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mitogeny

Substances that stimulate mitosis and lymphocyte transformation. They include not only substances associated with LECTINS, but also substances from streptococci (associated with streptolysin S) and from strains of alpha-toxin-producing staphylococci. (Stedman, 25th ed)
MSH

any of a class of substances that stimulate mitosis and cell transformation, especially lymphocyte transformation.
CSP

A soluble substance, usually a protein, that induces mitosis in resting cells, thereby causing cell proliferation.
NCI

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mitoguazon

Antineoplastic agent effective against myelogenous leukemia in experimental animals. Also acts as an inhibitor of animal S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase.
MSH

A guanylhydrazone with potential antineoplastic activity. Mitoguazone competitively inhibits S-adenosyl-L-methionine decarboxylase (SAMD), an enzyme involved in the synthesis of polyamines, resulting in decreased proliferation of tumor cells, antimitochondrial effects, and p53-independent apoptosis. Polyamines, specifically spermine and spermidine, are essential for thymidine kinase production, DNA synthesis, and cell proliferation. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39500&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39500&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C661″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A guanylhydrazone with potential antineoplastic activity. Mitoguazone competitively inhibits S-adenosyl-L-methionine decarboxylase (SAMD), an enzyme involved in the synthesis of polyamines, resulting in decreased proliferation of tumor cells, antimitochondrial effects, and p53-independent apoptosis. Polyamines, specifically spermine and spermidine, are essential for thymidine kinase production, DNA synthesis, and cell proliferation. (NCI04)
NCI

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mitolaktol

Alkylating antineoplastic toxic to bone marrow; used in breast cancer, also in combination with other drugs.
MSH

An anticancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called alkylating agents.
NCI

A synthetic derivative of hexitol with antineoplastic and radiosensitizing properties. Mitolactol alkylates DNA via actual or derived epoxide groups, resulting in inhibition of DNA and RNA synthesis. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39216&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39216&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C662″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A synthetic derivative of hexitol with antineoplastic and radiosensitizing properties. Mitolactol alkylates DNA via actual or derived epoxide groups, resulting in inhibition of DNA and RNA synthesis. (NCI04)
NCI

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mitomyciny

A group of methylazirinopyrroloindolediones obtained from certain Streptomyces strains. They are very toxic antibiotics used as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS in some solid tumors. PORFIROMYCIN and MITOMYCIN are the most useful members of the group.
MSH

group of methylazirinopyrroloindolediones obtained from Streptomyces strains; very toxic antibiotics used as antineoplastics in some solid tumors.
CSP

An anticancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called antitumor antibiotics.
NCI

Any of a class of anti-tumor antibiotics acting as alkylating agents. All mitomycins have the backbone of methyl, aziridine, pyrrolo, indole, and dione moieties. Bioreductively activated mitomycin antibiotics generate oxygen radicals and alkylate DNA, forming inter-strand cross-links and inhibiting DNA synthesis.
NCI

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mitóza

A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
MSH

A cell cycle process comprising the steps by which a cell progresses through M phase, the part of the cell cycle comprising nuclear division. [GOC:dph, GOC:mah, ISBN:0815316194]
GO

A cell cycle process comprising the steps by which the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell divides; the process involves condensation of chromosomal DNA into a highly compacted form. Canonically, mitosis produces two daughter nuclei whose chromosome complement is identical to that of the mother cell. [GOC:dph, GOC:ma, GOC:mah, ISBN:0198547684]
GO

The last cell cycle stage during which the replicated daughter chromosomes separate in to separate nuclei; cytokinesis then occurs to produce separate daughter cells. It is divided into Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, and Telophase.
NCI

The process by which a single parent cell divides to make two new daughter cells. Each daughter cell receives a complete set of chromosomes from the parent cell. This process allows the body to grow and replace cells.
NCI

The usual process of somatic reproduction of cells consisting of a sequence of modifications of the nucleus that result in the formation of two daughter cells with exactly the same chromosome and DNA content as that of the original cell. It is the process by which the body grows and replaces cells and is divided into four phases. In Prophase, paired chromosomes form, nuclear membrane disappears, the achromatic spindle appears, and polar bodies form. In Metaphase, chromosomes are arranged in the equatorial plane of the central spindle to form the monaster and chromosomes separate into exactly similar halves. In Anaphase, the two groups of daughter chromosomes separate and move along the fibers of the central spindle, each toward one of the asters, forming the diaster. In Telophase, the daughter chromosomes resolve themselves into a reticulum, the daughter nuclei are formed, and the cytoplasm divides forming two complete daughter cells.
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mitotan

A derivative of the insecticide DICHLORODIPHENYLDICHLOROETHANE that specifically inhibits cells of the adrenal cortex and their production of hormones. It is used to treat adrenocortical tumors and causes CNS damage, but no bone marrow depression.
MSH

An anticancer drug used in treating adrenocortical cancer and ACTH-producing pituitary tumors (Cushing`s disease).
NCI

A synthetic derivative of the insecticide dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) with anti-adrenocorticoid properties. Following its metabolism in the adrenal cortex to a reactive acyl chloride intermediate, mitotane covalently binds to adrenal proteins, specifically inhibiting adrenal cortical hormone production. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39506&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39506&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C664″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A synthetic derivative of the insecticide dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) with anti-adrenocorticoid properties. Following its metabolism in the adrenal cortex to a reactive acyl chloride intermediate, mitotane covalently binds to adrenal proteins, specifically inhibiting adrenal cortical hormone production. (NCI04)
NCI

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aparát mitotického vřeténka

An organelle consisting of three components: (1) the astral microtubules, which form around each centrosome and extend to the periphery; (2) the polar microtubules which extend from one spindle pole to the equator; and (3) the kinetochore microtubules, which connect the centromeres of the various chromosomes to either centrosome.
MSH

microtubule-based structure present during mitosis to which chromosomes attach and are separated toward opposite poles of the dividing cell.
CSP

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mitoxantron

An anthracenedione-derived antineoplastic agent.
MSH

1,4-dihydroxy-5,8-bis((2-((2-hydroxyethyl) -amino) ethyl)amino) anthraquinone; cytotoxic compound with potentially therapeutic antitumor activity in breast cancer, lymphoma, and leukemia.
CSP

A drug used to treat advanced prostate cancer that does not respond to hormones, adult acute nonlymphocytic leukemia, and advanced or chronic multiple sclerosis. It is also being studied in the treatment of other cancers. It belongs to the family of drugs called antitumor antibiotics.
NCI

An anthracenedione antibiotic with antineoplastic activity. Mitoxantrone intercalates into and crosslinks DNA, thereby disrupting DNA and RNA replication. This agent also binds to topoisomerase II, resulting in DNA strand breaks and inhibition of DNA repair. Mitoxantrone is less cardiotoxic compared to doxorubicin.
NCI

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mitrální chlopeň

The valve between the left atrium and left ventricle of the heart.
MSH

valve between the left atrium and left ventricle of the heart.
CSP

Atrioventricular valve which has as its parts the anterior and posterior leaflets, attached to the fibrous ring of mitral valve.
FMA

valve between the upper and lower chambers of the left side of the heart
CHV

A dual-flap valve of the heart that regulates the flow of blood between the left atrium and the left ventricle of the heart.
NCI

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Onemocnění mitrální chlopně

A heart disorder characterized by a defect in mitral valve structure or function.
NCI

A disorder characterized by a defect in mitral valve function or structure.
NCI

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mitrální chlopeň – insuficience

Backflow of blood from the LEFT VENTRICLE into the LEFT ATRIUM due to imperfect closure of the MITRAL VALVE. This can lead to mitral valve regurgitation.
MSH

backflow of blood from the left ventricle into the left atrium, owing to imperfect functioning of the mitral valve.
CSP

The backward flow of blood from the left ventricle into the left atrium, owing to insufficiency of the mitral valve; it may be acute or chronic, usually due to mitral valve prolapse, rheumatic heart disease or a complication of cardiac dilatation.
NCI

Dysfunction of the mitral valve, with incomplete valve closure resulting in valvular regurgitation.
NCI

The backward flow of blood from the left ventricle into the left atrium, owing to insufficiency of the mitral valve; it may be acute or chronic, usually due to mitral valve prolapse, rheumatic heart disease or a complication of cardiac dilatation.
NCI

blood flows backward because the mitral valve closes improperly
CHV

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mitrální chlopeň – prolaps

Abnormal protrusion or billowing of one or both of the leaflets of MITRAL VALVE into the LEFT ATRIUM during SYSTOLE. This allows the backflow of blood into left atrium leading to MITRAL VALVE INSUFFICIENCY; SYSTOLIC MURMURS; or CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIA.
MSH

A fairly common and often benign valvular heart disorder characterized by redundancy or hooding of mitral valve leaflets so that they prolapse into the left atrium, often causing mitral regurgitation. It is often a symptomless condition but may be marked by varied symptoms (e.g. chest pain, fatigue, dizziness, dyspnea, or palpitations) leading in some cases to endocarditis or ventricular tachycardia.
NCI

Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) occurs when one of your heart`s valves doesn`t work properly. MVP is one of the more common heart valve conditions. Most often, it`s a lifelong condition that a person is born with. Most people with MVP have no symptoms or problems, need no treatment, and are able to lead normal, active lives.

MVP puts you at risk for infective endocarditis, a kind of heart infection. To prevent it, doctors used to prescribe antibiotics before dental work or certain surgeries. Now, only people at high risk of endocarditis need the antibiotics.

If you need treatment for MVP, medicines can help relieve symptoms or prevent complications. Very few people will need surgery to repair or replace the mitral valve.

NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute


MEDLINEPLUS

Prolapse of the mitral valve, often with regurgitation, associated with myxomatous proliferation of the leaflets of the mitral valve.
NCI

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Náhrada mitrální chlopně

Surgery performed with the purpose of replacing a degenerated, calcified, malformed, dysfunctional, etc. mitral valve with bioprosthetic, homograft or autograft valve.
NCI

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mitrální stenóza

Narrowing of the passage through the MITRAL VALVE due to FIBROSIS, and CALCINOSIS in the leaflets and chordal areas. This elevates the left atrial pressure which, in turn, raises pulmonary venous and capillary pressure leading to bouts of DYSPNEA and TACHYCARDIA during physical exertion. RHEUMATIC FEVER is its primary cause.
MSH

rheumatic disease causing diffuse thickening of the mitral valve leaflets by fibrous tissue or calcific deposits.
CSP

Narrowing of the left atrioventricular mitral orifice.
NCI

narrowing of a heart valve
CHV

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pojivová tkáň – nemoci smíšené

A syndrome with overlapping clinical features of systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, polymyositis, and Raynaud`s phenomenon. The disease is differentially characterized by high serum titers of antibodies to ribonuclease-sensitive extractable (saline soluble) nuclear antigen and a “speckled” epidermal nuclear staining pattern on direct immunofluorescence.
MSH

An autoimmune overlap syndrome characterized by the presence of symptoms of systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic scleroderma, and polymyositis.
NCI

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adenom pleomorfní

A benign, slow-growing tumor, most commonly of the salivary gland, occurring as a small, painless, firm nodule, usually of the parotid gland, but also found in any major or accessory salivary gland anywhere in the oral cavity. It is most often seen in women in the fifth decade. Histologically, the tumor presents a variety of cells: cuboidal, columnar, and squamous cells, showing all forms of epithelial growth. (Dorland, 27th ed)
MSH

A neoplasm characterized by the presence of benign epithelial and myoepithelial cells and a mesenchymal component that may contain mucoid, myxoid, cartilaginous, or osseous areas. It may be completely or partially encapsulated. It occurs in the parotid gland, submandibular gland, minor salivary glands in the oral cavity, upper respiratory tract, and nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. It usually presents as a slow growing painless mass. Infrequently, patients may present with pain and facial palsy. It may recur after excision or transform to a malignant neoplasm (carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma).
NCI

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Sotalol Hydrochloride

The hydrochloride salt form of sotalol, an ethanolamine derivative with Class III antiarrhythmic and antihypertensive properties. Sotalol hydrochloride is a nonselective beta-adrenergic receptor and potassium channel antagonist. In the heart, this agent inhibits chronotropic and inotropic effects thereby slowing the heart rate and decreasing myocardial contractility. This agent also reduces sinus rate, slows conduction in the atria and in the atrioventricular (AV) node and increases the functional refractory period of the AV node. In the lungs, sotalol inhibits vasodilation and bronchodilation. In addition, this agent inhibits renin release.
NCI

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MMPI

A personality inventory consisting of statements to be asserted or denied by the individual. The patterns of response are characteristic of certain personality attributes.
MSH

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krevní skupiny – systém MNSs

A system of universal human blood group isoantigens with many associated subgroups. The M and N traits are codominant and the S and s traits are probably very closely linked alleles, including the U antigen. This system is most frequently used in paternity studies.
MSH

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mobilní zdravotnické jednotky

movable facilities in which diagnostic and therapeutic services are provided to the community.
CSP

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Study models

representation of a process, system, or subject area that can be manipulated to demonstrate the effects that various actions will have on the process, system, or subject area; generally developed for understanding, analysis, improvement, and/or replacement of the process, system, or subject area.
CSP

A style or design of an item.
NCI

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modely anatomické

Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.
MSH

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biologické modely

Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
MSH

system or process studied in one organism to learn about the same system or processes in another organism; may be manipulated to demonstrate the effects that various actions will have on the system, process, or organism as a whole.
CSP

see:http://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/MBrowser.html
AOT

Systems designed to elucidate facts about complex biological phenomena, usually in a less complex or theoretical test environment.
NCI

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modely kardiovaskulární

Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.
MSH

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modely chemické

Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
MSH

representation of the structure, behavior or activity of a chemical or chemical processes or systems which can be manipulated to demonstrate the effects that various actions will have on the chemical or chemical process or system; do not confuse with STRUCTURAL MODEL.
CSP

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modely genetické

Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
MSH

representation of the behavior or activity of genetic processes or systems which can be manipulated to demonstrate the effects that various actions will have on the genetic process or system or organism as a whole.
CSP

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modely molekulární

Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
NCI

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modely neurologické

Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
NCI

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modely psychologické

Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
MSH

representation of a psychological process or processes that can be manipulated to demonstrate the effects of various actions on the psychological process or processes.
CSP

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modely statistické

Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
NCI

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