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myelom mnohočetný

A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
MSH

malignant neoplasm of plasma cells usually arising in the bone marrow and manifested by skeletal destruction, bone pain, and the presence of anomalous immunoglobulins.
CSP

Multiple myeloma is a cancer that begins in plasma cells, a type of white blood cell. These cells are part of your immune system, which helps protect the body from germs and other harmful substances. In time, myeloma cells collect in the bone marrow and in the solid parts of bone.

No one knows the exact causes of multiple myeloma, but it is more common in older people and African-Americans. Early symptoms may include

  • Bone pain, often in the back or ribs
  • Broken bones
  • Weakness or fatigue
  • Weight loss
  • Repeated infections

Myeloma is hard to cure. Treatment may help control symptoms and complications. Options include chemotherapy, stem cell transplantation and radiation.

NIH: National Cancer Institute


MEDLINEPLUS

A type of cancer that begins in plasma cells (white blood cells that produce antibodies).
NCI

A bone marrow-based plasma cell neoplasm characterized by a serum monoclonal protein and skeletal destruction with osteolytic lesions, pathological fractures, bone pain, hypercalcemia, and anemia. Clinical variants include non-secretory myeloma, smoldering myeloma, indolent myeloma, and plasma cell leukemia. (WHO, 2001)
NCI

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multiorgánové selhání

A progressive condition usually characterized by combined failure of several organs such as the lungs, liver, kidney, along with some clotting mechanisms, usually postinjury or postoperative.
MSH

progressive condition involving the combined failure of the lungs, liver, kidney, and clotting mechanisms; usually occurs post-injury or post-operative.
CSP

A progressive condition usually characterized by combined failure of the lungs, liver, kidney, and clotting mechanisms.
NCI

A disorder characterized by progressive deterioration of the lungs, liver, kidney and clotting mechanisms.
NCI

A progressive condition usually characterized by combined failure of the lungs, liver, kidney, and clotting mechanisms.
NCI

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ESKLEROSIA PLAKAN

An autoimmune disorder mainly affecting young adults and characterized by destruction of myelin in the central nervous system. Pathologic findings include multiple sharply demarcated areas of demyelination throughout the white matter of the central nervous system. Clinical manifestations include visual loss, extra-ocular movement disorders, paresthesias, loss of sensation, weakness, dysarthria, spasticity, ataxia, and bladder dysfunction. The usual pattern is one of recurrent attacks followed by partial recovery (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, RELAPSING-REMITTING), but acute fulminating and chronic progressive forms (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, CHRONIC PROGRESSIVE) also occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p903)
MSH

chronic disease characterized by presence of numerous areas of demyelination in the central nervous system with symptoms such as weakness, incoordination, paresthesis, and speech disturbances; the etiology is unknown.
CSP

A disorder of the central nervous system marked by weakness, numbness, a loss of muscle coordination, and problems with vision, speech, and bladder control. Multiple sclerosis is thought to be an autoimmune disease in which the body`s immune system destroys myelin. Myelin is a substance that contains both protein and fat (lipid), serving as a nerve insulator and helping in the transmission of nerve signals.
NCI

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a nervous system disease that affects your brain and spinal cord. It damages the myelin sheath, the material that surrounds and protects your nerve cells. This damage slows down or blocks messages between your brain and your body, leading to the symptoms of MS. They can include

  • Visual disturbances
  • Muscle weakness
  • Trouble with coordination and balance
  • Sensations such as numbness, prickling, or “pins and needles”
  • Thinking and memory problems

No one knows what causes MS. It may be an autoimmune disease, which happens when your body attacks itself. Multiple sclerosis affects women more than men. It often begins between the ages of 20 and 40. Usually, the disease is mild, but some people lose the ability to write, speak or walk. There is no cure for MS, but medicines may slow it down and help control symptoms. Physical and occupational therapy may also help.

NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke


MEDLINEPLUS

A progressive autoimmune disorder affecting the central nervous system resulting in demyelination. Patients develop physical and cognitive impairments that correspond with the affected nerve fibers.
NCI

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polytrauma

Physical insults or injuries occurring simultaneously in several parts of the body.
MSH

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osobnost – poruchy mnohočetné

A dissociative disorder in which the individual adopts two or more distinct personalities. Each personality is a fully integrated and complex unit with memories, behavior patterns and social friendships. Transition from one personality to another is sudden.
MSH

A disorder characterized by the presence of two or more identities with distinct patterns of perception and personality which recurrently take control of the person`s behavior; this is accompanied by a retrospective gap in memory of important personal information that far exceeds ordinary forgetfulness. The changes in identity are not due to substance use or to a general medical condition.
NCI

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multivariační analýza

A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
MSH

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mumie

Bodies preserved either by the ancient Egyptian technique or due to chance under favorable climatic conditions.
MSH

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GOLOA

An acute infectious disease caused by RUBULAVIRUS, spread by direct contact, airborne droplet nuclei, fomites contaminated by infectious saliva, and perhaps urine, and usually seen in children under the age of 15, although adults may also be affected. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
MSH

acute, inflammatory, contagious disease caused by Rubulavirus and characterized by swelling of the salivary glands, especially the parotids, and sometimes of the pancreas, ovaries, or testes; spread by direct contact, airborne droplet nuclei, fomites contaminated by infectious saliva, and perhaps urine.
CSP

Mumps is an illness caused by the mumps virus. Mumps causes

  • Fever
  • Headache
  • Muscle aches
  • Tiredness
  • Loss of appetite

Swelling of the salivary glands follows these symptoms. Swelling of the glands near the jaw line below the ears may give you "chipmunk cheeks." Serious problems are rare, but can include deafness; swelling of the brain, spinal cord, testicles, breasts or ovaries; and pregnancy loss.

You can catch mumps by being with another person who has it. There is no treatment for mumps, but the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine can prevent it. Mumps used to be a common childhood illness. Today it is uncommon, with fewer then 1,000 cases per year on average, because of the vaccine.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention


MEDLINEPLUS

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příušnice – vakcína

A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had mumps or been immunized with live mumps vaccine. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine.
MSH

mumps virus vaccine


HL7V3.0

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virus příušnic

The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
MSH

type species of Rubulavirus that causes mumps and, in some cases, tenderness and swelling of the testes, pancreas, ovaries, or other organs; can also infect Rhesus monkeys, hamsters, rats and mice.
CSP

A type of paramyxovirus. It spreads from person to person through coughs, sneezes and saliva, as well as through contact with contaminated items and surfaces. Once the mumps virus enters the body, it passes into the bloodstream and can spread to many different glands and to the brain.
NCI

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Münchhausenův syndrom

A factitious disorder characterized by habitual presentation for hospital treatment of an apparent acute illness, the patient giving a plausible and dramatic history, all of which is false.
MSH

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místní státní správa

Smallest political subdivisions within a country at which general governmental functions are carried-out.
MSH

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kyseliny muramové

Compounds consisting of glucosamine and lactate joined by an ether linkage. They occur naturally as N-acetyl derivatives in peptidoglycan, the characteristic polysaccharide composing bacterial cell walls. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
MSH

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muramidasa

A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC 3.2.1.17.
MSH

A lysozyme (muramidase) test system is a device intended to measure the activity of the bacteriolytic enzyme lysozyme (muramidase) in serum, plasma, leukocytes, and urine. Lysozyme measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of monocytic leukemia and kidney disease.
SPN

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murexid

5,5`-Nitrilodibarbituric acid ammonium derivative. Used as an indicator for complexometric titrations.
MSH

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Muridae

A family of the order Rodentia containing 250 genera including the two genera Mus (MICE) and Rattus (RATS), from which the laboratory inbred strains are developed. The fifteen subfamilies are SIGMODONTINAE (New World mice and rats), CRICETINAE, Spalacinae, Myospalacinae, Lophiomyinae, ARVICOLINAE, Platacanthomyinae, Nesomyinae, Otomyinae, Rhizomyinae, GERBILLINAE, Dendromurinae, Cricetomyinae, MURINAE (Old World mice and rats), and Hydromyinae.
MSH

Taxonomic family which includes mice, rats, and gerbils.
NCI

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virus encefalitidy Murray Valley

A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), found in Australia and New Guinea. It causes a fulminating viremia resembling Japanese encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, JAPANESE).
MSH

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myši

Any of numerous species of small rodents belonging to the genus Mus and various related genera of the family Muridae.
NCI

The common name for the genus Mus.
MSH

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muskarin

A toxic alkaloid found in Amanita muscaria (fly fungus) and other fungi of the Inocybe species. It is the first parasympathomimetic substance ever studied and causes profound parasympathetic activation that may end in convulsions and death. The specific antidote is atropine.
MSH

toxic cholinomimetic alkaloid occurring in Amanita muscaria and other mushrooms; causes profound parasympathetic activation that may end in convulsions and death; the specific antidote is atropine.
CSP

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Muscidae

includes many common flies, some of which are important pests; larvae breed in filth or decaying vegetation.
CSP

A family of the order DIPTERA with over 700 species. Important species that may be mechanical vectors of disease include Musca domesticus (HOUSEFLIES), Musca autumnalis (face fly), Stomoxys calcitrans (stable fly), Haematobia irritans (horn fly) and Fannia spp.
MSH

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muscimol

A neurotoxic isoxazole isolated from species of AMANITA. It is obtained by decarboxylation of IBOTENIC ACID. Muscimol is a potent agonist of GABA-A RECEPTORS and is used mainly as an experimental tool in animal and tissue studies.
MSH

3-hydroxy-5-aminomethylisoxazole; high affinity GABA-A (chloride channel) agonist used as a GABAmimetic drug and autoradiographic label.
CSP

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svalová kontrakce

A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
MSH

process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue; occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
CSP

OBSOLETE (was not defined before being made obsolete). [GOC:mah]
GO

A process in which force is generated within muscle tissue, resulting in a change in muscle geometry. Force generation involves a chemo-mechanical energy conversion step that is carried out by the actin/myosin complex activity, which generates force through ATP hydrolysis. [GOC:ef, GOC:mtg_muscle, ISBN:0198506732 “Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology”]
GO

The process where thick (myosin) and thin (actin) filaments slide against each other to produce a shortening or tensing of the muscle cell or fiber.
NCI

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svaly – křeče

A sustained and usually painful contraction of muscle fibers. This may occur as an isolated phenomenon or as a manifestation of an underlying disease process (e.g., UREMIA; HYPOTHYROIDISM; MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; etc.). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1398)
MSH

sustained and usually painful contraction of muscle fibers.
CSP

Muscle cramps are sudden, involuntary contractions or spasms in one or more of your muscles. They often occur after exercise or at night, lasting a few seconds to several minutes. You have probably had a muscle cramp before. It is a very common muscle problem.

Muscle cramps can be caused by nerves that malfunction. Sometimes this malfunction is due to a health problem, such as a spinal cord injury or a pinched nerve in the neck or back. Other causes are

  • Straining or overusing a muscle
  • Dehydration
  • A lack of minerals in your diet or the depletion of minerals in your body
  • Not enough blood getting to your muscles

Cramps can be very painful. Stretching or gently massaging the muscle can relieve this pain.


MEDLINEPLUS

A sharp pain that occurs when a muscle suddenly contracts (tightens up). Cramps commonly occur in the abdomen and legs.
NCI

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svaly – denervace

The resection or removal of the innervation of a muscle or muscle tissue.
MSH

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svaly – hypertonie

Abnormal increase in skeletal or smooth muscle tone. Skeletal muscle hypertonicity may be associated with PYRAMIDAL TRACT lesions or BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.
MSH

abnormal increase in skeletal or smooth muscle tone; skeletal muscle hypertonicity may be associated with pyramidal tract lesions or basal ganglia diseases.
CSP

A condition of increased muscle tone manifested by increased resistance of the muscle to passive stretching.
NCI

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svaly – hypotonie

A diminution of the skeletal muscle tone marked by a diminished resistance to passive stretching.
MSH

diminution of the skeletal muscle tone marked by a diminished resistance to passive stretching.
CSP

A condition of decreased tone of the skeletal muscles and diminished resistance to passive stretching.
NCI

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svalové proteiny

The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
MSH

protein constituents of muscle.
CSP

A special subset of proteins whose roles are directly related to the function of muscle cells. This group is comprised of both short and long filament polypeptides that are primarily involved in movement and muscle contraction and extension. Muscle proteins are also responsible for the conversion of chemical energy into mechanical energy.
NCI

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myorelaxancia centrální

A heterogeneous group of drugs used to produce muscle relaxation, excepting the neuromuscular blocking agents. They have their primary clinical and therapeutic uses in the treatment of muscle spasm and immobility associated with strains, sprains, and injuries of the back and, to a lesser degree, injuries to the neck. They have been used also for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions that have in common only the presence of skeletal muscle hyperactivity, for example, the muscle spasms that can occur in MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p358)
MSH

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svaly – relaxace

That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.
MSH

lessening of muscle tension.
CSP

A process in which the extent of muscle contraction is reduced. Muscle relaxation can involve a number of processes including the removal of calcium from the cytoplasm to the sarcoplasmic reticulum lumen through the action of Ca2+ ATPases. In some muscles, calcium-independent pathways also play a role in muscle relaxation by decreasing the phosphorylation state of myosin light chain. [GOC:rl, PMID:19996365]
GO

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svaly – rigidita

Continuous involuntary sustained muscle contraction which is often a manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES. When an affected muscle is passively stretched, the degree of resistance remains constant regardless of the rate at which the muscle is stretched. This feature helps to distinguish rigidity from MUSCLE SPASTICITY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p73)
MSH

motor impairment whereby the hypertonic state is charcterized by bidirectional increased resistance to passive movement.
CSP

Stiffness or inflexibility.
NCI

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