, alterations of mentation, ATAXIA, and incontinence. Maternal infections may result in fetal malformations and injury, including neonatal HYDROCEPHALUS, aqueductal stenosis, CHORIORETINITIS, and MICROCEPHALY. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp1-3)
MSH

benign viral infection of meninges and central nervous system producing an infiltration of lymphocytes in the choroid plexus.
CSP

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virus lymfocytární choriomeningitidy

The type species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), producing a silent infection in house and laboratory mice. In humans, infection with LCMV can be inapparent, or can present with an influenza-like illness, a benign aseptic meningitis, or a severe meningoencephalomyelitis. The virus can also infect monkeys, dogs, field mice, guinea pigs, and hamsters, the latter an epidemiologically important host.
MSH

type species of Arenavirus, part of the Old World Arenaviruses etiologic agent of lymphocytic choriomeningitis; occurs naturally in mice, dogs and monkeys.
CSP

A species of single-stranded, negative-sense RNA viruses in the genus arenavirus and family arenaviridae. It is spread by rodents and causes meningitis and encephalitis.
NCI

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lymfocytóza

excess of normal lymphocytes in the blood or in any effusion.
CSP

A finding based on laboratory test results that indicate an abnormal increase in the number of lymphocytes in the blood, effusions or bone marrow.
NCI

A laboratory test result indicating an abnormal increase in the number of lymphocytes in the peripheral blood, effusions, or bone marrow.
NCI

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lymphogranuloma venereum

Subacute inflammation of the inguinal lymph glands caused by certain immunotypes of CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS. It is a sexually transmitted disease in the U.S. but is more widespread in developing countries. It is distinguished from granuloma venereum (see GRANULOMA INGUINALE), which is caused by Calymmatobacterium granulomatis.
MSH

subacute inflammation of the inguinal lymph glands caused by certain immunotypes of Chlamydia trachomatis; a sexually transmitted disease in the United States but is more widespread in developing countries; do not confuse with granuloma venereum, which is caused by Calymmatobacterium granulomatis, for this use ENTEROBACTERIACEAE DISEASE.
CSP

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lymfografie

Radiographic study of the lymphatic system following injection of dye or contrast medium.
MSH

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lymfohistiocytóza hemofagocytární

A rare disorder in which histiocytes and lymphocytes (types of white blood cells) build up in organs including the skin, spleen, and liver, and destroy other blood cells. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis may be inherited or caused by certain conditions or diseases, including infections, immunodeficiency (inability of the body to fight infections), and cancer.
NCI

A rare but potentially life-threatening disorder characterized by the proliferation of histiocytes and macrophages and phagocytosis of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. It may be inherited or secondary, due to infections, autoimmune disorders, or underlying malignancies. Signs and symptoms include fever, lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, and pancytopenia.
NCI

A group of related disorders characterized by LYMPHOCYTOSIS; HISTIOCYTOSIS; and hemophagocytosis. The two major forms are familial and reactive.
MSH

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lymfoidní tkáň

Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
MSH

specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system, providing fixed locations within the body where a variety of lymphocytes can form, mature, and multiply.
CSP

Tissue characterized by the presence of large numbers of lymphocytes in different stages of transformation. Connective tissue cells including fibroblasts and macrophages may be present. Lymphoid tissue is framed by a network of reticular fibers and may be diffuse, or densely aggregated.
NCI

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lymfokiny

Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.
MSH

soluble mediators of immune responses that are not antibodies or complement components and that are released by sensitized lymphocytes on contact with antigen.
CSP

A general term for soluble mediators of immune responses that are not antibodies or complement components and that are released by sensitized lymphocytes on contact with antigen.
NCI

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lymfom

A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
MSH

malignant (clonal) proliferation of B- or T- lymphocytes which involves the lymph nodes, bone marrow and/or extranodal sites; general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
CSP

Cancer that begins in cells of the immune system. There are two basic categories of lymphomas. One kind is Hodgkin lymphoma, which is marked by the presence of a type of cell called the Reed-Sternberg cell. The other category is non-Hodgkin lymphomas, which includes a large, diverse group of cancers of immune system cells. Non-Hodgkin lymphomas can be further divided into cancers that have an indolent (slow-growing) course and those that have an aggressive (fast-growing) course. These subtypes behave and respond to treatment differently. Both Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas can occur in children and adults, and prognosis and treatment depend on the stage and the type of cancer.
NCI

Lymphoma is a cancer of a part of the immune system called the lymphatic system. There are many types of lymphoma. One type is called Hodgkin disease. The rest are called non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Non-Hodgkin lymphomas begin when a type of white blood cell, called a T cell or B cell, becomes abnormal. The cell divides again and again, making more and more abnormal cells. These abnormal cells can spread to almost any other part of the body. Most of the time, doctors can`t determine why a person gets non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma can cause many symptoms, such as

  • Swollen, painless lymph nodes in the neck, armpits or groin
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Fever
  • Soaking night sweats
  • Coughing, trouble breathing or chest pain
  • Weakness and tiredness that don`t go away
  • Pain, swelling or a feeling of fullness in the abdomen

Your doctor will perform an exam and lab tests to determine if you have lymphoma.

NIH: National Cancer Institute


MEDLINEPLUS

A malignant (clonal) proliferation of B- lymphocytes or T- lymphocytes which involves the lymph nodes, bone marrow and/or extranodal sites. This category includes Non-Hodgkin lymphomas and Hodgkin lymphomas.
NCI

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lymfom folikulární

Malignant lymphoma in which the lymphomatous cells are clustered into identifiable nodules within the LYMPH NODES. The nodules resemble to some extent the GERMINAL CENTER of lymph node follicles and most likely represent neoplastic proliferation of lymph node-derived follicular center B-LYMPHOCYTES.
MSH

A type of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (cancer of the immune system) that is usually indolent (slow-growing). The tumor cells grow as groups to form nodules. There are several subtypes of follicular lymphoma.
NCI

A neoplasm of follicle centre B cells which has at least a partial follicular pattern. Follicular lymphomas comprise about 35% of adult non-Hodgkin lymphomas in the U.S. and 22% worldwide. Most patients have widespread disease at diagnosis. Morphologically, follicular lymphomas are classified as Grade 1, Grade 2, and Grade 3, depending on the percentage of the large lymphocytes present. The vast majority of cases (70-95%) express the BCL-2 rearrangement [t(14;18)]. Histological grade correlates with prognosis. Grades 1 and 2 follicular lymphomas are indolent and grade 3 is more aggressive (adapted from WHO, 2001).
NCI

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sarkom z retikulárních buněk

rare type of nonHodgkin`s lymphoma of intermediate to high malignancy, characterized by the presence of large tumor cells that resemble histiocytes morphologically but are considered to be of lymphoid origin.
CSP

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lymfom non-Hodgkinův

Any of a group of malignant tumors of lymphoid tissue that differ from HODGKIN DISEASE, being more heterogeneous with respect to malignant cell lineage, clinical course, prognosis, and therapy. The only common feature among these tumors is the absence of giant REED-STERNBERG CELLS, a characteristic of Hodgkin`s disease.
MSH

characterized by malignant lymphomas; clinically similar to Hodgkin`s disease, except that the lymphomas seen in this disease are initially more widespread; most common manifestation is painless enlargement of one or more peripheral lymph nodes.
CSP

Distinct from Hodgkin lymphoma both morphologically and biologically, Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is characterized by the absence of Reed-Sternberg cells, can occur at any age, and usually presents as a localized or generalized lymphadenopathy associated with fever and weight loss. The clinical course varies according to the morphologic type. NHL is clinically classified as indolent, aggressive, or having a variable clinical course. NHL can be of B-or T-/NK-cell lineage.
NCI

Any of a large group of cancers of lymphocytes (white blood cells). NHLs can occur at any age and are often marked by lymph nodes that are larger than normal, fever, and weight loss. There are many different types of NHL. These types can be divided into aggressive (fast-growing) and indolent (slow-growing) types, and they can be formed from either B-cells or T-cells. B-cell NHLs include Burkitt lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, immunoblastic large cell lymphoma, precursor B-lymphoblastic lymphoma, and mantle cell lymphoma. T-cell NHLs include mycosis fungoides, anaplastic large cell lymphoma, and precursor T-lymphoblastic lymphoma. Lymphomas that occur after bone marrow or stem cell transplantation are usually B-cell NHLs. Prognosis and treatment depend on the stage and type of disease.
NCI

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lymfomatoidní granulomatóza

An angiocentric and angiodestructive lymphoproliferative disorder primarily involving the lungs. It is caused by an Epstein-Barr virus-induced transformation of the B-cells, in a T-cell rich environment. Clinically and pathologically it resembles EXTRANODAL NK-T-CELL LYMPHOMA.
MSH

Destructive growth of lymph cells, usually involving the lungs, skin, kidneys, and central nervous system. Grades I and II are not considered cancerous, but grade III is considered a lymphoma.
NCI

An angiocentric and angiodestructive lymphoproliferative disease involving extranodal sites, comprised of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive B-cells admixed with reactive T-cells. Incidence is higher among adult males; patients with a history of immunodeficiency are at increased risk. The most common site of involvement is the lung; other common sites include brain, kidney, liver, and skin. Morphologically, three grades are recognized: grade I, II, and III. Grade III lymphomatoid granulomatosis should be approached clinically as a subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
NCI

A neoplastic lymphoproliferative process characterized by an angiocentric arrangement of the tumor cells which is associated with angiodestruction. It includes lymphomatoid granulomatosis which is a lymphoproliferative lesion derived from mature B-lymphocytes and cases of extranodal NK/T-cell lymphomas of nasal type.
NCI

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lymfopenie

Reduction in the number of lymphocytes.
MSH

decrease in the proportion of lymphocytes in the blood.
CSP

A finding based on laboratory test results that indicate a decrease in number of lymphocytes in a blood specimen.
NCI

A condition in which there is a lower-than-normal number of lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) in the blood.
NCI

An abnormally small number of lymphocytes in the circulating blood.
NCI

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lymfoproliferační poruchy

Disorders characterized by proliferation of lymphoid tissue, general or unspecified.
MSH

A disease in which cells of the lymphatic system grow excessively. Lymphoproliferative disorders are often treated like cancer.
NCI

A disorder characterized by proliferation of lymphocytes at various stages of differentiation. Lymphoproliferative disorders can be neoplastic (clonal, as in lymphomas and leukemias) or reactive (polyclonal, as in infectious mononucleosis).
NCI

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lymfotoxin-alfa

soluble protein released by lymphocytes activated by antigens or T cell mitogens that is cytotoxic to other cells; involved in allergies and chronic inflammatory diseases.
CSP

A tumor necrosis factor family member that is released by activated LYMPHOCYTES. Soluble lymphotoxin is specific for TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTOR TYPE I; TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTOR TYPE II; and TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTOR SUPERFAMILY, MEMBER 14. Lymphotoxin-alpha can form a membrane-bound heterodimer with LYMPHOTOXIN-BETA that has specificity for the LYMPHOTOXIN BETA RECEPTOR.
MSH

Human tumor necrosis factor-beta protein (205 aa, 22 kDa precursor) is encoded by the human lymphotoxin alpha (LTA) gene. This soluble glycoprotein is released by antigen- or mitogen-activated lymphocytes and is a cytotoxic to other cells. It is involved in allergies and chronic inflammatory diseases.
NCI

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lynestrenol

A synthetic progestational hormone used often in mixtures with estrogens as an oral contraceptive.
MSH

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Lyngbya – toxiny

Toxins isolated from any species of the seaweed Lyngbya or similar chemicals from other sources, including mollusks and micro-organisms. These have been found to be potent tumor promoters. They are biosynthesized from TRYPTOPHAN; VALINE; and METHIONINE nonribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NUCLEIC ACID-INDEPENDENT).
MSH

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lypresin

The porcine antidiuretic hormone (VASOPRESSINS). It is a cyclic nonapeptide that differs from ARG-VASOPRESSIN by one amino acid, containing a LYSINE at residue 8 instead of an ARGININE. Lys-vasopressin is used to treat DIABETES INSIPIDUS or to improve vasomotor tone and BLOOD PRESSURE.
MSH

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LSD

Semisynthetic derivative of ergot (Claviceps purpurea). It has complex effects on serotonergic systems including antagonism at some peripheral serotonin receptors, both agonist and antagonist actions at central nervous system serotonin receptors, and possibly effects on serotonin turnover. It is a potent hallucinogen, but the mechanisms of that effect are not well understood.
MSH

semisynthetic derivative of ergot; it has complex effects on serotonergic systems including antagonism at some peripheral serotonin receptors, both agonist and antagonist actions at central nervous system serotonin receptors, and possibly effects on serotonin turnover; it is a potent hallucinogen and psychotomimetic.
CSP

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lysin

An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
MSH

essential aminoacid necessary for optimal growth in infants and for maintenance of nitrogen equilibrium in adult humans.
CSP

Amino acid with side chain -(CH2)4NH3+.
NCI

an essential amino acid
CHV

A nutritional supplement containing the biologically active L-isomer of the essential amino acid lysine, with potential anti-mucositis activity. Upon oral intake, L-lysine promotes healthy tissue function, growth and healing and improves the immune system. L-Lysine promotes calcium uptake, is essential for carnitine production and collagen formation. As collagen is essential for connective tissue maintenance, this agent may also help heal mucosal wounds. This may help decrease and prevent mucositis induced by radiation or chemotherapy.
NCI

One of nine essential amino acids in humans required for growth and tissue repair, Lysine is supplied by many foods, especially red meats, fish, and dairy products. Lysine seems to be active against herpes simplex viruses and present in many forms of diet supplements. The mechanism underlying this effect is based on the viral need for amino acid arginine; lysine competes with arginine for absorption and entry into cells. Lysine inhibits HSV growth by knocking out arginine. (NCI04)
NCI

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lysinhydroxylasa

A mixed-function oxygenase that catalyzes the hydroxylation of peptidyllysine, usually in protocollagen, to peptidylhydroxylysine. The enzyme utilizes molecular oxygen with concomitant oxidative decarboxylation of the cosubstrate 2-oxoglutarate to succinate. EC 1.14.11.4.
MSH

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lysinoalanin

N(6)-(2-Amino-2-carboxyethyl)-L-lysine. An unusual amino acid, not a dipeptide, which has been found in proteins of cooked foods. It is formed in food that is heated or treated with alkali. Has been implicated in nephrocytomegalia in rats.
MSH

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Lysis

Tissue structure disintegration and destruction due to action of endogenous or/and exogenous lytic substances which include but not limited to naturally occuring or laboratory designed proteolytic enzymes, glycosidases, detergents, pore-forming proteins, immune complexes, etc. Tissue lysis plays role in pathogenesis of a number of conditions e.g. protozoal infections, ischemic tissue injury, and autoimmune disorders. It is also used as a basis for non-surgical treatment modality to remove or minimize presence of abnormal tissue, e.g. adhesions.
NCI

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