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mycetom

A chronic progressive subcutaneous infection caused by species of fungi (eumycetoma), or actinomycetes (actinomycetoma). It is characterized by tumefaction, abscesses, and tumor-like granules representing microcolonies of pathogens, such as MADURELLA fungi and bacteria ACTINOMYCETES, with different grain colors.
MSH

A chronic granulomatous inflammation involving the deep dermis and the subcutaneous tissues. It is caused by fungi and actinomycetes.
NCI

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mafenid

A sulfonamide that inhibits the enzyme carbonic anhydrase and is used as topical anti-infective, especially in burn therapy.
MSH

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Mafenide Acetate

The acetate salt form of mafenide, a synthetic sulfonamide analog of para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) with topical anti-infective activity. Mafenide acetate competes with PABA for the bacterial enzyme dihydropteroate synthase, thereby preventing the incorporation of PABA into dihydrofolic acid, thereby interferes with normal folic acid metabolism. As a result, de novo synthesis of pyrimidines, which requires folate metabolites, is impeded and subsequently DNA synthesis is affected. Mafenide acetate is bacteriostatic against many gram-negative and gram-positive organisms, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and certain strains of anaerobes.
NCI

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magie

Beliefs and practices concerned with producing desired results through supernatural forces or agents as with the manipulation of fetishes or rituals.
MSH

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hořčík

A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
MSH

light, silvery metallic element, symbol Mg, atomic number 12; its salts are essential in nutrition, being required for the activity of many enzymes especially those concerned with oxidative phosphorylation.
CSP

In medicine, a mineral used by the body to help maintain muscles, nerves, and bones. It is also used in energy metabolism and protein synthesis.
NCI

An alkaline earth metal, Magnesium is important for many biochemical functions and reactions; for bone and muscle function, protein and fatty acid formation, activation of B vitamins, blood clotting, insulin secretion, and ATP formation. More than 300 enzymes require magnesium for catalytic action. The adult daily requirement is about 300 mg/day. Magnesium is found in many green plants, vegetables, and seeds; chlorophyll is a magnesium-centered porphyrin compound. Magnesium salts are used for magnesium deficiency supplementation. (NCI04)
NCI

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chlorid hořečnatý

Magnesium chloride. An inorganic compound consisting of one magnesium and two chloride ions. The compound is used in medicine as a source of magnesium ions, which are essential for many cellular activities. It has also been used as a cathartic and in alloys.
MSH

Magnesium Chloride was used as a laxative. An alkaline earth metal, magnesium is important for many biochemical functions and reactions; for bone and muscle function, protein and fatty acid formation, activation of B vitamins, blood clotting, insulin secretion, and ATP formation. More than 300 enzymes require magnesium for catalytic action. The adult daily requirement is about 300 mg/day. Magnesium is found in many green plants, vegetables, and seeds; chlorophyll is a magnesium-centered porphyrin compound. Magnesium salts are used for magnesium deficiency supplementation. (NCI04)
NCI

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hořčík – nedostatek

A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of magnesium in the diet, characterized by anorexia, nausea, vomiting, lethargy, and weakness. Symptoms are paresthesias, muscle cramps, irritability, decreased attention span, and mental confusion, possibly requiring months to appear. Deficiency of body magnesium can exist even when serum values are normal. In addition, magnesium deficiency may be organ-selective, since certain tissues become deficient before others. (Harrison`s Principles of Internal Medicine, 12th ed, p1936)
MSH

condition due to decreased dietary intake of magnesium, as in starvation or failure to administer in intravenous solutions, or to gastrointestinal loss; deficiency causes irritability of the nervous system with tetany, vasodilation, convulsions, tremors, depression, and psychotic behavior.
CSP

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hydroxid hořečnatý

An inorganic compound that occurs in nature as the mineral brucite. It acts as an antacid with cathartic effects.
MSH

A solution of magnesium hydroxide with antacid and laxative properties. Milk of magnesium exerts its antacid activity in low doses such that all hydroxide ions that enter the stomach are used to neutralize stomach acid. This agent exerts its laxative effect in higher doses so that hydroxide ions are able to move from the stomach to the intestines where they attract and retain water, thereby increasing intestinal movement (peristalsis) and inducing the urge to defecate.
NCI

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oxid hořečnatý

Magnesium oxide (MgO). An inorganic compound that occurs in nature as the mineral periclase. In aqueous media combines quickly with water to form magnesium hydroxide. It is used as an antacid and mild laxative and has many nonmedicinal uses.
MSH

The oxide salt of magnesium with antacid, laxative and vascular smooth muscle relaxant activities. Magnesium combines with water to form magnesium hydroxide which reacts chemically to neutralize or buffer existing quantities of stomach acid; stomach-content and intra-esophageal pH rise, resulting in a decrease in pepsin activity. This agent`s laxative effect is the result, in part, of osmotically mediated water retention, which subsequently stimulates peristalsis. In addition, magnesium ions may behave as calcium antagonists in vascular smooth muscle.
NCI

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síran hořečnatý

A small colorless crystal used as an anticonvulsant, a cathartic, and an electrolyte replenisher in the treatment of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. It causes direct inhibition of action potentials in myometrial muscle cells. Excitation and contraction are uncoupled, which decreases the frequency and force of contractions. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1083)
MSH

A drug used to treat pre-eclampsia and eclampsia (serious complications of pregnancy). Magnesium sulfate is also being studied for its ability to prevent the toxic side effects of certain drugs used to treat colorectal cancer. It is a type of anticonvulsant agent.
NCI

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magnety

Objects that produce a magnetic field.
MSH

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magnetická rezonanční tomografie

Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
MSH

non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images; concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
CSP

A procedure in which radio waves and a powerful magnet linked to a computer are used to create detailed pictures of areas inside the body. These pictures can show the difference between normal and diseased tissue. NMRI makes better images of organs and soft tissue than other scanning techniques, such as computed tomography (CT) or x-ray. NMRI is especially useful for imaging the brain, the spine, the soft tissue of joints, and the inside of bones.
NCI

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses a large magnet and radio waves to look at organs and structures inside your body. Health care professionals use MRI scans to diagnose a variety of conditions, from torn ligaments to tumors. MRIs are very useful for examining the brain and spinal cord.

During the scan, you lie on a table that slides inside a tunnel-shaped machine. Doing the scan can take a long time, and you must stay still. The scan is painless. The MRI machine makes a lot of noise. The technician may offer you earplugs.

Before you get a scan, tell your doctor if you

  • Are pregnant
  • Have pieces of metal in your body. You might have metal in your body if you have a shrapnel or bullet injury or if you are a welder
  • Have electronic devices in your body, such as a cardiac pacemaker


MEDLINEPLUS

Imaging that uses radiofrequency waves and a strong magnetic field rather than x-rays to provide amazingly clear and detailed pictures of internal organs and tissues. The technique is valuable for the diagnosis of many pathologic conditions, including cancer, heart and vascular disease, stroke, and joint and musculoskeletal disorders.
NCI

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magnetická rezonanční spektroskopie

Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
MSH

Detection and measurement of the resonant spectra of molecular species in a tissue or sample.
NCI

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magnetismus

The study of MAGNETIC PHENOMENA.
MSH

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magnetoencefalografie

The measurement of magnetic fields over the head generated by electric currents in the brain. As in any electrical conductor, electric fields in the brain are accompanied by orthogonal magnetic fields. The measurement of these fields provides information about the localization of brain activity which is complementary to that provided by ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY. Magnetoencephalography may be used alone or together with electroencephalography, for measurement of spontaneous or evoked activity, and for research or clinical purposes.
MSH

measurement of magnetic activity of the brain, usually conducted externally by sensitive devices such as SQUID`s; electric currents generated in the brain by neural activity are accompanied by orthogonal magnetic fields and the measurement of these fields provide information about the localization of brain activity which is complementary to that provided by electroencephalography.
CSP

The measurement of the magnetic fields produced by electrical activity in the brain, usually conducted externally, using extremely sensitive devices. The measurement of electric fields in the brain provides information about the localization of brain activity which is complementary to that provided by electroencephalography.
NCI

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magnetometrie

The measurement of various aspects of MAGNETIC FIELDS.
MSH

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Maillardova reakce

One of a group of nonenzymatic reactions in which aldehydes, ketones, or reducing sugars react with amino acids, peptides, or proteins. Food browning reactions, such as those that occur with cooking of meats, and also food deterioration reactions, resulting in decreased nutritional value and color changes, are attributed to this reaction type. The Maillard reaction is studied by scientists in the agriculture, food, nutrition, and carbohydrate chemistry fields.
MSH

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Main Bronchus

The left and right main bronchi considered as a group.
NCI

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Maine

A state in the northeastern United States. Its capital is Augusta.
NCI

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vzdělávání – hlavní proud

Most frequently refers to the integration of a physically or mentally disabled child into the regular class of normal peers and provision of the appropriately determined educational program.
MSH

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údržba

The upkeep of property or equipment.
MSH

The act of sustaining something in its current form or proper condition; upkeep.
NCI

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údržba a strojní zařízení nemocnice

Hospital department whose primary function is the upkeep and supervision of the buildings and grounds and the maintenance of hospital physical plant and equipment which requires engineering expertise.
MSH

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hlavní histokompatibilní komplex

The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
MSH

genetic region found in all mammals whose products are primarily reponsible for the rapid rejection of grafts between individuals and which signal between lymphocytes and cells expressing antigen; H-2 in mouse and HLA in humans.
CSP

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malabsorpční syndromy

Malabsorption: decreased absorption of fat and other nutrients caused by liver, biliary, pancreatic or intestinal disease. The 72-hour fecal fat determination is the best single test for mal- absorption.
AIR

General term for a group of MALNUTRITION syndromes caused by failure of normal INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of nutrients.
MSH

impaired absorption of nutrients in the gastrointestinal tract.
CSP

A group of symptoms such as gas, bloating, abdominal pain, and diarrhea resulting from the body`s inability to properly absorb nutrients.
NCI

A disorder characterized by inadequate absorption of nutrients in the small intestine. Symptoms include abdominal marked discomfort, bloating and diarrhea.
NCI

Your small intestine does most of the digesting of the foods you eat. If you have a malabsorption syndrome, your small intestine cannot absorb nutrients from foods.

Causes of malabsorption syndromes include

  • Celiac disease
  • Lactose intolerance
  • Short bowel syndrome, which happens after surgery to remove a large portion of the small intestine
  • Whipple disease, a rare bacterial infection
  • Genetic diseases
  • Certain medicines

Treatment of malabsorption syndromes depends on the cause.


MEDLINEPLUS

A syndrome resulting from the inadequate absorption of nutrients in the small intestine. Symptoms include abdominal pain, bloating, and diarrhea.
NCI

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malakoplakie

The formation of soft patches on the mucous membrane of a hollow organ, such as the urogenital tract or digestive tract.
MSH

An inflammatory reaction characterized by the presence of papules or nodules usually in the genitourinary tract. It is usually a reaction to an infection. Morphologically, it consists of foamy histiocytes and characteristic basophilic inclusion bodies called Michaelis-Gutmann bodies.
NCI

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MALARIA

A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
MSH

protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the genus Plasmodium (P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae) and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus Anopheles; malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands; characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high fever, sweating, shaking chills, and anemia; malaria in animals is caused by other species of plasmodia.
CSP

Malaria is a serious disease caused by a parasite. Infected mosquitoes spread it. Malaria is a major cause of death worldwide, but it is almost wiped out in the United States. The disease is mostly a problem in developing countries with warm climates. If you travel to these countries, you are at risk. There are four different types of malaria caused by four related parasites. The most deadly type occurs in Africa south of the Sahara Desert.

Malaria symptoms include chills, flu-like symptoms, fever, vomiting, diarrhea and jaundice. The disease can be life-threatening. However, you can treat malaria with medicines. The type of medicine depends on which kind of malaria you have and where you were infected.

Malaria can be prevented. When traveling to malaria-prone regions

  • See your doctor for medicines that protect you
  • Wear insect repellent with DEET
  • Cover up
  • Sleep under mosquito netting

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention


MEDLINEPLUS

A protozoan infection caused by the genus Plasmodium. There are four species of Plasmodium that can infect humans: Plasmodium falciparum, vivax, ovale, and malariae. It is transmitted to humans by infected mosquitoes. Signs and symptoms include paroxysmal high fever, sweating, chills, and anemia.
NCI

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malárie ptačí

Any of a group of infections of fowl caused by protozoa of the genera PLASMODIUM, Leucocytozoon, and Haemoproteus. The life cycles of these parasites and the disease produced bears strong resemblance to those observed in human malaria.
MSH

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malárie mozková

A condition characterized by somnolence or coma in the presence of an acute infection with PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM (and rarely other Plasmodium species). Initial clinical manifestations include HEADACHES; SEIZURES; and alterations of mentation followed by a rapid progression to COMA. Pathologic features include cerebral capillaries filled with parasitized erythrocytes and multiple small foci of cortical and subcortical necrosis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p136)
MSH

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malárie falciparum

Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.
MSH

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malárie vivax

Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM VIVAX. This form of malaria is less severe than MALARIA, FALCIPARUM, but there is a higher probability for relapses to occur. Febrile paroxysms often occur every other day.
MSH

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