Additional pages

vitamin K 3

synthetic vitamin K; 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone.
CSP

A synthetic naphthoquinone without the isoprenoid side chain and biological activity, but can be converted to active vitamin K2, menaquinone, after alkylation in vivo.
MSH

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menarche

The first MENSTRUAL CYCLE marked by the initiation of MENSTRUATION.
MSH

The beginning of the menstrual cycle; the first menstrual cycle in an individual. [GOC:curators, PMID:16311040]
GO

Onset of menses.
NCI

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mendelevium

Mendelevium. A man-made radioactive element of the actinide family with atomic symbol Md, atomic number 101, and atomic weight 258.
MSH

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virus Mengo

A strain of ENCEPHALOMYOCARDITIS VIRUS, a species of CARDIOVIRUS, isolated from rodents and lagomorphs and occasionally causing febrile illness in man.
MSH

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Menierova nemoc

fluctuating hearing loss, tinnitus, and vertigo resulting from nonsuppurative disease of the labyrinth; swelling of the endolymph-containing structures is the main pathologic finding.
CSP

A disease of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is characterized by fluctuating SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; TINNITUS; episodic VERTIGO; and aural fullness. It is the most common form of endolymphatic hydrops.
MSH

Meniere`s disease can cause severe dizziness, a roaring sound in your ears called tinnitus, hearing loss that comes and goes and the feeling of ear pressure or pain. It usually affects just one ear. It is a common cause of hearing loss.

Scientists don`t yet know the cause. They think that it has to do with the fluid levels or the mixing of fluids in the canals of your inner ear. Symptoms occur suddenly and can happen as often as every day or as seldom as once a year. An attack can be a combination of severe dizziness or vertigo, tinnitus and hearing loss lasting several hours.

There is no cure. However, you may be able to control symptoms by changing your diet or taking medicine so that your body retains less fluid. Severe cases may require surgery.

NIH: National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders


MEDLINEPLUS

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arteriae meningeae

Arteries which supply the dura mater.
MSH

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meningy – nádory

Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the meningeal coverings of the brain and spinal cord.
MSH

A benign or malignant neoplasm that affects the meninges. The majority of the neoplasms arise from meningothelial cells and are called meningiomas. Non-meningothelial cell neoplasms include mesenchymal, non-meningothelial tumors, hemangiopericytomas, and melanocytic lesions.
NCI

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meningy

The three membranes that cover the BRAIN and the SPINAL CORD. They are the dura mater, the arachnoid, and the pia mater.
MSH

three membranes covering of the brain and spinal cord; named the dura mater, pia mater and arachnoid.
CSP

The three thin layers of tissue that cover and protect the brain and spinal cord.
NCI

Any one of three membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord.
NCI

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meningeom

A relatively common neoplasm of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that arises from arachnoidal cells. The majority are well differentiated vascular tumors which grow slowly and have a low potential to be invasive, although malignant subtypes occur. Meningiomas have a predilection to arise from the parasagittal region, cerebral convexity, sphenoidal ridge, olfactory groove, and SPINAL CANAL. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2056-7)
MSH

relatively common neoplasm of the central nervous system that arises from arachnoidal cells; the majority are well differentiated vascular tumors which grow slowly and have a low potential to be invasive, although malignant subtypes occur; they have a predilection to arise from the parasagittal region, cerebral convexity, sphenoidal ridge, olfactory groove, and spinal canal.
CSP

A type of slow-growing tumor that forms in the meninges (thin layers of tissue that cover and protect the brain and spinal cord). Meningiomas usually occur in adults.
NCI

tumor of the membranes that cover and protect the brain and spinal cord
CHV

A generally slow growing tumor attached to the dura mater. It is composed of neoplastic meningothelial (arachnoidal) cells. It typically occurs in adults, often women and it has a wide range of histopathological appearances. Of the various subtypes, meningothelial, fibrous and transitional meningiomas are the most common. Most meningiomas are WHO grade I tumors, and some are WHO grade II or III tumors. Most subtypes share a common clinical behavior, although some subtypes are more likely to recur and follow a more aggressive clinical course. (Adapted from WHO)
NCI

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meningismus

A condition characterized by neck stiffness, headache, and other symptoms suggestive of meningeal irritation, but without actual inflammation of the meninges (MENINGITIS). Spinal fluid pressure may be elevated but spinal fluid is normal. (DeJong, The Neurologic Examination, 4th ed, p673)
MSH

The symptoms of neck stiffness, headache, and photophobia resulting from meningeal irritation. Causes include subarachnoid hemorrhage and acute febrile diseases.
NCI

A disorder characterized by neck stiffness, headache, and photophobia resulting from irritation of the cerebral meninges.
NCI

A condition marked by headache, fever, and a stiff neck, which is caused when the meninges (three thin layers of tissue that cover and protect the brain and spinal cord) become irritated. Meningeal syndrome may be caused by blood, cancer cells, or substances from the breakdown of cancer cells that get into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). It may also be caused by infection with a bacterium, virus, or fungus.
NCI

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meningitida

Inflammation of the coverings of the brain and/or spinal cord, which consist of the PIA MATER; ARACHNOID; and DURA MATER. Infections (viral, bacterial, and fungal) are the most common causes of this condition, but subarachnoid hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGES, SUBARACHNOID), chemical irritation (chemical MENINGITIS), granulomatous conditions, neoplastic conditions (CARCINOMATOUS MENINGITIS), and other inflammatory conditions may produce this syndrome. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch24, p6)
MSH

inflammation of the meninges.
CSP

Meningitis is inflammation of the thin tissue that surrounds the brain and spinal cord, called the meninges. There are several types of meningitis. The most common is viral meningitis, which you get when a virus enters the body through the nose or mouth and travels to the brain. Bacterial meningitis is rare, but can be deadly. It usually starts with bacteria that cause a cold-like infection. It can block blood vessels in the brain and lead to stroke and brain damage. It can also harm other organs. Pneumococcal infections and meningococcal infections can cause bacterial meningitis.

Anyone can get meningitis, but it is more common in people whose bodies have trouble fighting infections. Meningitis can progress rapidly. You should seek medical care quickly if you have

  • A sudden fever
  • A severe headache
  • A stiff neck

Early treatment can help prevent serious problems, including death. Vaccines can prevent some of the bacterial infections that cause meningitis. Parents of adolescents and students living in college dorms should talk to a doctor about the vaccination.

NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke


MEDLINEPLUS

A disorder characterized by acute inflammation of the meninges of the brain and/or spinal cord.
NCI

brain infection
CHV

Inflammation of the meninges (three thin layers of tissue that cover and protect the brain and spinal cord). Meningitis is usually caused by a bacterial or viral infection, but sometimes is caused by cancer, drug allergies, or inflammatory diseases.
NCI

A disorder characterized by acute inflammation of the meninges of the brain and/or spinal cord.
NCI

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meningitida aseptická

A syndrome characterized by headache, neck stiffness, low grade fever, and CSF lymphocytic pleocytosis in the absence of an acute bacterial pathogen. Viral meningitis is the most frequent cause although MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; RICKETTSIA INFECTIONS; diagnostic or therapeutic procedures; NEOPLASTIC PROCESSES; septic perimeningeal foci; and other conditions may result in this syndrome. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p745)
MSH

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meningitida hemofilová

BACTERIAL INFECTIONS of the nervous system caused by HAEMOPHILUS organisms, and marked by prominent inflammation of the meninges. HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE TYPE B is the most common causative organism. The condition primarily affects children under 6 years of age but may occur in adults. Clinical manifestations include fever; nuchal rigidity; PHOTOPHOBIA; SEIZURES; HEARING LOSS, SENSORINEURAL; COMA; and cerebrovascular thrombosis. The organism tends to enter the central nervous system following infections of adjacent structures, including the middle ear (see also OTITIS MEDIA), sinuses, and pharynx. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp396-7)
MSH

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meningitida listeriová

Inflammation of the meninges caused by LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES infection, usually occurring in individuals under the age of 3 years or over the age of 50 years. It may occur at any age in individuals with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES. Clinical manifestations include FEVER, altered mentation, HEADACHE, meningeal signs, focal neurologic signs, and SEIZURES. (From Medicine 1998 Sep;77(5):313-36)
MSH

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meningitida meningokoková

A fulminant infection of the meninges and subarachnoid fluid by the bacterium NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS, producing diffuse inflammation and peri-meningeal venous thromboses. Clinical manifestations include FEVER, nuchal rigidity, SEIZURES, severe HEADACHE, petechial rash, stupor, focal neurologic deficits, HYDROCEPHALUS, and COMA. The organism is usually transmitted via nasopharyngeal secretions and is a leading cause of meningitis in children and young adults. Organisms from Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, B, C, Y, and W-135 have been reported to cause meningitis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp689-701; Curr Opin Pediatr 1998 Feb;10(1):13-8)
MSH

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meningitida pneumokoková

An acute purulent infection of the meninges and subarachnoid space caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, most prevalent in children and adults over the age of 60. This illness may be associated with OTITIS MEDIA; MASTOIDITIS; SINUSITIS; RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS; sickle cell disease (ANEMIA, SICKLE CELL); skull fractures; and other disorders. Clinical manifestations include FEVER; HEADACHE; neck stiffness; and somnolence followed by SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits (notably DEAFNESS); and COMA. (From Miller et al., Merritt`s Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p111)
MSH

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meningitida virová

Viral infections of the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space. TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RUBELLA; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORBIVIRUS infections; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RHABDOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; JC VIRUS infections; and RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS may cause this form of meningitis. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, neck pain, vomiting, PHOTOPHOBIA, and signs of meningeal irritation. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp1-3)
MSH

viral infections of the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space.
CSP

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meningokela

A congenital or acquired protrusion of the meninges, unaccompanied by neural tissue, through a bony defect in the skull or vertebral column.
MSH

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Meningococcus – infekce

Infections with bacteria of the species NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.
MSH

Meningococci are a type of bacteria that cause serious infections. The most frequent is meningitis, which is an inflammation of the thin tissue that surrounds the brain and spinal cord. Meningococci can also cause other problems, including a serious bloodstream infection called sepsis.

Meningococcal infections can be spread from person to person. They are common in people living in close quarters, such as college students or military recruits.

In its early stages, you may have flu-like symptoms and a stiff neck. But the disease can progress quickly and can be fatal. Early diagnosis and treatment are extremely important. Treatment is with antibiotics. Since the infection spreads from person to person, family members may also need to be treated.

A vaccine can prevent meningococcal infections.


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meningoencefalitida

An inflammatory process involving the brain (ENCEPHALITIS) and meninges (MENINGITIS), most often produced by pathogenic organisms which invade the central nervous system, and occasionally by toxins, autoimmune disorders, and other conditions.
MSH

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meningomyelokela

Congenital, or rarely acquired, herniation of meningeal and spinal cord tissue through a bony defect in the vertebral column. The majority of these defects occur in the lumbosacral region. Clinical features include PARAPLEGIA, loss of sensation in the lower body, and incontinence. This condition may be associated with the ARNOLD-CHIARI MALFORMATION and HYDROCEPHALUS. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, pp35-6)
MSH

hernial protrusion of the spinal cord and its meninges through a defect in the vertebral canal.
CSP

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menisky

The interarticular fibrocartilages of the superior surface of the tibia.
MSH

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menopauza

The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.
MSH

cessation of menstruation in the human female, usually occurring around the age of 50.
CSP

The time of life when a woman`s ovaries stop producing hormones and menstrual periods stop. Natural menopause usually occurs around age 50. A woman is said to be in menopause when she hasn`t had a period for 12 months in a row. Symptoms of menopause include hot flashes, mood swings, night sweats, vaginal dryness, trouble concentrating, and infertility.
NCI

Cessation of menstruation, occurring in (e.g.) the human female usually around the age of 50. [GOC:curators, PMID:18495681]
GO

Menopause is the time in a woman`s life when her period stops. It usually occurs naturally, most often after age 45. Menopause happens because the woman`s ovary stops producing the hormones estrogen and progesterone.

A woman has reached menopause when she has not had a period for one year. Changes and symptoms can start several years earlier. They include

  • A change in periods – shorter or longer, lighter or heavier, with more or less time in between
  • Hot flashes and/or night sweats
  • Trouble sleeping
  • Vaginal dryness
  • Mood swings
  • Trouble focusing
  • Less hair on head, more on face

Some symptoms require treatment. Talk to your doctor about how to best manage menopause. Make sure the doctor knows your medical history and your family medical history. This includes whether you are at risk for heart disease, osteoporosis, or breast cancer.

National Women`s Health Information Center


MEDLINEPLUS

A disorder characterized by the permanent cessation of menses, usually defined by 12 consecutive months of amenorrhea in a woman over 45 years of age.
NCI

The permanent cessation of menses, usually defined by 6 to 12 months of amenorrhea in a woman over 45 years of age.
NCI

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menopauza předčasná

The premature cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) when the last menstrual period occurs in a woman under the age of 40. It is due to the depletion of OVARIAN FOLLICLES. Premature MENOPAUSE can be caused by diseases; OVARIECTOMY; RADIATION; chemicals; and chromosomal abnormalities.
MSH

Ovarian failure before the age of 40. Symptoms include hot flashes, night sweats, mood swings, and decreased sex drive.
NCI

A loss of ovarian function in women under 40.
NCI

A disorder characterized by ovarian failure before the age of 40. Symptoms include hot flashes, night sweats, mood swings and a decrease in sex drive.
NCI

A condition in which the ovaries stop working and menstrual periods stop before age 40. Natural menopause usually occurs around age 50. A woman is said to be in menopause when she hasn`t had a period for 12 months in a row. Symptoms of menopause include hot flashes, mood swings, night sweats, vaginal dryness, trouble concentrating, and infertility. Premature menopause can be caused by some cancer treatments, surgery to remove the ovaries, and certain diseases or genetic conditions.
NCI

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GEHIEGIZKO HILEROKOA

Excessive uterine bleeding during MENSTRUATION.
MSH

Abnormally heavy menstrual bleeding.
NCI

A disorder characterized by abnormally heavy vaginal bleeding during menses.
NCI

Heavy bleeding during regular menstruation.
NCI

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menotropiny

Extracts of urine from menopausal women that contain high concentrations of pituitary gonadotropins, FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE and LUTEINIZING HORMONE. Menotropins are used to treat infertility. The FSH:LH ratio and degree of purity vary in different preparations.
MSH

a kind of fertility medication
CHV

Follicle-Stimulating Hormone and Luteinizing Hormone excreted in the urine of post-menopausal women.
NCI

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menstruační cyklus

The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.
MSH

period from onset of one menstrual bleeding to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate.
CSP

The monthly cycle of hormonal changes from the beginning of one menstrual period to the beginning of the next.
NCI

The Menstrual Cycle involves regularly recurring hormonal changes and physiologic endometrial changes during the reproductive period in human females, and some primates, and culminates in partial sloughing of the endometrium (menstruation) in the absence of fertilization. For most women, one cycle takes 28 days. (NCI)
NCI

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menstruace

The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.
MSH

Periodic discharge of blood and tissue from the uterus. From puberty until menopause, menstruation occurs about every 28 days when a woman is not pregnant.
NCI

The cyclic, physiologic discharge through the vagina of blood and endometrial tissues from the nonpregnant uterus. [GOC:curators, PMID:8693059]
GO

Menstruation, or period, is a woman`s monthly bleeding. Every month, your body prepares for pregnancy. If no pregnancy occurs, the uterus sheds its lining. The menstrual blood is partly blood and partly tissue from inside the uterus, or womb. It passes out of the body through the vagina. Periods usually start around age 12 and continue until menopause, at about age 51. Most periods last from three to five days.

You should consult your health care provider if

  • You haven`t started menstruating by age 16
  • Your period suddenly stops
  • You bleed excessively, or for more days than usual
  • You suddenly feel sick after using tampons
  • You bleed between periods
  • You have severe pain during your period

Premenstrual syndrome, or PMS, is a group of symptoms that start before the period. It can include emotional and physical symptoms.

National Women`s Health Information Center


MEDLINEPLUS

menstruation
CHV

relating to period
CHV

The normal physiologic discharge through the vagina of blood and mucosal tissues from the nonpregnant uterus. (MeSH)
NCI

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menstruace – poruchy

variations of menstruation or the menstrual cycle which may be indicative of disease.
CSP

Variations of menstruation which may be indicative of disease.
MSH

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menstruace – indukující látky

Chemical compounds that induce menstruation either through direct action on the reproductive organs or through indirect action by relieving another condition of which amenorrhea is a secondary result. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
MSH

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