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viry norků vyvolávající tvorbu fokusů

Strains of MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS discovered in 1976 by Hartley, Wolford, Old, and Rowe and so named because the viruses originally isolated had the capacity to transform cell foci in mink cell cultures. MCF viruses are generated by recombination with ecotropic murine leukemia viruses including AKR, Friend, Moloney, and Rauscher, causing ERYTHROLEUKEMIA and severe anemia in mice.
MSH

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Minnesota

A state in the northern midwest United States. Its capital is St. Paul.
NCI

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Minocycline Hydrochloride

The hydrochloride salt of minocycline, a broad spectrum long-acting derivative of the antibiotic tetracycline, with antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities. Minocycline binds to the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit and interferes with the binding of tRNA to the ribosomal complex, thereby inhibiting protein translation in bacteria. In addition, minocycline inhibits the inflammatory enzyme 5-lipoxygenase (5LOX) and may impede T cell-microglia interactions; both activities may contribute to minocycline`s neuroprotective effects. 5LOX catalyzes the synthesis of inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes.
NCI

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minocyklin

A TETRACYCLINE analog, having a 7-dimethylamino and lacking the 5 methyl and hydroxyl groups, which is effective against tetracycline-resistant STAPHYLOCOCCUS infections.
MSH

a kind of antibiotics
CHV

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vedlejší histokompatibilní antigeny

Allelic alloantigens often responsible for weak graft rejection in cases when (major) histocompatibility has been established by standard tests. In the mouse they are coded by more than 500 genes at up to 30 minor histocompatibility loci. The most well-known minor histocompatibility antigen in mammals is the H-Y antigen.
MSH

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vedlejší histokompatibilní lokusy

Genetic loci responsible for the encoding of histocompatibility antigens other than those encoded by the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX. The antigens encoded by these genes are often responsible for graft rejection in cases where histocompatibility has been established by standard tests. The location of some of these loci on the X and Y chromosomes explains why grafts from males to females may be rejected while grafts from females to males are accepted. In the mouse roughly 30 minor histocompatibility loci have been recognized, comprising more than 500 genes.
MSH

genetic loci responsible for the coding of histocompatibility antigens other than those coded by the major histocompatibility complex.
CSP

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menšiny národnostní

A subgroup having special characteristics within a larger group, often bound together by special ties which distinguish it from the larger group.
MSH

A minority is a group that is outnumbered by persons who do not belong to it, often people with different nationality, religion, culture or lifestyle from that of the mainstream in the society; racial or ethnic groups officially recognized by the U.S. government as minority populations.
NCI

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nezletilí

A person who has not attained the age at which full civil rights are accorded.
MSH

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minoxidil

A potent direct-acting peripheral vasodilator (VASODILATOR AGENTS) that reduces peripheral resistance and produces a fall in BLOOD PRESSURE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p371)
MSH

potent long acting orally effective vasodilator, acting mainly on arterioles, used as an antihypertensive; also applied topically in the treatment of male pattern baldness of the vertex.
CSP

An orally administered vasodilator with hair growth stimulatory and antihypertensive effects. Minoxidil is converted into its active metabolite minoxidil sulphate by sulphotransferase enzymes. Minoxidil sulphate exerts its antihypertensive effect by opening of plasma membrane adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium channels (KATP channels), thereby directly and rapidly relaxing arteriolar smooth muscle and subsequent reduction of elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressure by decreasing peripheral vascular resistance. This agent`s hair growth stimulatory effect may be mediated through its vasodilatory activity, thereby increasing cutaneous blood flow, or due to its direct stimulatory effect on hair follicle cells and forcing them from their resting phase into their active growth phase.
NCI

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minute virus myší

The type species of PARVOVIRUS prevalent in mouse colonies and found as a contaminant of many transplanted tumors or leukemias.
MSH

a natural and silent infection of mice; grows when injected into newborn mice, rats and hamsters, causing retarded growth in mice but only silent infection in rats.
CSP

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miokamycin

A macrolide antibiotic that has a wide antimicrobial spectrum and is particularly effective in respiratory and genital infections.
MSH

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mióza

Pupillary constriction. This may result from congenital absence of the dilatator pupillary muscle, defective sympathetic innervation, or irritation of the CONJUNCTIVA or CORNEA.
MSH

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miotika

Agents causing contraction of the pupil of the eye. Some sources use the term miotics only for the parasympathomimetics but any drug used to induce miosis is included here.
MSH

agent that causes the pupil of the eye to contract.
CSP

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mirex

An organochlorine insecticide that is carcinogenic.
MSH

A white, stable, odorless, synthetic, crystalline solid chlorinated hydrocarbon. Mirex was used as an insecticide against ants and as a fire-retardant for plastics, paint, rubber, paper and electrical appliances, but it is no longer produced or used in the US. Exposure to Mirex irritates the skin and eyes and causes a headache as well as dizziness, nausea and vomiting and affects the central nervous system, lungs, liver and kidneys. Mirex is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen. (NCI05)
NCI

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chemické látky – užití

Uses of chemicals in a research, industrial, or household setting. This does not include PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS.
MSH

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výzkumné techniky

Investigative techniques used in pre-clinical and clinical research, epidemiology, chemistry, immunology, genetics, etc. They do not include techniques specifically applied to DIAGNOSIS; THERAPEUTICS; anesthesia and analgesia; SURGICAL PROCEDURES, OPERATIVE; and DENTISTRY.
MSH

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Misgurnus

Genus of Cobitidae (loaches).
MSH

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misonidazol

A nitroimidazole that sensitizes normally radio-resistant hypoxic cells to radiation. It may also be directly cytotoxic to hypoxic cells and has been proposed as an antineoplastic.
MSH

1-(alpha-methoxymethyl ethanol)-2-nitroimidazole; trichimonicide and experimental mutagen and radiosensitizer, probably due to its ability to form DNA-attacking free radical under hypoxic conditions.
CSP

A nitroimidazole with radiosensitizing and antineoplastic properties. Exhibiting high electron affinity, misonidazole induces the formation of free radicals and depletes radioprotective thiols, thereby sensitizing hypoxic cells to the cytotoxic effects of ionizing radiation. This single-strand breaks in DNA induced by this agent result in the inhibition of DNA synthesis. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39504&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39504&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C657″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A nitroimidazole with radiosensitizing and antineoplastic properties. Exhibiting high electron affinity, misonidazole induces the formation of free radicals and depletes radioprotective thiols, thereby sensitizing hypoxic cells to the cytotoxic effects of ionizing radiation. This single-strand breaks in DNA induced by this agent result in the inhibition of DNA synthesis. (NCI04)
NCI

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mise a misionáři

To be used for articles pertaining to medical activities carried out by personnel in institutions which are administered by a religious organization.
MSH

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Mississippi

A state in the southeastern United States. Its capital is Jackson.
NCI

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Missouri

A state in the central midwest United States. Its capital is Jefferson City.
NCI

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roztoči – infestace

Infestations with arthropods of the subclass ACARI, superorder Acariformes.
MSH

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roztoči

Any arthropod of the subclass ACARI except the TICKS. They are minute animals related to the spiders, usually having transparent or semitransparent bodies. They may be parasitic on humans and domestic animals, producing various irritations of the skin (MITE INFESTATIONS). Many mite species are important to human and veterinary medicine as both parasite and vector. Mites also infest plants.
MSH

any arthropod of the subclass Acari, except the ticks; minute animals related to the spiders, usually having transparent or semitransparent bodies; may be parasitic on humans and domestic animals, producing various irritations of the skin; many mite species are important to human and veterinary medicine as both parasite and vector; mites also infest plants.
CSP

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mithramycin

A tricyclic pentaglycosidic antibiotic from Streptomyces strains that inhibits RNA and protein synthesis by adhering to DNA. It is used as a fluorescent dye and as an antineoplastic agent, especially in bone and testicular tumors. Plicamycin is also used to reduce hypercalcemia, especially that due to malignancies.
MSH

tricyclic pentaglycosidic antibiotic from Streptomyces strains that inhibits RNA and protein synthesis by adhering to DNA; used as a fluorescent dye and as an antineoplastic agent, especially in bone and testicular tumors; also used to reduce hypercalcemia, especially that due to malignancies.
CSP

A drug used to treat some types of testicular cancer. It is also used to treat a higher-than-normal amounts of calcium in the blood or urine. Mithracin binds to DNA and prevents cells from making RNA and proteins. It is a type of antineoplastic antibiotic.
NCI

An antibiotic isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces plicatus with antineoplastic activity. Plicamycin, also known as mithramycin, binds to the minor groove of DNA at GC-rich sites, resulting in inhibition of RNA synthesis; this agent also inhibits mRNA expression, resulting in a reduction in protein synthesis. In addition, plicamycin may inhibit bone resorption by down regulating transcription of c-src, an oncogene involved in bone metabolism and resorption. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=41738&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=41738&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C658″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

An antibiotic isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces plicatus with antineoplastic activity. Plicamycin, also known as mithramycin, binds to the minor groove of DNA at GC-rich sites, resulting in inhibition of RNA synthesis; this agent also inhibits mRNA expression, resulting in a reduction in protein synthesis. In addition, plicamycin may inhibit bone resorption by down regulating transcription of c-src, an oncogene involved in bone metabolism and resorption. (NCI04)
NCI

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mitobronitol

Brominated analog of MANNITOL which is an antineoplastic agent appearing to act as an alkylating agent.
MSH

A brominated analog of mannitol with potential antineoplastic activity. Mitobronitol most likely acts through alkylation via derived epoxide groups.
NCI

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mitochondrie

Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
MSH

Membranous cytoplasmic organelle the interior of which is subdivided by cristae.
UWDA

self-replicating organelles found in cytoplasm bound by two membranes, the inner one folded into the interior as a series of projections; they are the principal sites of energy generation resulting from the oxidation of food, and contain the enzymes of the Krebs and fatty acid cycles and the respiratory pathway; they contain DNA and RNA for independent replication.
CSP

Small structures in a cell that are found in the cytoplasm (fluid that surrounds the cell nucleus). Mitochondria make most of the energy for the cell and have their own genetic material that is different from the genetic material found in the nucleus. Many diseases are caused by mutations (changes) in the DNA of mitochondria. Mitochondria are cell organelles.
NCI

A semiautonomous, self replicating organelle that occurs in varying numbers, shapes, and sizes in the cytoplasm of virtually all eukaryotic cells. It is notably the site of tissue respiration. [ISBN:0198506732 “Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology”]
GO

Membranous cytoplasmic organelle the interior of which is subdivided by cristae.
FMA

parts of a cell where cell respiration takes place
CHV

Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Mitochondria contain distinctive ribosomes, transfer RNAs, amino acyl t-RNA synthetases, and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus for many essential messenger RNAs. Mitochondria consist of two sets of membranes, a smooth continuous outer coat and an inner membrane arranged in tubules or more often in folds that form platelike double membranes (cristae). Mitochondria are the principal energy source of the cell and contains the cytochrome enzymes of terminal electron transport and the enzymes of the citric acid cycle, fatty acid oxidation, and oxidative phosphorylation. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP.
NCI

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mitochondrie srdeční

The mitochondria of the myocardium.
MSH

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mitochondrie jaterní

Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)
MSH

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mitochondrie svalové

Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.
MSH

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mitochondrie – zduření

An increase in MITOCHONDRIAL VOLUME due to an influx of fluid; it occurs in hypotonic solutions due to osmotic pressure and in isotonic solutions as a result of altered permeability of the membranes of respiring mitochondria.
MSH

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