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meskalin

Hallucinogenic alkaloid isolated from the flowering heads (peyote) of Lophophora (formerly Anhalonium) williamsii, a Mexican cactus used in Indian religious rites and as an experimental psychotomimetic. Among its cellular effects are agonist actions at some types of serotonin receptors. It has no accepted therapeutic uses although it is legal for religious use by members of the Native American Church.
MSH

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mezencefalon

The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.
MSH

develops from the middle of the 3 primary vesicles of the embryonic neural tube, between the prosencephalon and rhombencephalon, later forming the tectum and cerebral peduncles.
CSP

Organ component of neuraxis that has as its parts the tectum, cerebral peduncle, midbrain tegmentum and cerebral aqueduct. Examples: There is only one midbrain.
FMA

The uppermost portion of the brainstem located between the pons and the diencephalon. The midbrain contains the cerebral peduncles, oculomotor, trochlear and red nuclei, substantia nigra and various other nuclei and tracts.
NCI

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mezenchymom

A mixed mesenchymal tumor composed of two or more mesodermal cellular elements not commonly associated, not counting fibrous tissue as one of the elements. Mesenchymomas are widely distributed in the body and about 75% are malignant. (Dorland, 27th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1866)
MSH

mixed mesenchymal tumor composed of two or more mesodermal cellular elements not commonly associated, not counting fibrous tissue as one of the elements; widely distributed in the body and about 75% are malignant.
CSP

A term describing a soft tissue tumor which consists of two or more mesenchymal lines of differentiation, excluding a fibroblastic line of differentiation.
NCI

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arteriae mesentericae

Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.
MSH

arteries which arise from abdominal aorta and supply most of the intestines.
CSP

A branch of the abdominal aorta that supplies blood to the intestines.
NCI

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mezenterium – cysta

A rare intra-abdominal tumor in the MESENTERY. Mesenteric cysts are usually benign and can be very large fluid-filled (2000 mL) lesions.
MSH

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mezenterium – lymfadenitida

INFLAMMATION of LYMPH NODES in the MESENTERY.
MSH

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Mezenterická panikulitida

Inflammation of the ADIPOSE TISSUE in the MESENTERY, a form of peritoneal panniculitis, It is characterized by the presence of MULTINUCLEATED GIANT CELLS and lipid-laden MACROPHAGES in the mesentery.
MSH

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mezenterium – cévní okluze

Obstruction of the flow in the SPLANCHNIC CIRCULATION by ATHEROSCLEROSIS; EMBOLISM; THROMBOSIS; STENOSIS; TRAUMA; and compression or intrinsic pressure from adjacent tumors. Rare causes are drugs, intestinal parasites, and vascular immunoinflammatory diseases such as PERIARTERITIS NODOSA and THROMBOANGIITIS OBLITERANS. (From Juergens et al., Peripheral Vascular Diseases, 5th ed, pp295-6)
MSH

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venae mesentericae

Veins which return blood from the intestines; the inferior mesenteric vein empties into the splenic vein, the superior mesenteric vein joins the splenic vein to form the portal vein.
MSH

One of two veins (inferior or superior) that returns deoxygenated blood from the intestines.
NCI

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mezenterium

A layer of the peritoneum which attaches the abdominal viscera to the ABDOMINAL WALL and conveys their blood vessels and nerves.
MSH

Organ subdivision of a serous sac (organ subdivision) composed of a double layer of serous membrane that suspends a viscus from the body wall or connects adjacent viscera and in doing so conveys blood vessels, lymphatics and nerves to and from the viscera. Examples: greater omentum, broad ligament of uterus, sigmoid mesocolon.
UWDA

peritoneal fold attaching the small intestine to the dorsal body wall.
CSP

Anatomical organ component composed of a double layer of serous membrane that suspends a viscus from the body wall or connects adjacent viscera and in doing so conveys blood vessels, lymphatics and nerves to and from the viscera. Examples: greater omentum, broad ligament of uterus, sigmoid mesocolon.
FMA

several layers of membrane in the abdomen that attach bowels to abdominal wall
CHV

The peritoneal membrane that attaches the intestines to the abdominal wall near the back.
NCI

A double layer of peritoneum that attaches to the back wall of the abdominal cavity and supports the small intestines.
NCI

Of, or relating to, or located in a mesentery.
NCI

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zuby – meziální pohyb

Migration of the teeth toward the midline or forward in the DENTAL ARCH. (From Boucher`s Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
MSH

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Mesocestoides

A genus of tapeworm, containing several species, found as adults in birds and mammals. The larvae or cysticercoid stage develop in invertebrates. Human infection has been reported and is probably acquired from eating inadequately cooked meat of animals infected with the second larval stage known as the tetrahythridium.
MSH

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mezokolon

The fold of peritoneum by which the COLON is attached to the posterior ABDOMINAL WALL.
MSH

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Mesocricetus

A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.
MSH

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mezoderm

The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
MSH

middle layer of the three primary germ layers of the mammalian embryo; from it are derived the connective tissue, bone and cartilage, muscle, blood and blood vessels, lymphatics and lymphoid organs, notochord, pleura, pericardium, peritoneum, kidney and gonads.
CSP

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mezonefrom

A rare tumor of the female genital tract, most often the ovary, formerly considered to be derived from mesonephric rests. Two varieties are recognized: (1) clear cell carcinoma, so called because of its histologic resemblance to renal cell carcinoma, and now considered to be of muellerian duct derivation and (2) an embryonal tumor (called also ENDODERMAL SINUS TUMOR and yolk sac tumor), occurring chiefly in children. The latter variety may also arise in the testis. (Dorland, 27th ed)
MSH

An adenocarcinoma of the cervix or the vagina arising from mesonephric remnants.
NCI

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mezonefros

One of a pair of excretory organs (mesonephroi) which grows caudally to the first pair (PRONEPHROI) during development. Mesonephroi are the permanent kidneys in adult amphibians and fish. In higher vertebrates, proneprhoi and most of mesonephroi degenerate with the appearance of metanephroi. The remaining ducts become WOLFFIAN DUCTS.
MSH

The middle one of the three pairs of embryonic renal organs developed in most vertebrates; its duct system is retained in the male as the epididymis and ductus deferens.
NCI

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mezony

Short-lived elementary particles found in cosmic radiation or produced from nuclear disintegration. Their mass is between that of protons and electrons and they can be negative, positive, or neutral. pi-Mesons (pions) are heavier than mu-mesons (muons) and are proposed for cancer radiotherapy because their capture and disintegration by matter produces powerful, but short-lived, secondary radiation.
MSH

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mesoporfyriny

Porphyrins with four methyl, two ethyl, and two propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings.
MSH

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mesoridazin

A phenothiazine antipsychotic with effects similar to CHLORPROMAZINE.
MSH

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mezoteliom

A tumor derived from mesothelial tissue (peritoneum, pleura, pericardium). It appears as broad sheets of cells, with some regions containing spindle-shaped, sarcoma-like cells and other regions showing adenomatous patterns. Pleural mesotheliomas have been linked to exposure to asbestos. (Dorland, 27th ed)
MSH

malignant tumor derived from mesothelial tissues of peritoneum, pleura, and pericardium.
CSP

A benign (noncancerous) or malignant (cancerous) tumor affecting the lining of the chest or abdomen. Exposure to asbestos particles in the air increases the risk of developing malignant mesothelioma.
NCI

The tissue that lines your lungs, stomach, heart and other organs is called mesothelium. Mesothelioma is cancer of that tissue. It is a rare but serious type of cancer. It usually starts in the lungs, but can also start in the abdomen or other organs. Most people who develop mesothelioma have worked on jobs where they inhaled asbestos particles. It can take a long time – 30 to 50 years – between being around asbestos and getting the disease. Treatment includes surgery, radiation, chemotherapy or all three.

NIH: National Cancer Institute


MEDLINEPLUS

a benign or malignant tumor affecting the lining of the chest or abdomen
CHV

A usually malignant and aggressive neoplasm of the mesothelium which is often associated with exposure to asbestos.
NCI

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mesterolon

17 beta-Hydroxy-1 alpha-methyl-5 alpha-androstan-3-one. A synthetic steroid with anabolic and androgenic activities.
MSH

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mestranol

The 3-methyl ether of ETHINYL ESTRADIOL. It must be demethylated to be biologically active. It is used as the estrogen component of many combination ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.
MSH

A semisynthetic estrogen. Metabolized by the liver to ethynyl estradiol, mestranol serves as the estrogen component in several combination oral contraceptives. (NCI04)
NCI

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metabolická clearance

Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.
MSH

rate at which a substance (e.g., a drug) is removed from the body.
CSP

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metabolická detoxikace léků

Reduction of pharmacologic activity or toxicity of a drug or other foreign substance by a living system, usually by enzymatic action. It includes those metabolic transformations that make the substance more soluble for faster renal excretion.
MSH

reduction of pharmacologic activity or toxicity of a drug or other foreign substance by a living system, usually by enzymatic action; includes those metabolic transformations that make the substance more soluble for faster renal excretion.
CSP

To make something less poisonous or harmful. It may refer to the process of removing toxins, poisons, or other harmful substances from the body.
NCI

Reduction of pharmacologic activity or toxicity of a drug or other foreign substance by a living system, usually by enzymatic action. It includes those metabolic transformations that make the substance more soluble for faster renal excretion.
NCI

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metabolické nemoci

Generic term for diseases caused by an abnormal metabolic process. It can be congenital due to inherited enzyme abnormality (METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS) or acquired due to disease of an endocrine organ or failure of a metabolically important organ such as the liver. (Stedman, 26th ed)
MSH

condition in which there is a deviation from or caused by an abnormal metabolic process; can be congenital due to inherited enzyme abnormality (INBORN METABOLISM DISORDER) or acquired due to disease of an endocrine organ or failure of a metabolically important organ such as the liver.
CSP

A condition in which normal metabolic processes are disrupted, usually because of a missing enzyme.
NCI

Metabolism is the process your body uses to get or make energy from the food you eat. Food is made up of proteins, carbohydrates and fats. Chemicals in your digestive system break the food parts down into sugars and acids, your body`s fuel. Your body can use this fuel right away, or it can store the energy in your body tissues, such as your liver, muscles and body fat.

A metabolic disorder occurs when abnormal chemical reactions in your body disrupt this process. When this happens, you might have too much of some substances or too little of other ones that you need to stay healthy.

You can develop a metabolic disorder when some organs, such as your liver or pancreas, become diseased or do not function normally. Diabetes is an example.


MEDLINEPLUS

A congenital (due to inherited enzyme abnormality) or acquired (due to failure of a metabolic important organ) disorder resulting from an abnormal metabolic process. — 2003
NCI

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metabolismus

The chemical reactions that occur within the cells, tissues, or an organism. These processes include both the biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) and the breakdown (CATABOLISM) of organic materials utilized by the living organism.
MSH

sum of chemical changes that occur within the tissues of an organism consisting of anabolism (biosynthesis) and catabolism; the buildup and breakdown of molecules for utilization by the organism.
CSP

The chemical changes that take place in a cell or an organism. These changes make energy and the materials cells and organisms need to grow, reproduce, and stay healthy. Metabolism also helps get rid of toxic substances.
NCI

The chemical reactions and pathways, including anabolism and catabolism, by which living organisms transform chemical substances. Metabolic processes typically transform small molecules, but also include macromolecular processes such as DNA repair and replication, and protein synthesis and degradation. [GOC:go_curators, ISBN:0198547684]
GO

All the reactions in an organism concerned with storing and generating metabolic energy and with the biosynthesis of low-molecular weight compounds, energy-storage compounds, and basic materials needed for important life processes. It does not include nucleic acid and protein synthesis.
NCI

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metabolic aspects

Used with organs, cells and subcellular fractions, organisms, and diseases for biochemical changes and metabolism. It is used also with drugs and chemicals for catabolic changes (breakdown of complex molecules into simpler ones). For anabolic processes (conversion of small molecules into large), BIOSYNTHESIS is used. For enzymology, pharmacokinetics, and secretion use the specific subheadings.
MSH

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metabolismus – vrozené poruchy

errors in metabolic processes resulting from inborn genetic mutations that are inherited or acquired in utero.
CSP

A group of disorders present at birth that involve genetic defects leading to disturbances in carbohydrate, lipid, lysosomal storage or amino acid metabolism in the body.
NCI

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metakarpofalangeální kloub

The articulation between a metacarpal bone and a phalanx.
MSH

the joints that connect the fingers to the hand.
CHV

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